ABSTRACT: The National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) was established in England to control chlamydia in people <25 years. This study examined variations in NCSP delivery in 2008, its first full year of national coverage, by comparing the distribution of screening venues and coverage with the risk of testing positive in men and women by socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) and age.
A total of 550,000 NCSP screening records from 2008 were linked to the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007. NCSP provision (venues/1000 population aged 13-24 years) was examined by SEC. NCSP coverage (tests/target population) and chlamydial positivity (positive results/[positive + negative results]) were examined separately in men and women by SEC and age. Odds ratios for positivity were calculated, adjusted for socioeconomic quintile, age, ethnicity, behavior, and screening provider.
NCSP coverage was just 4.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0-4.1) in men and 9.6% (95% CI: 9.5-9.6) in women. Screening provision and coverage were highest in more socioeconomically deprived areas where chlamydia positivity was also highest. The adjusted odds for testing positive in the most deprived areas was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5) times higher in men and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.4-1.5) times higher in women than the least deprived areas.
In the first year in which all areas delivered screening, the NCSP's total coverage was low, particularly in men. However, coverage was higher in deprived populations, who were also at increased risk of testing positive for infection. This analysis provides a baseline by which to monitor social variations in NCSP delivery as coverage expands.
Sexually transmitted diseases 08/2011; 38(8):677-84. · 2.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: We compare data collected by England's National Chlamydia Screening Programme (NCSP) with national probability survey data to examine demographic and behavioural differences that may be important in understanding who the NCSP is reaching and interpreting chlamydia positivity.
Data for 538,119 men and women aged 16-24 years who were screened in 2008 and data collected from 2180 interviewees in Britain's second National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles 1999-2001 (Natsal-2), of whom 644 were tested for chlamydia, were compared using the χ2 statistic and logistic regression.
Compared with Natsal-2, the NCSP tested more women (67% vs. 49%). NCSP participants were more likely to be younger: 29% were 16-17 years versus 16% of men and 15% of women in Natsal-2; from ethnic minority groups: 17% of men and 14% of women versus 8% and 6%, respectively, in Natsal-2; not to have used condoms at last sex: 66% of men and 68% of women versus 48% and 63%, respectively, in Natsal-2: and more likely to report two or more partners in the last year: 62% of men and 47% of women versus 47% and 30%, respectively, in Natsal-2. In multivariate analyses, higher AOR of chlamydia positivity were found for those reporting non-use of condoms and for those reporting multiple partners in both the NCSP and Natsal-2.
The NCSP is testing young people at increased risk of chlamydia. The impact of this testing bias on the effectiveness of the programme should be evaluated.
Sexually transmitted infections 03/2011; 87(4):306-11. · 2.18 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to examine variation in positivity within the English National Chlamydia Screening Programme during 2007/2008.
Data were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The outcome measure was positivity. Funnel plots were used to explore variation in positivity according to screening volume.
Three hundred and thirty-four thousand nine hundred and two screening tests were done, 29% of which were in men. Overall positivity was 7.6% in men and 9.3% in women. For men, positivity increased rapidly to plateau from ages 19 to 24. For women, rates peaked at 18 years-those aged 21 being at the same risk of chlamydial infection as 16-year-olds. For men and women, positivity was generally higher for those of black or mixed ethnicity compared with whites, whereas Asians were at lower risk. Similarly, risk of infection for men and women varied by screening venue. Multivariable analysis showed that, for men and women positivity varied significantly with age, ethnicity, screening venue attended, whether the young people had had a new sexual partner in the past 3 months, and whether the patient had had 2 or more sexual partners in the past year. Positivity did not vary significantly with implementation phase.
This is the largest description of testing for Chlamydia trachomatis in healthcare and nonhealthcare settings outside Genitourinary Medicine clinics in England and allowed a detailed analysis of positivity by age and ethnic group. Considerable heterogeneity exists and local health service commissioners need to ensure that the implementation of chlamydial screening reflects these differences.
Sexually transmitted diseases 06/2009; 36(8):522-7. · 2.58 Impact Factor
Sexually Transmitted Infections 05/2007; 83(2):171. · 2.85 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To identify variations in standards of neonatal care in the first week of life that might have contributed to deaths in infants who were born at 27 and 28 weeks' gestation.
A case-control study was conducted of infants who were born at 27 and 28 weeks' gestation in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland during a 2-year period. Cases were neonatal deaths; control subjects were randomly selected survivors at day 28. Main outcome measures were failures of prespecified standards of care or deficiencies in care reported by regional panels assessing anonymized medical records.
Failures of standards of care relating to ventilatory support (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.97-5.49), cardiovascular support (OR: 2.37; 95% CI :1.36-4.13), and thermal care (OR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.21-2.43) were associated with neonatal death. Frequencies of unmet resuscitation standards (range: 3%-46%) and of delays in surfactant administration (range: 38%-40%) were similar in cases and control subjects. Panels identified significantly more deficiencies in all aspects of neonatal care in cases with the exception of the management of infection. Stratification by clinical condition of infants at birth showed a stronger association between overall standard of care and death when infants were in a good condition at birth.
Our findings suggest an association between quality of neonatal care and neonatal deaths, most marked for early thermal care and ventilatory and cardiovascular support. Poor overall quality of care was more strongly associated with deaths when the infant was in a good condition at birth.
PEDIATRICS 01/2006; 116(6):1457-65. · 4.47 Impact Factor