John C. Roitzsch

Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, United States

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Publications (7)12.49 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Male alcoholic veterans (N=194) were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the MacAndrew scale (MAC) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and compared on psychological and sociodemographic measures and self-reported alcohol, drug, and legal histories. Nineteen subjects scored in the nonalcoholic (NA) range of the MAC (i.e., false negatives, MAC23). Remaining subjects, scoring in the alcoholic range of the MAC, were divided into thirds by MAC scores (lowest third, L-MAC=24–28,n=53; middle third, M-MAC=29–31,n=63; highest third, H-MAC>31,n=59). Groups did not differ on age, any important sociodemographic variables, or scores on the Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90, or Rod and Frame Test. Significant group differences were obtained on several MMPI scales. Lower MAC scores were associated with higher scores onL, K, D, andR, and lower scores onMa. There was also a tendency for subjects with lower MAC scores to score higher onSi. NA subjects began drinking and heavy drinking later than other subjects, although groups did not differ on duration, quantity, or frequency of drinking. Subjects with higher MAC scores more often reported drinking in bars, drinking liquor straight, alcohol-related job disruptions, and previous use of marijuana, hallucinogens, and barbiturates. Subjects with higher MAC scores had more often been arrested, convicted, fined, and jailed for alcohol-related offenses but not for other offenses. Results are examined with respect to MacAndrew's distinction between primary and secondary alcoholics and with respect to the possible relations of MAC to important person variables such as sensation seeking.
    Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 11/1983; 5(4):261-273. DOI:10.1007/BF01321448 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several reports have suggested relations of alcohol abuse to level of control experienced over various life pressures or forces. This study assessed test-retest reliability of the Experienced Control Scale (EC) (Tiffany, 1967) within a male alcoholic sample. The EC was completed on two occasions 1 week apart by 48 inpatients on an alcoholism treatment unit. Resulting test-retest reliability coefficients were .57 for the Internal ratio score, .79 for the External ratio score, .72 for the sum of the two ratio scores, and from .56 to .69 for the four basic scores used in computing ratio scores. Intellectual ability as assessed by the Shipley Institute of Living Scale was unrelated to EC scores and occasionally but conflictingly related to temporal stability of EC scores. Neither age nor education showed a significant relationship to temporal stability of the EC or to ratio scores. Implications of findings for clinical and research applications of the EC are discussed, particularly support for combining the ratio scores rather than treating them separately. Possible determinants of the obtained stability of the EC also are explored.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 11/1982; 38(4):886-90. DOI:10.1002/1097-4679(198210)38:4<886::AID-JCLP2270380433>3.0.CO;2-T · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging alcoholic (n = 36) and aging nonalcoholic (n = 35) male veterans were compared on biographic/demographic variables and psychological characteristics. Results indicated that aging alcoholics and nonalcoholics were married at approximately the same ages, married roughly the same number of times, and produced similar numbers of offspring, but aging alcoholics were better educated and had fewer persons economically dependent on them. They had higher scores than aging nonalcoholics on objective measures of state anxiety, trait anxiety, overall fears, tissue damage fears, social-interpersonal fears, miscellaneous fears, and failure/loss of self-esteem fears. Aging alcoholics also had higher scores on the sensation-seeking variable of boredom susceptibility and disinhibition, suggesting the existence of a relationship between need for sensory stimulation and maladaptive drinking among aging alcoholics.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/1982; 7(1):97-100. DOI:10.1016/0306-4603(82)90033-8 · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined possible personality and mood state correlates of alcoholics' decisions to accept or refuse disulfiram (Antabuse) as past of their treatment program. Subjects were 104 male veterans in an inpatient alcohol treatment program who were offered disulfiram after detoxification and evaluation. All subjects completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Subjects were classified as acceptors (n = 78) or refusers (n = 26) based on their response to staff encouragement to undergo a trial of disulfiram. There were no significant group differences on age, racial composition, or any of the personality or mood state measures, with the exception of a trend (p less than .06) for acceptors to score higher than refusers on the masculinity-femininity scale of the MMPI. Examinations of distributions of MMPI profile code types similarly showed no differences between the two groups. Possible contextual explanations of these results are examined. Findings offer no support for the assumption that agreement to take disulfiram signifies greater motivation or intention to remain abstinent.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/1982; 7(2):207-9. DOI:10.1016/0306-4603(82)90048-X · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate differences among alcoholics with respect to treatment goal (abstinence or controlled drinking) and motivation for treatment, 154 male veteran alcoholics completed a battery of psychometric tests, the rod and frame measure of field dependence, and a structured interview. Ss were classified into 4 groups: 1. Abstinence goal—motivated for treatment candidates (n = 86), 2. Abstinence goal—spurious treatment candidates (n = 11), 3. Controlled drinking goal—motivated for treatment candidates (n = 46) and 4. Controlled drinking—spurious treatment candidates (n = 11). No differences on any variables were observed as a function of treatment goal, but spurious treatment candidates exhibited significantly less subjective emotional distress on the self-report psychometric tests than did alcoholics motivated for treatment. Spurious treatment candidates had higher MMPI lie scale scores and were more field dependent as well, suggesting that such alcoholics are not problem free and well-adjusted. The implications of these findings for assessment of treatment motivation and the need for use of behavioral assessment procedures are discussed.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/1978; 3(2):107-16. DOI:10.1016/0306-4603(78)90033-3 · 2.76 Impact Factor

  • Psychological Reports 03/1976; 38(1):311-7. DOI:10.2466/pr0.1976.38.1.311 · 0.53 Impact Factor