Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis

Center For Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Georgia, United States

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Publications (29)23.19 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives To present the experience in the treatment of soft tissue cysts of the orofacial region in children treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at Children’s Hospital “P and A Kyriakou” Dental School, University of Athens. Study design This is a retrospective study including 60 young individuals, 4 months to 14 years old. Surgical treatment was provided under general anaesthesia, during a 13-year period from 2000 to 2012. Results The majority of cysts were mucocoeles (n=36, 60.0%), followed by ranulas (n= 15 or 25.0%), dermoid cysts (n=4 or 6.6%), branchial cysts (n=2 or 3.3%), thyroglossal duct cysts (n=2, 3.3%) and one case of cystic hygroma (n=1 or 1.6%). The primary method of treatment was enucleation and secondary marsupialization. Conclusion It is very important to appreciate that although soft-tissue cysts are benign lesions, some of them may grow to a large size and become a major threat, especially in developing orofacial regions in children. In addition, as some types of soft-tissue cysts such as cystic hygroma show a tendency to recur, early examination and follow-up is required for the young population.
    Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2014; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recurrent skin infections of staphylococcal origin raise the question of probable skin colonization by Staphylococcus aureus and the need for eradication. Available evidence does not exist for such settings. A management algorithm was developed by a group of experts that was implemented prospectively in 125 patients admitted for recurrent staphylococcal skin infections. Patients were tested for skin carriage of S. aureus in seven body surfaces. In the event of carriage, therapy was administered consisting of hair and body washing with antiseptics for 60 days and parallel oral treatment according to the antibiogram for 30 days. Patients were followed up for 3 years. Seventy-nine patients were colonized by S. aureus, 49 by methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and 30 by methicillin-resistant (MRSA) isolates. The eradication rate following the algorithm was 83.7 % for patients colonized by MSSA and 90.0 % for patients colonized by MRSA. The greater eradication rates were achieved after treatment with one antistaphylococcal penicillin or clindamycin in the case of MSSA carriage and with clindamycin or a fluoroquinolone in the case of MRSA carriage. Of the 79 treated cases, 18 relapsed. Time to relapse did not differ between MSSA carriers and MRSA carriers. It is concluded that the suggested algorithm may be clinically efficacious and achieve high decolonization and low relapse within patients with recurrent staphylococcal skin infections colonized by either MSSA or MRSA.
    Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy 02/2013; · 1.55 Impact Factor
  • N. Theologie-Lygidakis, K. Chatzidimitriou, F. Tzerbos, N. Kolomvos, I. Iatrou
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose To evaluate the results of secondary osteoplasty in cleft patients, over a 12 years period, and to propose certain modifications and improvements of the cleft repair technique. Materials and Methods Data were retrieved for all young patients treated from 2000 to 2011. Patients were divided in 3 groups, of 4 years duration each; parameters registered among others included peri-operative orthodontics, type of graft used, techniques applied and revisions required until final repair. Results 65 patients (mean age 11.6 years) were included in the study. 80 cleft sites were treated. All clefts were finally repaired and bone continuity was achieved. Peri-operative orthodontics was applied in 84.6% of the cases. Bone grafts were harvested 60 times (84.5%) from the left anterior iliac crest and 11 times (15.5%) from the genial region of the mandible. During the 12 years period ameliorations and changes were made at the recipient site, regarding the technique applied and the type of the graft. Revision operations for additional bone grafting were required in 6 cases in all (6/80 or 7.5% of the cleft sites). A gradual reduction of the number of revision osteoplasties was recorded in the 3 time periods, attributed to the improvements afore mentioned. Conclusions Cleft bone repair, even in difficult bilateral cases, may be achieved with standardised preparation of the recipient site, adequate graft from the iliac crest, used in the form of both particulate bone and cortical plate on top, as well as full coverage of the graft.
    Journal of Cranio-Maxillofacial Surgery 01/2013; · 1.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Fibro-osseous lesions, a diverse group of bone disorders including developmental, reactive or dysplastic diseases and neoplasms, share overlapping clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features and demonstrate a wide range of biological behaviour. AIM: To evaluate the characteristics, treatment and outcome of benign fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws in children. PATIENTS AND METHOD: All patients with fibro-osseous lesions of the jaws treated at the department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery of the «A & P Kyriakou» Children's Hospital of Athens from 2000 to 2011 were included in this study. Data were retrieved from patients' files and their present situation was registered. RESULTS: Sixteen males and 10 females (mean age 8.5 years) were treated. Fibrous dysplasia was most often encountered (26.9%), and the mandible was the most frequent location (76.9%). All cases were surgically treated and histopathologically confirmed. Marginal ostectomy was performed in 7 cases, partial ostectomy in 4, enucleation and curettage in 10 and trimming-remodelling in 5 cases. Mean follow-up was of 5.5 years with no recurrence, except in one case of fibrous dysplasia. CONCLUSIONS: Fibro-osseous lesions, although sharing similar microscopic features, exhibit a variety of clinical behaviour rendering their treatment highly individualized.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 01/2013; · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • I Iatrou, N Theologie-Lygidakis, F Tzerbos, O K Schoinohoriti
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the epidemiology, histological diagnosis and treatment outcome of oro-facial tumours and tumour-like lesions in Greek children and adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The medical records of patients with oro-facial lesions who presented at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at "A. & P. Kyriakou" Children's Hospital from 2000 to 2010 were reviewed. Data was analyzed in relation to age, gender, location, histology, treatment choice and outcome. RESULTS: Two hundred and eleven oro-facial lesions were identified. Age ranged from 14 days to 15 years (mean 8 years); the male-to-female ratio was 1.09: 1; 90.05% of the lesions were benign and 9.95% malignant. Vascular anomalies were the most common benign lesion (22.1%) and rhabdomyosarcoma was the most prevalent malignancy (28.57%). One hundred and ten lesions (52.1%) involved soft tissue, most commonly the tongue and 96 cases (45.5%), involved hard tissue, most frequently the mandible; 5 lesions (2.4%) involved both hard and soft tissue. Surgery was performed under general anaesthesia in 198 cases (93.84%). Some malignant lesions were treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Oro-facial tumours and tumour-like lesions are not uncommon in the Greek paediatric population; although most frequently benign, these may cause considerable morbidity. As such early diagnosis and treatment are imperative.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 12/2012; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: This article aimed to present a series of surgically treated lymphatic malformations of the cervicofacial region in a population of children and adolescents during a 13-year period. METHODS: The medical records of all children and adolescents with cervicofacial lymphatic malformations, treated surgically at our department from 1998 to 2011, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Eighteen patients with 20 lymphatic malformations located within the soft tissues of the cervicofacial region were identified. All patients were submitted to surgical treatment (excision or resection with conventional scalpel or radiosurgery) to address complications (ulceration, bleeding, impaired mastication and feeding, airway obstruction) and/or aesthetic issues. Recurrence was noted in 2 of our patients. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate diagnosis based on history, clinical examination, and adequate imaging techniques is the key to the optimal treatment of cervicofacial lymphatic malformations; surgical intervention remains the treatment of choice for these lesions.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 11/2012; · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to present a series of surgically treated head and neck vascular anomalies during a 12-year period, highlighting the epidemiology, diagnostic approach, indications for surgery, and final clinical outcome. STUDY DESIGN: The medical records of all patients with head and neck vascular anomalies, surgically treated at our department from 1998 to 2010, were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: A total of 42 patients with 46 vascular anomalies were identified. Patients' diagnoses included vascular tumors, hemangiomas mainly (18 cases), and various vascular malformations (26 cases). All patients were submitted to surgical treatment (excision-resection) to resolve main clinical symptoms (ulceration, bleeding, impaired mastication and feeding, airway obstruction) and/or esthetic issues. Recurrence was noted in 3 patients. CONCLUSION: Accurate differential diagnosis based on history, physical examination, and imaging, is the key to optimal treatment. Surgical intervention is warranted for small to moderately extended lesions to avoid complications and/or esthetic concerns and psychosocial distress.
    Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology. 08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: This article describes the first published case of coexistence in a child of a rare hybrid odontogenic ghost cell tumor and a solitary cutaneous pilomatrixoma. An 11-year-old boy presented with a large well-defined unilocular radiolucent lesion in the right posterior mandible. Marsupialization followed by enucleation of the remaining lesion at a later period was the treatment of choice. Histopathologic analysis revealed a hybrid tumor demonstrating areas identical to calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor, ameloblastoma, ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, ameloblastic fibromyxoma, and adenoid odontogenic tumor. A cutaneous nodule was also removed from the facial area and demonstrated classic features of pilomatrixoma on histopathology. Sixteen cases of hybrid calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor associated with odontogenic tumors other than ameloblastomas and odontomas are referred in the literature to date. Young males are frequently affected, and the mandible is the most common site of involvement. The occurrence in the same patient of 2 distinctive entities, which both demonstrate ghost/shadow cells, may be a coincidental finding or suggest a common origin regarding the histogenesis of these cells. Alternatively, future molecular studies may clarify possible genetic or/and predisposing factors for the development of these lesions.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 07/2012; 23(4):1188-91. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although central giant-cell granulomas of the jaws (CGCG) tend to appear more often in children and young adults, most studies include patients of all ages. Aim of this study was to present and discuss the characteristics, the selected treatment pattern and the outcome of central giant-cell granulomas of the jaws exclusively in children up to 13 years old, during a 10 years period. Twelve young patients, 5-13 years old were included in the study. CGCGs were surgically removed in toto by enucleation followed by curettage of the bone. Repair of the remaining bone defect was performed at the same operation in five cases. All patients healed uneventfully and had prosthetic and/or orthodontic rehabilitation applied post-operatively. Regular long-lasting follow-ups were scheduled. Recurrence occurred in two cases (16.7%), it was small in size and was surgically treated again. Conservative surgery, without extensive bone removal, for CGCGs of the jaws in children was successful in our cases. Additional repair of the osseous defect when needed and teeth rehabilitation as soon as possible are essential in children population. Follow-up needs to be long-lasting, to secure bone healing and unaffected jaw growth. Findings in children population of the present study were similar to those of adults or adolescent populations, although a rather low recurrence rate has been noticed.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 01/2011; 39(8):639-44. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis, Ourania Schoinohoriti, Ioannis Iatrou
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    ABSTRACT: Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaws is an uncommon non-suppurative inflammatory disease of unknown origin. Although the disease is not age-specific, only sparse cases with onset during childhood or adolescence have been reported in the literature. This study seeks to present five cases of maxillofacial PCO in children and to evaluate the effectiveness of the applied therapeutic protocol. A review of the literature concerning diagnosis and treatment of PCO with special emphasis on surgical therapy is also performed. Demographic data, clinical, radiographic and histopathologic findings, blood tests results, and the treatment protocol applied to five young patients suffering from PCO and referred to the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery at "A. & P. Kyriakou Children's Hospital" over the past 5 years are presented. Decortication and contouring of the affected bone were performed; antibiotics were administered for a short period of time and the patients remained under follow-up evaluation. The posterior mandible was affected in four cases and the maxilla-zygomatic bone in one case. All patients showed remission of signs and symptoms after surgical treatment. The postsurgical clinical course was uneventful in all cases. However, recurrences have been noted, as reported in the literature. PCO of the jaws is a complex clinical entity, presenting both a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, especially in young patients. Surgical treatment in conjunction with antibiotics and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs proved to be beneficial and to improve considerably the patients' quality of life. Nevertheless, exacerbation of the disease may appear and regular follow-up of the patients is required.
    Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 10/2010; 15(1):41-50.
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    ABSTRACT: Myxomas of the maxillofacial region are neoplastic entities of mesenchymal origin most often associated with odontogenic origin; sinonasal myxoma is rare, located in the nasolabial region and originating from the sinonasal tract. The aim of the current study was to report a well-documented case of sinonasal myxoma in a 12-month-old boy, initially presenting with obliteration of his left nasolacrimal duct. A soft-tissue mass of the nasobuccal groove, firmly attached to the underlying bone, was revealed. After biopsy where benign fibroblastic elements were found, the tumor was removed surgically in wide margins, whereas great care was taken to reconstruct the involved adjacent anatomic structures and preserve facial aesthetics. Histopathologic findings were compatible with an extragnathic, nonodontogenic sinonasal myxoma originating from the nasolacrimal duct. The clinical significance of the case presented was its rather rare location and origin. Three and a half years postoperatively, functional and aesthetic results were satisfactory with no sign of recurrence. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second youngest reported case in the literature.
    The Journal of craniofacial surgery 09/2010; 21(5):1649-51. · 0.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Osteoblastoma, a rare osteoblastic tumor, constitutes approximately 1% of all primary bone tu-mors. Aim: The purpose of this report is to present an osteoblastoma of the mandible, with particular emphasis on the differential diagnosis of this rare tu-mor. Methods-Results: the lesion showed osteoblast-like cells, stromal cells, osteoclast-like cells and inter-lacing trabeculae of osteoid. Because of the high cel-lularity of the tumor, immunohistochemical analysis was performed using the cell proliferation marker Ki-67, the p53 and the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The lesion demonstrated low to moderate prolifera-tive activity and no immunoreactivity was detected for p53. An interesting finding was the Bcl-2 expres-sion by the multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, in contrast to the lack of Bcl-2 expression from osteo-blast-like and stromal tumor cells. Conclusion: To our knowledge the Bcl-2 expression has not yet been in-vestigated in benign or malignant osteoblastic tumors. This finding may be related to the molecular mecha-nisms regulating the apoptosis of osteoclast-like tu-mor cells or their function.
    24 Meeting of Hellenic Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery 2010; 05/2010
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease, and although its incidence has dramatically decreased in developed countries where effective control measures are applied, it still remains a potential health hazard in the developing world. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is extremely rare and is usually secondary to pulmonary involvement. We present the unusual case of an immunocompetent 6-year-old child residing in an urban area with primary oral tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, which was confirmed by the application of a molecular genetic approach. M. bovis belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which comprises species with close genetic relationship, and for this reason, the use of new molecular techniques is a useful tool for the differentiation at species level of the closely related members of this complex.
    European Journal of Pediatrics 05/2010; 169(9):1143-5. · 1.91 Impact Factor
  • Ioannis Iatrou, Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis, Fotios Tzerbos
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    ABSTRACT: Trauma and facial fractures in a population of children have been analysed in several studies mainly regarding their incidence and much less their treatment modalities. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the treatment methods and outcome of facial fractures in children and young adolescents during the last decade and to discuss findings and propose treatment protocols. Patients of the Paediatric Maxillofacial department, treated for fractures of the facial skeleton were included in the study. Open reduction and osteosynthesis plate fixation (titanium and resorbable material) was the main treatment method with conservative treatment saved for selected cases. Titanium plates were removed after bone healing. Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) was not used regularly in mandibular fractures, with the exception of condylar fractures. 156 children and young adolescents with 208 fracture sites in total were treated. 139 fracture sites (66.8%) were treated with open reduction and 69 conservatively. The mandible was affected in 49.0% of the cases, the maxilla in 21.2% (both with the alveolar process fractures included), the zygomatic complex in 10.1%, the orbital walls in 9.6%. There were 38 alveolar process fractures. The results of the fracture treatment verified the usefulness of open reduction and plate fixation in children. There was no need for wire suspension and only occasional need for IMF. Closed reduction was selectively applied in condylar fractures and dento-alveolar trauma.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 03/2010; 38(7):511-6. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Stefanos Dimtsas, Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis, Ioannis Iatrou
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    ABSTRACT: Dermoid cysts of the oral cavity are extremely rare. The most common site is the floor of the mouth whereas intralingual location is the most unusual. They may be congenital or acquired and according to their histological appearance they are distinguished in "true" dermoid, epidermoid or teratoid cysts. We present the clinical and radiographic findings of a large congenital intralingual "true" dermoid cyst in a 10-month-old boy. The large size of the lesion and the subsequent enlargement of the tongue caused difficulties in swallowing and sleeping, symptoms which subsided after the surgical treatment. The uncommon location, the large size and the very young age of the patient were the noteworthy parameters.
    The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry 01/2010; 34(4):335-7. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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    Ioannis Iatrou, Emmanouil Vardas, Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis, Minas Leventis
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    ABSTRACT: Odontomas represent the most common type of odontogenic jaw tumors among patients younger than 20 years of age. Clinically, they are often associated with eruption failure of adjacent permanent teeth, and are classified as compound and complex. The aim of the present retrospective study was to present the characteristics, treatment approach and outcome of odontomas in Greek children, over a ten-year period. Twenty six patients, 2 to 14 years of age (mean 9.3 years), with odontomas treated during the years 1999-2008 at the Department of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery of a Children's Hospital, were included in the study. Data from patients' files were retrieved and they were recalled for review. Odontomas were equally distributed in the maxilla and mandible and 42.3% of them were located in the anterior maxilla. Of the odontomas, 80.7% were related to disturbances in tooth eruption. Bone expansion was observed in 65.3% of the cases. All odontomas were surgically removed, and related impacted permanent teeth were either left to erupt spontaneously, orthodontically guided into occlusion or were removed. Orthodontic intervention appeared to be necessary in older children, while in younger children spontaneous eruption was frequent. In the present study, odontomas were associated with unerupted or impacted teeth. Radiographic examination was essential to verify the presence of the tumor and early removal prevented tooth eruption failure and disturbances in a majority of the cases.
    Journal of Oral Science 01/2010; 52(3):439-47.
  • Ioannis Iatrou, Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis, Ourania Schoinohoriti
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    ABSTRACT: Mandibular distraction osteogenesis (MDO) has been increasingly gaining interest over the last decade as a treatment alternative for the challenging airway management in infants with the Robin Sequence (RS). This paper is a case report of a male child diagnosed with RS, suffering from life-threatening airway obstruction and feeding difficulties, treated with tracheostomy and gastrostomy since infancy. After evaluation of the patient by a multidisciplinary team of specialists, MDO performed as soon as possible, was considered the optimal treatment, not only to address the severe micrognathia but also to allow early tracheal decannulation. As the lack of space intraorally contraindicated the use of internal distractors, they were placed externally bilaterally. The patient was successfully decannulated 3 weeks postoperatively and the gastrostomy was removed 1 month postoperatively. The mandibular expansion exceeded 20mm bilaterally and the maxilla-mandible discrepancy was fully corrected. There were no complications related to device placement, activation or removal. Follow-up clinical and radiographic examinations of the patient 1 year after the removal of the distractors revealed improved mandibular projection and continued mandibular growth. No significant scarring occurred at the surgical site and the patient has normal respiratory and feeding function.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 12/2009; 38(6):431-5. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • N Kolomvos, I Iatrou, N Theologie-Lygidakis, F Tzerbos, O Schoinohoriti
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    ABSTRACT: Bone harvesting from the anterior iliac crest is commonly performed for grafting of maxillofacial defects. To evaluate the morbidity of the procedure in children and adolescents with clefts or maxillofacial defects after tumour removal. Between 2001 and 2008 36 consecutive patients who underwent iliac crest bone grafting using the trap-door technique were evaluated 6 months to 7 years postoperatively. Objective and subjective findings regarding the donor site mostly but also the recipient site were assessed by a standardized physical and radiological examination and a questionnaire. The donor site scar, neurosensory and motility function were evaluated clinically and osseous healing was investigated through radiographic examination of the ilium. All respondent patients (29 out of the 36) tolerated the procedure well without major complications. Minor complications (mild pain and limp) were of short duration. No growth disturbances or contour deficits at the donor site were noted. No neurosensory or functional irregularities were detected. The donor site scar was considered aesthetically acceptable and most of the patients were satisfied with the functional outcome at the recipient site. Bone harvesting from the anterior iliac crest was found to be a safe and reliable procedure for maxillofacial bone grafting in paediatric patients. No complications were encountered, the morbidity was minimal and the aesthetic outcome was good.
    Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery: official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery 11/2009; 38(4):293-302. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Ioannis Iatrou, Nadia Theologie-Lygidakis, Minas Leventis
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    ABSTRACT: The aim was to review the characteristics and treatment approach in 47 cases of intraosseous cystic lesions of the jaws in children. Forty-three patients, 2-14 years old, with 47 cystic lesions of the jaws, were treated during the period 2000-2007. All cysts were surgically removed. No bone grafts were used and the teeth involved were preserved whenever possible. Removed tissues were examined histologically. Follow-up period ranged from 6 months to 7 years. In 74.5% of the cases, cysts were enucleated, and in 17.0% they were marsupialized. Most commonly, the cysts were dentigerous (20, 42.6%), followed by eruption cysts, odontogenic keratocysts, and radicular cysts (10.6% each) and buccal bifurcation cysts (8.6%). Cystic lesions in children were found to be mainly of developmental origin. Treatment was surgical removal without interfering, when possible, with the development of the dentition. Surgical approach was usually enucleation and, to a lesser extent, marsupialization.
    Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology, and Endodontology 02/2009; 107(4):485-92. · 1.50 Impact Factor
  • I A Iatrou, N Theologie-Lygidakis, M D Leventis
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    ABSTRACT: Desmoplastic fibroma of bone is a rare intraosseous benign but locally aggressive tumor of connective tissue origin. The lesion may affect the metaphyses of the long bones but it may also involve the skull bones and more specifically the mandible, with most lesions appearing in the ramus-angle area. Treatment is surgical although additional chemotherapy or radiation has been applied. A 10-year-old boy initially presented with restriction and deviation of mouth opening. Clinical and radiological examination revealed a tumor-like lesion of the mandible extending into the soft tissues, which on biopsy proved to be a desmoplastic fibroma. The surgical treatment included peripheral ostectomy of the mandible, via an intraoral approach, for the removal of the lesion and restoration of the bone defect with an iliac bone autograft. The high recurrence rate of this type of lesion, demands a strict follow-up schedule. In the case presented, 5 years post-operatively, there are no signs of local recurrence. Changes in mouth opening when not attributed to obvious reasons, such as trauma, should make a dentist suspicious and lead to further investigation. In the case presented, a central lesion was revealed in the radiograph and the patient was referred and treated early. Extended surgical removal of the tumor, with wide margins, proved to be the appropriate treatment.
    European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 07/2008; 9(2):105-8.