J C Roitzsch

University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, United States

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Publications (15)44.51 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of studies concerning the prevalence of crime-related posttraumatic stress disorder (CR-PTSD) in individuals with substance use disorders, despite documentation of particularly high prevalence rates of sexual and physical assault in this population. A central objective of the present investigation was to assess victimization experiences and CR-PTSD among individuals receiving inpatient treatment for substance use disorders and evaluate gender and racial differences in assault characteristics and CR-PTSD prevalence rates. A total of 95 inpatients (34 men and 61 women; 41 African-Americans, 52 Caucasians, and 2 other minorities) were administered a structured interview to assess substance abuse/dependence, trauma, and PTSD. Approximately 90% of the participants had a lifetime history of sexual and/or physical assault, and approximately 50% had CR-PTSD. With the exception of rape, no gender differences in assault or CR-PTSD prevalence rates were observed. Women were more likely than men to perceive their life as endangered during a rape. Men were younger than women when they experienced their first (or only) aggravated assault and were more likely to have been assaulted by a family member. No racial differences were detected for assault or PTSD, although African-American patients were significantly more likely to identify cocaine as their primary drug than Caucasian patients. Given the strikingly high rate of comorbid CR-PTSD among substance use disordered patients, exploration of the type and timing of interventions would be of clinical interest.
    The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 07/2009; 22(1):75-93. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disasters are associated with increased risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression, but no study, to the authors' knowledge, has determined whether genotype interacts with disaster exposure and social support to moderate risk of these phenotypes. The authors tested the hypothesis that a polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (locus, SLC6A4; variant, serotonin 5-HTTLPR) moderates risk of posthurricane PTSD and major depression given high hurricane exposure and low social support. The authors interviewed a household probability sample of adults 6-9 months after the 2004 hurricanes about hurricane exposure, social support, and posthurricane PTSD and major depression. DNA was collected from a subset of participants. Participants were 589 adults ages 18 and older from 38 Florida counties who provided valid DNA samples. Outcome measures were DSM-IV diagnoses of posthurricane PTSD and major depression derived from structured interviews. The low-expression variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism increased risk of posthurricane PTSD and major depression but only under the conditions of high hurricane exposure and low social support after adjustment for sex, ancestry (as determined by Bayesian clustering of genotypes), and age. Similar effects were found for major depression. High-risk individuals (high hurricane exposure, the low-expression 5-HTTLPR variant, low social support) were at 4.5 times the risk of developing PTSD and major depression of low-risk individuals. The low-expression variant of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism modifies risk of postdisaster PTSD and major depression under conditions of high hurricane exposure and low social support, confirming and extending previous research.
    American Journal of Psychiatry 12/2007; 164(11):1693-9. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Data are limited regarding mental health effects of disasters such as hurricanes. We sought to determine the prevalence of and major risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder, and major depressive episode 6 to 9 months after the 2004 Florida hurricanes. Random-digit dialing was used to recruit a representative population sample of 1452 hurricane-affected adults. Posthurricane prevalence for PTSD was 3.6%, for generalized anxiety disorder was 5.5%, and for major depressive episode was 6.1%. Risk factors varied somewhat across disorders, with the exception of previous exposure to traumatic events, which increased risk of all negative outcomes. Storm exposure variables and displacement were associated primarily with PTSD. Notably, high social support in the 6 months preceding the hurricanes protected against all types of disorders.
    American Journal of Public Health 05/2007; 97 Suppl 1:S103-8. · 3.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present investigation was to evaluate whether the process of assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance abuse/dependence inpatients (N = 95) as part of a research protocol influenced the diagnostic assessment conducted by clinical staff. The prevalence of current crime-related PTSD (CR-PTSD) observed with a research interview was 40% (n = 38), whereas the rate of current CR-PTSD documented in (the same) patients' discharge summaries was 15% (n = 14). An even lower CR-PTSD prevalence rate of 8% (n = 5) was obtained from a new sample of patient discharge summaries (N = 59) collected after the cessation of the research project. On chart intake reports, clinical staff documented a history of sexual and/or physical assault in approximately one-half of these patients, but PTSD was not evaluated. PTSD appears to be under-diagnosed by clinical staff in patients with substance use disorders.
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 01/1997; 10(1). · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of the present investigation was to evaluate whether the process of assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in substance abuse/dependence inpatients (N = 95) as part of a research protocol influenced the diagnostic assessment conducted by clinical staff. The prevalence of current crime-related PTSD (CR-PTSD) observed with a research interview was 40% (n = 38), whereas the rate of current CR-PTSD documented in (the same) patients' discharge summaries was 15% (n = 14). An even lower CR-PTSD prevalence rate of 8% (n = 5) was obtained from a new sample of patient discharge summaries (N = 59) collected after the cessation of the research project. On chart intake reports, clinical staff documented a history of sexual and/or physical assault in approximately one-half of these patients, but PTSD was not evaluated. PTSD appears to be under-diagnosed by clinical staff in patients with substance use disorders.
    Journal of Traumatic Stress 12/1996; 10(1):141-148. · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We studied two sexagenarians who had recurrent circumscribed attacks of amnesia. Their EEGs showed frequent bilateral spikes that arose independently from the temporal lobes, primarily from mesiobasal structures. Amnesic attacks ceased after treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Neuropsychological tests demonstrated selective cognitive impairments, and short-term memory improved after treatment in one patient. Epileptic amnesic attacks should be distinguished from transient global amnesia, which is clinically similar.
    Neurology 09/1985; 35(8):1188-9. · 8.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Male alcoholic veterans (N=194) were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the MacAndrew scale (MAC) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and compared on psychological and sociodemographic measures and self-reported alcohol, drug, and legal histories. Nineteen subjects scored in the nonalcoholic (NA) range of the MAC (i.e., false negatives, MAC23). Remaining subjects, scoring in the alcoholic range of the MAC, were divided into thirds by MAC scores (lowest third, L-MAC=24–28,n=53; middle third, M-MAC=29–31,n=63; highest third, H-MAC>31,n=59). Groups did not differ on age, any important sociodemographic variables, or scores on the Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-90, or Rod and Frame Test. Significant group differences were obtained on several MMPI scales. Lower MAC scores were associated with higher scores onL, K, D, andR, and lower scores onMa. There was also a tendency for subjects with lower MAC scores to score higher onSi. NA subjects began drinking and heavy drinking later than other subjects, although groups did not differ on duration, quantity, or frequency of drinking. Subjects with higher MAC scores more often reported drinking in bars, drinking liquor straight, alcohol-related job disruptions, and previous use of marijuana, hallucinogens, and barbiturates. Subjects with higher MAC scores had more often been arrested, convicted, fined, and jailed for alcohol-related offenses but not for other offenses. Results are examined with respect to MacAndrew's distinction between primary and secondary alcoholics and with respect to the possible relations of MAC to important person variables such as sensation seeking.
    Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment 11/1983; 5(4):261-273. · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Several reports have suggested relations of alcohol abuse to level of control experienced over various life pressures or forces. This study assessed test-retest reliability of the Experienced Control Scale (EC) (Tiffany, 1967) within a male alcoholic sample. The EC was completed on two occasions 1 week apart by 48 inpatients on an alcoholism treatment unit. Resulting test-retest reliability coefficients were .57 for the Internal ratio score, .79 for the External ratio score, .72 for the sum of the two ratio scores, and from .56 to .69 for the four basic scores used in computing ratio scores. Intellectual ability as assessed by the Shipley Institute of Living Scale was unrelated to EC scores and occasionally but conflictingly related to temporal stability of EC scores. Neither age nor education showed a significant relationship to temporal stability of the EC or to ratio scores. Implications of findings for clinical and research applications of the EC are discussed, particularly support for combining the ratio scores rather than treating them separately. Possible determinants of the obtained stability of the EC also are explored.
    Journal of Clinical Psychology 11/1982; 38(4):886-90. · 2.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The present study examined possible personality and mood state correlates of alcoholics' decisions to accept or refuse disulfiram (Antabuse) as past of their treatment program. Subjects were 104 male veterans in an inpatient alcohol treatment program who were offered disulfiram after detoxification and evaluation. All subjects completed the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Subjects were classified as acceptors (n = 78) or refusers (n = 26) based on their response to staff encouragement to undergo a trial of disulfiram. There were no significant group differences on age, racial composition, or any of the personality or mood state measures, with the exception of a trend (p less than .06) for acceptors to score higher than refusers on the masculinity-femininity scale of the MMPI. Examinations of distributions of MMPI profile code types similarly showed no differences between the two groups. Possible contextual explanations of these results are examined. Findings offer no support for the assumption that agreement to take disulfiram signifies greater motivation or intention to remain abstinent.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/1982; 7(2):207-9. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aging alcoholic (n = 36) and aging nonalcoholic (n = 35) male veterans were compared on biographic/demographic variables and psychological characteristics. Results indicated that aging alcoholics and nonalcoholics were married at approximately the same ages, married roughly the same number of times, and produced similar numbers of offspring, but aging alcoholics were better educated and had fewer persons economically dependent on them. They had higher scores than aging nonalcoholics on objective measures of state anxiety, trait anxiety, overall fears, tissue damage fears, social-interpersonal fears, miscellaneous fears, and failure/loss of self-esteem fears. Aging alcoholics also had higher scores on the sensation-seeking variable of boredom susceptibility and disinhibition, suggesting the existence of a relationship between need for sensory stimulation and maladaptive drinking among aging alcoholics.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/1982; 7(1):97-100. · 2.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate differences among alcoholics with respect to treatment goal (abstinence or controlled drinking) and motivation for treatment, 154 male veteran alcoholics completed a battery of psychometric tests, the rod and frame measure of field dependence, and a structured interview. Ss were classified into 4 groups: 1. Abstinence goal—motivated for treatment candidates (n = 86), 2. Abstinence goal—spurious treatment candidates (n = 11), 3. Controlled drinking goal—motivated for treatment candidates (n = 46) and 4. Controlled drinking—spurious treatment candidates (n = 11). No differences on any variables were observed as a function of treatment goal, but spurious treatment candidates exhibited significantly less subjective emotional distress on the self-report psychometric tests than did alcoholics motivated for treatment. Spurious treatment candidates had higher MMPI lie scale scores and were more field dependent as well, suggesting that such alcoholics are not problem free and well-adjusted. The implications of these findings for assessment of treatment motivation and the need for use of behavioral assessment procedures are discussed.
    Addictive Behaviors 02/1978; 3(2):107-16. · 2.02 Impact Factor
  • Psychological Reports 03/1976; 38(1):311-7. · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • D G Kilpatrick, N R Cauthen, J C Roitzsch
    Psychological Reports 05/1971; 28(2):615-8. · 0.44 Impact Factor
  • PATRICK M. O'NEIL, JOHN C. ROITZSCH
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    ABSTRACT: Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/57431/1/Kilpatrick_Serotonin Transporter Genotype and Social Support_2007.pdf