[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mechanisms governing stress-induced hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization are not fully deciphered. We report that during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced mobilization c-Met expression and signaling are up-regulated on immature bone marrow progenitors. Interestingly, stromal cell-derived factor 1/CXC chemokine receptor-4 signaling induced hepatocyte growth factor production and c-Met activation. We found that c-Met inhibition reduced mobilization of both immature progenitors and the more primitive Sca-1(+)/c-Kit(+)/Lin(-) cells and interfered with their enhanced chemotactic migration to stromal cell-derived factor 1. c-Met activation resulted in cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species by mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition of Forkhead Box, subclass O3a. Blockage of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition or reactive oxygen species signaling impaired c-Met-mediated mobilization. Our data show dynamic c-Met expression and function in the bone marrow and show that enhanced c-Met signaling is crucial to facilitate stress-induced mobilization of progenitor cells as part of host defense and repair mechanisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Poor prognosis of acute leukemia with current treatments is mainly due to the relapse of the disease following chemotherapy. In the last decade, an emerging concept has proposed that the leukemia stem cells (LSCs) and their interactions with the BM microenvironment are the major cause of the acute leukemia relapse. Adhesion to the stromal niche is crucial for LSCs as it directly supports self-renewal, proliferation, arrest of differentiation and protects from damaging chemo-agents. One of the key players in this crosstalk between leukemic cells and the BM stroma niche is the chemokine SDF-1. SDF-1 regulates the process of homing and engraftment of LSCs into the BM and inhibition of its receptor CXCR4 induces leukemic cell mobilization into the circulation. However, besides its chemotactic and adhesive functions, SDF-1 is also a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates leukemic cell proliferation as well as their program of differentiation. CXCR4 antagonists are used in combination with chemotherapy in preclinical and clinical studies, which demonstrate that blocking CXCR4 is a novel promising approach of therapy. In this review, we focus on the multifaceted SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in acute leukemia and discuss how targeting this pathway could provide potential interest to eradicate the LSCs.
Seminars in Cancer Biology 06/2010; 20(3):178-85. DOI:10.1016/j.semcancer.2010.07.001 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelosuppression damages the bone marrow (BM) vascular niche, but it is unclear how regeneration of bone marrow vessels contributes to engraftment of transplanted hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and restoration of hematopoiesis. We found that chemotherapy and sublethal irradiation induced minor regression of BM sinusoidal endothelial cells (SECs), while lethal irradiation induced severe regression of SECs and required BM transplantation (BMT) for regeneration. Within the BM, VEGFR2 expression specifically demarcated a continuous network of arterioles and SECs, with arterioles uniquely expressing Sca1 and SECs uniquely expressing VEGFR3. Conditional deletion of VEGFR2 in adult mice blocked regeneration of SECs in sublethally irradiated animals and prevented hematopoietic reconstitution. Similarly, inhibition of VEGFR2 signaling in lethally irradiated wild-type mice rescued with BMT severely impaired SEC reconstruction and prevented engraftment and reconstitution of HSPCs. Therefore, regeneration of SECs via VEGFR2 signaling is essential for engraftment of HSPCs and restoration of hematopoiesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms governing hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilization are not fully understood. We report higher membrane type 1-MMP (MT1-MMP) and lower expression of the MT1-MMP inhibitor, reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK), on isolated circulating human CD34+ progenitor cells compared with immature BM cells. The expression of MT1-MMP correlated with clinical mobilization of CD34+ cells in healthy donors and patients with lymphoid malignancies. Treatment with G-CSF further increased MT1-MMP and decreased RECK expression in human and murine hematopoietic cells in a PI3K/Akt-dependent manner, resulting in elevated MT1-MMP activity. Blocking MT1-MMP function by Abs or siRNAs impaired chemotaxis and homing of G-CSF-mobilized human CD34+ progenitors. The mobilization of immature and maturing human progenitors in chimeric NOD/SCID mice by G-CSF was inhibited by anti-MT1-MMP treatment, while RECK neutralization promoted motility and egress of BM CD34+ cells. BM c-kit+ cells from MT1-MMP-deficient mice also exhibited inferior chemotaxis, reduced homing and engraftment capacities, and impaired G-CSF-induced mobilization in murine chimeras. Membranal CD44 cleavage by MT1-MMP was enhanced following G-CSF treatment, reducing CD34+ cell adhesion. Accordingly, CD44-deficient mice had a higher frequency of circulating progenitors. Our results reveal that the motility, adhesion, homing, and mobilization of human hematopoietic progenitor cells are regulated in a cell-autonomous manner by dynamic and opposite changes in MT1-MMP and RECK expression.
The Journal of clinical investigation 03/2009; 119(3):492-503. DOI:10.1172/JCI36541 · 13.22 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The CD45 phosphatase is uniquely expressed by all leukocytes, but its role in regulating hematopoietic progenitors is poorly understood. We show that enhanced CD45 expression on bone marrow (BM) leukocytes correlates with increased cell motility in response to stress signals. Moreover, immature CD45 knockout (KO) cells showed defective motility, including reduced homing (both steady state and in response to stromal-derived factor 1) and reduced granulocyte colony-stimulating factor mobilization. These defects were associated with increased cell adhesion mediated by reduced matrix metalloproteinase 9 secretion and imbalanced Src kinase activity. Poor mobilization of CD45KO progenitors by the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand, and impaired modulation of the endosteal components osteopontin and stem cell factor, suggested defective osteoclast function. Indeed, CD45KO osteoclasts exhibited impaired bone remodeling and abnormal morphology, which we attributed to defective cell fusion and Src function. This led to irregular distribution of metaphyseal bone trabecules, a region enriched with stem cell niches. Consequently, CD45KO mice had less primitive cells in the BM and increased numbers of these cells in the spleen, yet with reduced homing and repopulation potential. Uncoupling environmental and intrinsic defects in chimeric mice, we demonstrated that CD45 regulates progenitor movement and retention by influencing both the hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic compartments.
Journal of Experimental Medicine 10/2008; 205(10):2381-95. DOI:10.1084/jem.20080072 · 12.52 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor, CXCR4, participate in the retention of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells within the bone marrow microenvironment and their release into the circulation. AML cells also constitutively express SDF-1-dependent elastase, which regulates their migration and proliferation. To study the molecular events and genes regulated by the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and elastase in AML cells, we examined gene expression profiles of the AML cell line, U937, under treatment with a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody or elastase inhibitor, as compared with non-treated cells, using DNA microarray technology. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrated similar gene expression profiles of anti-CXCR4 antibody or elastase inhibitor-treated cells, as compared with control. Pathway and functional analysis showed a greater tendency toward differentiation in cells under either one of both treatment modalities. Thus given, we further analyzed the effects of CXCR4 inhibition on AML cell growth and differentiation using the antagonist AMD3100. AMD3100 arrested proliferation in AML cell lines and triggered changes that mimicked differentiation, including morphological changes and the expression of myeloid differentiation antigens. Inhibition of elastase also triggered the differentiation of AML cells. Our study defines a new role for the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis in the regulation of leukemic cell survival and differentiation.
Leukemia: official journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K 10/2008; 22(12):2151-5158. DOI:10.1038/leu.2008.238 · 10.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adhesion of leukemic cells to vascular cells may confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. We hypothesized that disruption of leukemic cell cytoskeletal stability and interference with vascular cell interactions would promote leukemic cell death. We demonstrate that low and nontoxic doses of microtubule-destabilizing agent combretastatin-A4-phosphate (CA4P) inhibit leukemic cell proliferation in vitro and induce mitotic arrest and cell death. Treatment of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) with CA4P leads to disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of proapoptotic mitochondrial membrane proteins, and DNA fragmentation, resulting in cell death in part through a caspase-dependent manner. Furthermore, CA4P increases intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and antioxidant treatment imparts partial protection from cell death, suggesting that ROS accumulation contributes to CA4P-induced cytotoxicity in AML. In vivo, CA4P inhibited proliferation and circulation of leukemic cells and diminished the extent of perivascular leukemic infiltrates, prolonging survival of mice that underwent xenotransplantation without inducing hematologic toxicity. CA4P decreases the interaction of leukemic cells with neovessels by down-regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 thereby augmenting leukemic cell death. These data suggest that CA4P targets both circulating and vascular-adherent leukemic cells through mitochondrial damage and down-regulation of VCAM-1 without incurring hematologic toxicities. As such, CA4P provides for an effective means to treat refractory organ-infiltrating leukemias.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Kiel et al. (2007) demonstrate that N-cadherin is not expressed on repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and that reduction of osteoblasts does not affect HSC frequency, suggesting that other molecular pathways may also modulate the interaction of HSCs with their niches.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pro-angiogenic bone marrow (BM) cells include subsets of hematopoietic cells that provide vascular support and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which under certain permissive conditions could differentiate into functional vascular cells. Recent evidence demonstrates that the chemokine stromal-cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, also known as CXCL12) has a major role in the recruitment and retention of CXCR4(+) BM cells to the neo-angiogenic niches supporting revascularization of ischemic tissue and tumor growth. However, the precise mechanism by which activation of CXCR4 modulates neo-angiogenesis is not clear. SDF-1 not only promotes revascularization by engaging with CXCR4 expressed on the vascular cells but also supports mobilization of pro-angiogenic CXCR4(+)VEGFR1(+) hematopoietic cells, thereby accelerating revascularization of ischemic organs. Here, we attempt to define the multiple functions of the SDF-1-CXCR4 signaling pathway in the regulation of neo-vascularization during acute ischemia and tumor growth. In particular, we introduce the concept that, by modulating plasma SDF-1 levels, the CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 acutely promotes, while chronic AMD3100 treatment inhibits, mobilization of pro-angiogenic cells. We will also discuss strategies to modulate the mobilization of essential subsets of BM cells that participate in neo-angiogenesis, setting up the stage for enhancing revascularization or targeting tumor vessels by exploiting CXCR4 agonists and antagonists, respectively.
Trends in Immunology 08/2007; 28(7):299-307. DOI:10.1016/j.it.2007.05.007 · 10.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombopoietic cells may differentially promote or inhibit tissue vascularization by releasing both pro- and antiangiogenic factors. However, the molecular determinants controlling the angiogenic phenotype of thrombopoietic cells remain unknown. Here, we show that expression and release of thrombospondins (TSPs) by megakaryocytes and platelets function as a major antiangiogenic switch. TSPs inhibited thrombopoiesis, diminished bone marrow microvascular reconstruction following myelosuppression, and limited the extent of revascularization in a model of hind limb ischemia. We demonstrate that thrombopoietic recovery following myelosuppression was significantly enhanced in mice deficient in both TSP1 and TSP2 (TSP-DKO mice) in comparison with WT mice. Megakaryocyte and platelet levels in TSP-DKO mice were rapidly restored, thereby accelerating revascularization of myelosuppressed bone marrow and ischemic hind limbs. In addition, thrombopoietic cells derived from TSP-DKO mice were more effective in supporting neoangiogenesis in Matrigel plugs. The proangiogenic activity of TSP-DKO thrombopoietic cells was mediated through activation of MMP-9 and enhanced release of stromal cell-derived factor 1. Thus, TSP-deficient thrombopoietic cells function as proangiogenic agents, accelerating hemangiogenesis within the marrow and revascularization of ischemic hind limbs. As such, interference with the release of cellular stores of TSPs may be clinically effective in augmenting neoangiogenesis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) and its receptor CXCR4 are implicated in the pathogenesis and prognosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Cellular microparticles, submicron vesicles shed from the plasma membrane of various cells, are also associated with human pathology. In the present study, we investigated the putative relationships between the SDF-1/CXCR4 axis and microparticles in AML. We detected CXCR4-expressing microparticles (CXCR4(+) microparticles) in the peripheral blood and bone marrow plasma samples of normal donors and newly diagnosed adult AML patients. In samples from AML patients, levels of CXCR4(+) microparticles and total SDF-1 were elevated compared with normal individuals. The majority of CXCR4(+) microparticles in AML patients were CD45(+), whereas in normal individuals, they were mostly CD41(+). Importantly, we found a strong correlation between the levels of CXCR4(+) microparticle and WBC count in the peripheral blood and bone marrow plasma obtained from the AML patients. Of interest, levels of functional, noncleaved SDF-1 were reduced in these patients compared with normal individuals and also strongly correlated with the WBC count. Furthermore, our data indicate NH(2)-terminal truncation of the CXCR4 molecule in the microparticles of AML patients. However, such microparticles were capable of transferring the CXCR4 molecule to AML-derived HL-60 cells, enhancing their migration to SDF-1 in vitro and increasing their homing to the bone marrow of irradiated NOD/SCID/beta2m(null) mice. The CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100 reduced these effects. Our findings suggest that functional CXCR4(+) microparticles and SDF-1 are involved in the progression of AML. We propose that their levels are potentially valuable as an additional diagnostic AML variable.
Cancer Research 12/2006; 66(22):11013-20. DOI:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-2006 · 9.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanisms through which hematopoietic cytokines accelerate revascularization are unknown. Here, we show that the magnitude of cytokine-mediated release of SDF-1 from platelets and the recruitment of nonendothelial CXCR4+ VEGFR1+ hematopoietic progenitors, 'hemangiocytes,' constitute the major determinant of revascularization. Soluble Kit-ligand (sKitL), thrombopoietin (TPO, encoded by Thpo) and, to a lesser extent, erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced the release of SDF-1 from platelets, enhancing neovascularization through mobilization of CXCR4+ VEGFR1+ hemangiocytes. Although revascularization of ischemic hindlimbs was partially diminished in mice deficient in both GM-CSF and G-CSF (Csf2-/- Csf3-/-), profound impairment in neovascularization was detected in sKitL-deficient Mmp9-/- as well as thrombocytopenic Thpo-/- and TPO receptor-deficient (Mpl-/-) mice. SDF-1-mediated mobilization and incorporation of hemangiocytes into ischemic limbs were impaired in Thpo-/-, Mpl-/- and Mmp9-/- mice. Transplantation of CXCR4+ VEGFR1+ hemangiocytes into Mmp9-/- mice restored revascularization, whereas inhibition of CXCR4 abrogated cytokine- and VEGF-A-mediated mobilization of CXCR4+ VEGFR1+ cells and suppressed angiogenesis. In conclusion, hematopoietic cytokines, through graded deployment of SDF-1 from platelets, support mobilization and recruitment of CXCR4+ VEGFR1+ hemangiocytes, whereas VEGFR1 is essential for their angiogenic competency for augmenting revascularization. Delivery of SDF-1 may be effective in restoring angiogenesis in individuals with vasculopathies.
Nature Medicine 06/2006; 12(5):557-67. DOI:10.1038/nm1400 · 27.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chemokines are key regulators of hematopoiesis and host defense. We report here that functional expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 on human immature CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors was increased as a result of sustained elevation in cellular cAMP by dbcAMP and prostaglandin E2. This effect of cAMP was specifically mediated by PKCzeta activity. CXCR4 expression and PKCzeta activation by cAMP were decreased after the inhibition of cAMP effector-Rap1 by Spa1 overexpression. Interference with the activation of Rac1, a downstream target of Rap1, prevented the cAMP-induced increase in PKCzeta activity and CXCR4 levels. Functional manifestation of the effects of cAMP-elevating agents revealed an increased ability of human CD34+ cells to transmigrate the bone marrow (BM) endothelial layer and adhere to BM stroma in vitro, and it augmented the homing potential to the BM and spleens of immunodeficient mice in a Rac1- and a PKCzeta-dependent manner. cAMP- and TNFalpha-stimulated pathways converged in PKCzeta-activated CXCR4 expression and MMP-2/MMP-9 secretion. cAMP treatment had a beneficial effect on CD34+ cell survival in a PKCzeta-mediated fashion. Taken together, our data reveal major roles for cAMP-induced PKCzeta activation in signaling governing the motility and development of CD34+ cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of the proteolytic enzyme elastase in motility and proliferation of leukemic human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells is currently unknown. We report a correlation between abnormally high levels of elastase in the blood of AML patients and the number of leukemic blast cells in the circulation. In AML cells, we observed expression of cell-surface elastase, which was regulated by the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1). In vitro inhibition of elastase prevented SDF-1-induced cell polarization, podia formation, and reduced migration of human AML cells as well as their adhesion. Elastase inhibition also significantly impaired in vivo homing of most human AML cells to the bone marrow (BM) of nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID)/beta-2 microglobulin knock-out (B2m null) mice that underwent transplantation. Moreover, in vitro proliferation of AML cells was elastase dependent. In contrast, treatment with elastase inhibitor enhanced the proliferation rate of human cord blood CD34+ cells, including primitive CD34+/CD38- cells, and their in vivo homing. Finally, NOD/SCID mice previously engrafted with human AML cells and treated with elastase inhibitor had significantly reduced egress of leukemic cells into the circulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that human AML cells constitutively secrete and express SDF-1-dependent cell-surface elastase, which regulates their migration and proliferation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mechanism of human stem cell expansion ex vivo is not fully understood. Furthermore, little is known about the mechanisms of human stem cell homing/repopulation and the role that differentiating progenitor cells may play in these processes. We report that 2- to 3-day in vitro cytokine stimulation of human cord blood CD34(+)-enriched cells induces the production of short-term repopulating, cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells with increased matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 secretion as well as increased migration capacity to the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and homing to the bone marrow of irradiated nonobese diabetic severe/combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. These cycling G1 cells enhance SDF-1-mediated in vitro migration and in vivo homing of quiescent G0 CD34(+) cells, which is partially abrogated after inhibition of MMP-2/-9 activity. Moreover, the engraftment potential of quiescent G0 SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) is also increased by the cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) cells. This effect is significantly abrogated after incubation of cycling G1 cells with a neutralizing anti-CXCR4 antibody. Our data suggest synergistic interactions between accessory cycling G1 CD34(+)/CD38(+) committed progenitor cells and quiescent, primitive G0 CD34(+)/CD38(-/low) SRC/stem cells, the former increasing the motility and engraftment potential of the latter, partly via secretion of MMP-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptor, CXCR4, play a major role in migration, retention, and development of hematopoietic progenitors in the bone marrow. We report the direct involvement of atypical PKC-zeta in SDF-1 signaling in immature human CD34(+)-enriched cells and in leukemic pre-B acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) G2 cells. Chemotaxis, cell polarization, and adhesion of CD34(+) cells to bone marrow stromal cells were found to be PKC-zeta dependent. Overexpression of PKC-zeta in G2 and U937 cells led to increased directional motility to SDF-1. Interestingly, impaired SDF-1-induced migration of the pre-B ALL cell line B1 correlated with reduced PKC-zeta expression. SDF-1 triggered PKC-zeta phosphorylation, translocation to the plasma membrane, and kinase activity. Furthermore we identified PI3K as an activator of PKC-zeta, and Pyk-2 and ERK1/2 as downstream targets of PKC-zeta. SDF-1-induced proliferation and MMP-9 secretion also required PKC-zeta activation. Finally, we showed that in vivo engraftment, but not homing, of human CD34(+)-enriched cells to the bone marrow of NOD/SCID mice was PKC-zeta dependent and that injection of mice with inhibitory PKC-zeta pseudosubstrate peptides resulted in mobilization of murine progenitors. Our results demonstrate a central role for PKC-zeta in SDF-1-dependent regulation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell motility and development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A major limitation to clinical stem cell-mediated gene therapy protocols is the low levels of engraftment by transduced progenitors. We report that CXCR4 overexpression on human CD34+ progenitors using a lentiviral gene transfer technique helped navigate these cells to the murine bone marrow and spleen in response to stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) signaling. Cells overexpressing CXCR4 exhibited significant increases in SDF-1-mediated chemotaxis and actin polymerization compared with control cells. A major advantage of CXCR4 overexpression was demonstrated by the ability of transduced CD34+ cells to respond to lower, physiologic levels of SDF-1 when compared to control cells, leading to improved SDF-1-induced migration and proliferation/survival, and finally resulting in significantly higher levels of in vivo repopulation of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice including primitive CD34+/CD38(-/low) cells. Importantly, no cellular transformation was observed following transduction with the CXCR4 vector. Unexpectedly, we documented lack of receptor internalization in response to high levels of SDF-1, which can also contribute to increased migration and proliferation by the transduced CD34+ cells. Our results suggest CXCR4 overexpression for improved definitive human stem cell motility, retention, and multilineage repopulation, which could be beneficial for in vivo navigation and expansion of hematopoietic progenitors.