[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin D is critical for calcium homeostasis. Following cutaneous synthesis or ingestion, vitamin D is metabolized to 25(OH)D and then to the active form 1,25(OH)2D. Low serum vitamin D levels are common in the general population and cause a decline in calcium absorption, leading to low serum levels of ionized calcium, which in turn trigger the release of parathyroid hormone, promoting skeletal resorption and, eventually, bone loss or osteomalacia. Vitamin D deficiency is generally defined as a serum 25(OH)D concentration <25-37 nmol/l (<10-15 ng/ml), but the definition of the milder state of vitamin D insufficiency is controversial. Three recent meta-analyses concluded that vitamin D must be administered in combination with calcium in order to substantially reduce the risk of nonvertebral fracture in adults over the age of 50 years. Fracture protection is optimal when patient adherence to medication exceeds 80% and vitamin D doses exceed 700 IU/day. In addition to disordered calcium homeostasis, low vitamin D levels might have effects on cell proliferation and differentiation and immune function. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials are needed to clarify whether vitamin D supplementation is beneficial in cancer, autoimmune disease and infection. This Review focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical correlates, evaluation and treatment of hypovitaminosis D.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kawasaki Disease is a small-to-medium-vessel vasculitis that preferentially affects children. Kawasaki Disease can occur in adults, but the presentation may differ from that observed in children. Typical findings in both adults and children include fever, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and skin erythema progressing to a desquamating rash on the palms and soles. Adults more frequently present with cervical adenopathy (93% of adults vs. 15% of children), hepatitis (65% vs. 10%), and arthralgia (61% vs. 24-38%). In contrast, adults are less frequently affected by meningitis (10% vs. 34%), thrombocytosis (55% vs. 100%), and coronary artery aneurysms (5% vs. 18-25%). We report a case of acute Kawasaki Disease in a 24-year-old man who presented with rash, fever, and arthritis. He was successfully treated with high-dose aspirin and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Our case highlights the importance of considering Kawasaki Disease in adults presenting with symptoms commonly encountered in a general medical practice.
Journal of General Internal Medicine 06/2007; 22(5):681-4. DOI:10.1007/s11606-006-0100-5 · 3.42 Impact Factor