[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plants and herbivores can evolve beneficial interactions. Growth factors found in animal saliva are probably key factors underlying plant compensatory responses to herbivory. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how animal saliva interacts with herbivory intensities and how saliva can mobilize photosynthate reserves in damaged plants.
The study examined compensatory responses to herbivory and sheep saliva addition for the grass species Leymus chinensis in three experiments over three years. The first two experiments were conducted in a factorial design with clipping (four levels in 2006 and five in 2007) and two saliva treatment levels. The third experiment examined the mobilization and allocation of stored carbohydrates following clipping and saliva addition treatments. Animal saliva significantly increased tiller number, number of buds, and biomass, however, there was no effect on height. Furthermore, saliva effects were dependent on herbivory intensities, associated with meristem distribution within perennial grass. Animal saliva was found to accelerate hydrolyzation of fructans and accumulation of glucose and fructose.
The results demonstrated a link between saliva and the mobilization of carbohydrates following herbivory, which is an important advance in our understanding of the evolution of plant responses to herbivory. Herbivory intensity dependence of the effects of saliva stresses the significance of optimal grazing management.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e29259. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0029259 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malaria is one of the most common and serious protozoan tropical diseases. Multi-drug resistance remains pervasive, necessitating the continuous development of new antimalarial agents.
Many glycosides, such as triterpenoid saponins, were shown to have antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. This study was to elucidate the ability of five glycoalkaloids against Plasmodium yoelii and develop new antimalarial lead compounds.
Glycoalkaloids were isolated from three kinds of Solanaceae plants: chaconine and solanine were isolated from Solanum tuberosum L. sprouts, solamargine and solasonine from Solanum nigrum L. fruit, tomatine from Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. fruit. The five isolated glycoalkaloids were evaluated against Plasmodium yoelii 17XL in mice with 4-day parasitemia suppression test in different concentrations.
Chaconine showed a dose-dependent suppression of malaria infection, ED50, 4.49 mg/kg; therapeutic index (TI), approximately 9. At a dose of 7.50 mg/kg, the parasitemia suppressions of chaconine, tomatine, solamargine, solasonine and solanine were 71.38, 65.25, 64.89, 57.47 and 41.30%, respectively. At 3.75 mg/kg, the parasitemia suppression of chaconine was 42.66%, but the derivative, chaconine-6-O-sulfate, appeared to show no antimalarial activity. Simultaneous administration of chaconine and solanine in 1:1 did not show any synergistic effects.
The results showed that the glycoalkaloids with chacotriose (chaconine and solamargine) were more active than those with solatriose (solanine and solasonine). Chaconine was the most active among the five glycoalkaloids. We propose that the activity is dependent upon non-specific carbohydrate interactions. The 6-OH of chaconine is important for antimalarial activity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phytotoxic effect of four glycoalkaloids and two 6-O-sulfated glycoalkaloid derivatives were evaluated by testing their inhibition of cucumber root growth. The bioassays were performed using both compounds singly and in equimolar mixtures, respectively. Cucumber root growth was reduced by chaconine (C), solanine (S), solamargine (SM) and solasonine (SS) with IC(50) values of 260 (C), 380 (S), 530 (SM), and 610 microM (SS). The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent. 6-O-sulfated chaconine and 6-O-sulfated solamargine had no inhibitory effects, which indicated that the carbohydrate moieties play an important role in inhibiting cucumber root growth. The equimolar mixtures of paired glycoalkaloids, both chaconine/solanine and solamargine/solasonine, produced synergistic effects on inhibition of cucumber root growth. By contrast, mixtures of unpaired glycoalkaloids from different plants had no obviously synergistic effects. The growth inhibited plant roots lacked hairs, which implied that inhibition was perhaps at the level of root hair growth.