N. Takanashi

National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (39)96.15 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Building on the work presented in Amanullah et al. (ApJ, 2010) and Suzuki et al. (ApJ, 2012), adding new z > 1 supernovae discovered in ground-based work and a new analysis of existing HST SNe, we present an updated high-redshift dataset. We update the SCP Union compilation with this and other recent datasets and present updated cosmological fits. This work has been supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy (through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231), and in part by NASA through grants associated with HST-GO-10496.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Using the sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) discovered by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey and augmented with HST-observed SNe Ia in the GOODS fields, we search for correlations between the properties of SNe and their host galaxies at high redshift. We use galaxy color and quantitative morphology to determine the red sequence in 25 clusters and develop a model to distinguish passively evolving early-type galaxies from star-forming galaxies in both clusters and the field. With this approach, we identify six SN Ia hosts that are early-type cluster members and eleven SN Ia hosts that are early-type field galaxies. We confirm for the first time at z>0.9 that SNe Ia hosted by early-type galaxies brighten and fade more quickly than SNe Ia hosted by late-type galaxies. We also show that the two samples of hosts produce SNe Ia with similar color distributions. The relatively simple spectral energy distributions (SEDs) expected for passive galaxies enable us to measure stellar masses of early-type SN hosts. In combination with stellar mass estimates of late-type GOODS SN hosts from Thomson & Chary (2011), we investigate the correlation of host mass with Hubble residual observed at lower redshifts. Although the sample is small and the uncertainties are large, a hint of this relation is found at z>0.9. By simultaneously fitting the average cluster galaxy formation history and dust content to the red-sequence scatters, we show that the reddening of early-type cluster SN hosts is likely E(B-V) <~ 0.06. The similarity of the field and cluster early-type host samples suggests that field early-type galaxies that lie on the red sequence may also be minimally affected by dust. Hence, the early-type hosted SNe Ia studied here occupy a more favorable environment to use as well-characterized high-redshift standard candles than other SNe Ia.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 750(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Building on the work presented in Amanullah et al. (ApJ, 2010) and Suzuki et al. (ApJ accepted), and adding new supernovae discovered in ground-based work, we present an updated dataset of z > 1 supernovae. We update the SCP Union compilation with this data and present updated cosmological fits. This work has been supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy (through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231), and in part by NASA through grants associated with HST-GO-10496.
    01/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the volumetric Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate out to z ~ 1.6 from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Supernova Survey. In observations spanning 189 orbits with the Advanced Camera for Surveys we discovered 29 SNe, of which approximately 20 are SNe Ia. Twelve of these SNe Ia are located in the foregrounds and backgrounds of the clusters targeted in the survey. Using these new data, we derive the volumetric SN Ia rate in four broad redshift bins, finding results consistent with previous measurements at z > 1 and strengthening the case for a SN Ia rate that is equal to or greater than ~0.6 x 10^-4/yr/Mpc^3 at z ~ 1 and flattening out at higher redshift. We provide SN candidates and efficiency calculations in a form that makes it easy to rebin and combine these results with other measurements for increased statistics. Finally, we compare the assumptions about host-galaxy dust extinction used in different high-redshift rate measurements, finding that different assumptions may induce significant systematic differences between measurements.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2011; 745(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present ACS, NICMOS, and Keck AO-assisted photometry of 20 Type Ia supernovae SNe Ia from the HST Cluster Supernova Survey. The SNe Ia were discovered over the redshift interval 0.623 < z < 1.415. Fourteen of these SNe Ia pass our strict selection cuts and are used in combination with the world's sample of SNe Ia to derive the best current constraints on dark energy. Ten of our new SNe Ia are beyond redshift $z=1$, thereby nearly doubling the statistical weight of HST-discovered SNe Ia beyond this redshift. Our detailed analysis corrects for the recently identified correlation between SN Ia luminosity and host galaxy mass and corrects the NICMOS zeropoint at the count rates appropriate for very distant SNe Ia. Adding these supernovae improves the best combined constraint on the dark energy density \rho_{DE}(z) at redshifts 1.0 < z < 1.6 by 18% (including systematic errors). For a LambdaCDM universe, we find \Omega_\Lambda = 0.724 +0.015/-0.016 (68% CL including systematic errors). For a flat wCDM model, we measure a constant dark energy equation-of-state parameter w = -0.985 +0.071/-0.077 (68% CL). Curvature is constrained to ~0.7% in the owCDM model and to ~2% in a model in which dark energy is allowed to vary with parameters w_0 and w_a. Tightening further the constraints on the time evolution of dark energy will require several improvements, including high-quality multi-passband photometry of a sample of several dozen z>1 SNe Ia. We describe how such a sample could be efficiently obtained by targeting cluster fields with WFC3 on HST.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2011; 746(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Sloan Digital Sky Survey II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey discovered Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in an almost unexplored intermediate redshift range of $0.05 < z < 0.4$ and provided densely sampled multi-color light curves for SN candidates. Followup spectroscopy of this survey was carried out with the Subaru telescope and spectra of 71 SN Ia candidates were obtained. One spectrum was observed per candidate except for a peculiar variable. This paper presents the method for processing these spectra. The observed wavelength ranges of our spectra are 4000 to 9000 {\AA} for Year 2005 and 3600 to 9000 {\AA} for Year 2006. Most SN Ia spectra have signal to noise ratios (S/N) between 4 and 10 per 2 {\AA} averaged over the entire wavelength region. We developed a new code to extract the SN spectral component from spectra contaminated by the host galaxy. Of 71 SN Ia candidates, 59 are identified as normal SNe Ia and 3 are peculiar SNe Ia. The range of spectral phases varies from -7 days to +30 days from maximum brightness. There are also 7 SNe II, 1 possible hypernova and 1 AGN.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: In a series of papers (Kowalski (ApJ, 2008), Amanullah (ApJ, 2010)) we have developed techniques to combine multiple datasets, search for tensions between datasets, quantify systematic errors, and to propagate this understanding into the cosmology fits. Here, we present refinements to our analysis, and the addition of new supernovae. We also discuss applications for future ambitious surveys. This work has been supported by the Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy, through contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and in part by NASA through grants associated with HST-GO-10496.
    01/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We report a measurement of the Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at 0.9 < z < 1.45 from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cluster Supernova Survey. This is the first cluster SN Ia rate measurement with detected z > 0.9 SNe. Finding 8 +/- 1 cluster SNe Ia, we determine a SN Ia rate of 0.50 +0.23-0.19 (stat) +0.10-0.09 (sys) SNuB (SNuB = 10^-12 SNe L_{sun,B}^-1 yr^-1). In units of stellar mass, this translates to 0.36 +0.16-0.13 (stat) +0.07-0.06 (sys) SNuM (SNuM = 10^-12 SNe M_sun^-1 yr^-1). This represents a factor of approximately 5 +/- 2 increase over measurements of the cluster rate at z < 0.2. We parameterize the late-time SN Ia delay time distribution with a power law (proportional to t^s). Under the assumption of a cluster formation redshift of z_f = 3, our rate measurement in combination with lower-redshift cluster SN Ia rates constrains s = -1.41 +0.47/-0.40, consistent with measurements of the delay time distribution in the field. This measurement is generally consistent with expectations for the "double degenerate" scenario and inconsistent with some models for the "single degenerate" scenario predicting a steeper delay time distribution at large delay times. We check for environmental dependence and the influence of younger stellar populations by calculating the rate specifically in cluster red-sequence galaxies and in morphologically early-type galaxies, finding results similar to the full cluster rate. Finally, the upper limit of one host-less cluster SN Ia detected in the survey implies that the fraction of stars in the intra-cluster medium is less than 0.47 (95% confidence), consistent with measurements at lower redshifts.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2010; 745(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
  • N. Takanashi, M. Doi, N. Yasuda
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    ABSTRACT: We use U-, B-, V-, R- and I-band light curves in the Vega system of 122 SNe in this work. All of the sample have B- and V-band photometry, but they do not always have U-, R- and I-band photometry. (1 data file).
    VizieR Online Data Catalog. 03/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the rate of high-z Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using multi-epoch observations of Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (SXDF) with Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. Although SNe Ia are regarded as a standard candle, progenitor systems of SNe Ia have not been resolved yet. One of the key parameters to show the progenitor systems by observations is the delay time distribution between the binary system formation and subsequent SN explosion. Recently, a wide range of delay time is studied by SN Ia rates compared with an assumed cosmic star formation history. If SNe Ia with short delay time are dominant, the cosmic SN Ia rate evolution should closely trace that of the cosmic star formation. In order to detect a lot of high-z SNe Ia and measure SN Ia rates, we repeatedly carried out wide and deep imaging observations in the í-band with Suprime-Cam in 2002 (FoV~1 deg2, mi < 25.5 mag). We obtained detailed light curves of the variable objects, and 50 objects are classified as SNe Ia using the light curve fitting method at the redshift range of 0.2 < z < 1.3. In order to check the completeness and contamination of the light curve classification method, we performed Monte Carlo simulations and generated ~100,000 light curves of SNe Ia and II from templates. The control time and detection efficiency of the SN survey are also calculated using the artificial light curves. We derived an increasing trend of rates at around z ~ 1.2. Our results are almost consistent with other SN Ia rate results from low-z to high-z. Our results are the first results of high-z SN Ia rates with large statistics using light curves obtained by ground based telescopes, and give us visions of the SN rate studies for the future.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 01/2010; 262:358-361.
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a multiply lensed Lyα emitter at z = 3.90 behind the massive cluster WARPS J1415.1+3612 at z = 1.026. Images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope using the Advanced Camera for Surveys reveal a complex lensing system that produces a prominent, highly magnified arc and a triplet of smaller arcs grouped tightly around a spectroscopically confirmed cluster member. Spectroscopic observations using the Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph on Subaru confirm strong Lyα emission in the source galaxy and provide the redshifts for more than 21 cluster members with a velocity dispersion of 807 ± 185 km s–1. Assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile, the mass within the Einstein ring (7.13 ± 038) corresponds to a central velocity dispersion of 686+15 –19 km s–1 for the cluster, consistent with the value estimated from cluster member redshifts. Our mass profile estimate from combining strong lensing and dynamical analyses is in good agreement with both X-ray and weak lensing results.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2009; 707(1):L12. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present spectra of high-redshift supernovae (SNe) that were taken with the Subaru low resolution optical spectrograph, FOCAS. These SNe were found in SN surveys with Suprime-Cam on Subaru, the CFH12k camera on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), and the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). These SN surveys specifically targeted z>1 Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). From the spectra of 39 candidates, we obtain redshifts for 32 candidates and spectroscopically identify 7 active candidates as probable SNe Ia, including one at z=1.35, which is the most distant SN Ia to be spectroscopically confirmed with a ground-based telescope. An additional 4 candidates are identified as likely SNe Ia from the spectrophotometric properties of their host galaxies. Seven candidates are not SNe Ia, either being SNe of another type or active galactic nuclei. When SNe Ia are observed within a week of maximum light, we find that we can spectroscopically identify most of them up to z=1.1. Beyond this redshift, very few candidates were spectroscopically identified as SNe Ia. The current generation of super red-sensitive, fringe-free CCDs will push this redshift limit higher. Comment: 19 pages, 26 figures. PASJ in press. see http://www.supernova.lbl.gov/2009ClusterSurvey/ for additional information pertaining to the HST Cluster SN Survey
    11/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a multiply lensed Ly Alpha (Lya) emitter at z = 3.90 behind the massive galaxy cluster WARPS J1415.1+3612 at z = 1.026. Images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope(HST) using ACS reveal a complex lensing system that produces a prominent, highly magnified arc and a triplet of smaller arcs grouped tightly around a spectroscopically confirmed cluster member. Spectroscopic observations using FOCAS on Subaru confirm strong Lya emission in the source galaxy and provide redshifts for more than 21 cluster members, from which we obtain a velocity dispersion of 807+/-185 km/s. Assuming a singular isothermal sphere profile, the mass within the Einstein ring (7.13+/-0.38") corresponds to a central velocity dispersion of 686+15-19 km/s for the cluster, consistent with the value estimated from cluster member redshifts. Our mass profile estimate from combining strong lensing and dynamical analyses is in good agreement with both X-ray and weak lensing results. Comment: 5 pages, 2 figures, accepted by ApJL. See http://www.supernova.lbl.gov/ for additional information pertaining to the HST Cluster SN Survey. (This added URL is the only change in this version.)
    11/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of the Hubble diagram for 103 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) with redshifts 0.04 < z < 0.42, discovered during the first season (Fall 2005) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. These data fill in the redshift "desert" between low- and high-redshift SN Ia surveys. Within the framework of the MLCS2K2 light-curve fitting method, we use the SDSS-II SN sample to infer the mean reddening parameter for host galaxies, RV = 2.18 ± 0.14stat ± 0.48syst, and find that the intrinsic distribution of host-galaxy extinction is well fitted by an exponential function, P(AV ) = exp(–AV /τV), with τV = 0.334 ± 0.088 mag. We combine the SDSS-II measurements with new distance estimates for published SN data from the ESSENCE survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey (SNLS), the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), and a compilation of Nearby SN Ia measurements. A new feature in our analysis is the use of detailed Monte Carlo simulations of all surveys to account for selection biases, including those from spectroscopic targeting. Combining the SN Hubble diagram with measurements of baryon acoustic oscillations from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample and with cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropy measurements from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, we estimate the cosmological parameters w and ΩM, assuming a spatially flat cosmological model (FwCDM) with constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. We also consider constraints upon ΩM and ΩΛ for a cosmological constant model (ΛCDM) with w = –1 and non-zero spatial curvature. For the FwCDM model and the combined sample of 288 SNe Ia, we find w = –0.76 ± 0.07(stat) ± 0.11(syst), ΩM = 0.307 ± 0.019(stat) ± 0.023(syst) using MLCS2K2 and w = –0.96 ± 0.06(stat) ± 0.12(syst), ΩM = 0.265 ± 0.016(stat) ± 0.025(syst) using the SALT-II fitter. We trace the discrepancy between these results to a difference in the rest-frame UV model combined with a different luminosity correction from color variations; these differences mostly affect the distance estimates for the SNLS and HST SNe. We present detailed discussions of systematic errors for both light-curve methods and find that they both show data-model discrepancies in rest-frame U band. For the SALT-II approach, we also see strong evidence for redshift-dependence of the color-luminosity parameter (β). Restricting the analysis to the 136 SNe Ia in the Nearby+SDSS-II samples, we find much better agreement between the two analysis methods but with larger uncertainties: w = –0.92 ± 0.13(stat)+0.10 –0.33(syst) for MLCS2K2 and w = –0.92 ± 0.11(stat)+0.07 –0.15 (syst) for SALT-II.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 10/2009; 185(1):32. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of the Hubble diagram for 103 Type Ia supernovae (SNe) with redshifts 0.04 < z < 0.42, discovered during the first season (Fall 2005) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. These data fill in the redshift "desert" between low- and high-redshift SN Ia surveys. We combine the SDSS-II measurements with new distance estimates for published SN data from the ESSENCE survey, the Supernova Legacy Survey, the Hubble Space Telescope, and a compilation of nearby SN Ia measurements. Combining the SN Hubble diagram with measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations from the SDSS Luminous Red Galaxy sample and with CMB temperature anisotropy measurements from WMAP, we estimate the cosmological parameters w and Omega_M, assuming a spatially flat cosmological model (FwCDM) with constant dark energy equation of state parameter, w. For the FwCDM model and the combined sample of 288 SNe Ia, we find w = -0.76 +- 0.07(stat) +- 0.11(syst), Omega_M = 0.306 +- 0.019(stat) +- 0.023(syst) using MLCS2k2 and w = -0.96 +- 0.06(stat) +- 0.12(syst), Omega_M = 0.265 +- 0.016(stat) +- 0.025(syst) using the SALT-II fitter. We trace the discrepancy between these results to a difference in the rest-frame UV model combined with a different luminosity correction from color variations; these differences mostly affect the distance estimates for the SNLS and HST supernovae. We present detailed discussions of systematic errors for both light-curve methods and find that they both show data-model discrepancies in rest-frame $U$-band. For the SALT-II approach, we also see strong evidence for redshift-dependence of the color-luminosity parameter (beta). Restricting the analysis to the 136 SNe Ia in the Nearby+SDSS-II samples, we find much better agreement between the two analysis methods but with larger uncertainties. Comment: Accepted for publication by ApJS
    08/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a new survey strategy to discover and study high redshift Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). By targeting massive galaxy clusters at 0.9<z<1.5, we obtain a twofold improvement in the efficiency of finding SNe compared to an HST field survey and a factor of three improvement in the total yield of SN detections in relatively dust-free red-sequence galaxies. In total, sixteen SNe were discovered at z>0.95, nine of which were in galaxy clusters. This strategy provides a SN sample that can be used to decouple the effects of host galaxy extinction and intrinsic color in high redshift SNe, thereby reducing one of the largest systematic uncertainties in SN cosmology. Comment: 15 pages, 8 figures, accepted by AJ, see http://www.supernova.lbl.gov for additional information pertaining to the HST Cluster SN Survey
    08/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical spectroscopic and photometric observations of Type Ia supernova (SN) 2006X from --10 to +91 days after the $B$-band maximum. This SN exhibits one of the highest expansion velocity ever published for SNe Ia. At premaximum phases, the spectra show strong and broad features of intermediate-mass elements such as Si, S, Ca, and Mg, while the O{\sc i}$\lambda$7773 line is weak. The extremely high velocities of Si{\sc ii} and S{\sc ii} lines and the weak O{\sc i} line suggest that an intense nucleosynthesis might take place in the outer layers, favoring a delayed detonation model. Interestingly, Si{\sc ii}$\lambda$5972 feature is quite shallow, resulting in an unusually low depth ratio of Si{\sc ii}$\lambda$5972 to $\lambda$6355, $\cal R$(Si{\sc ii}). The low $\cal R$(Si{\sc ii}) is usually interpreted as a high photospheric temperature. However, the weak Si{\sc iii}$\lambda$4560 line suggests a low temperature, in contradiction to the low $\cal R$(Si{\sc ii}). This could imply that the Si{\sc ii}$\lambda$5972 line might be contaminated by underlying emission. We propose that $\cal R$(Si{\sc ii}) may not be a good temperature indicator for rapidly expanding SNe Ia at premaximum phases.
    05/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: We present optical spectroscopic and photometric observations of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) 2006X from 10d before the B-band maximum to 91d after. This object exhibits one of the highest expansion velocities ever published for SNe Ia. At its premaximum phases, the spectra show strong and broad features of intermediate-mass elements, such as Si, S, Ca, and Mg, while the OI lambda7773 line is weak. The extremely high velocities of the SiII and SII lines and the weak feature of the OI line suggest that an intense nucleosynthesis might take place in the outer layers, favoring a delayed detonation model. Interestingly, the SiII lambda5972 feature is quite shallow, resulting in an unusually low depth ratio of SiII lambda5972 to SiII lambda6355, \cal{R} (SiII). The low \cal{R} (SiII) is usually interpreted as being a high photospheric temperature. However, the weak SiIII lambda4560 line suggests a low temperature, in contradiction with an interpretation on the low \cal{R} (SiII). This could imply that the SiII lambda5972 line might be contaminated by underlying emission. We propose that \cal{R} (SiII) may not be a good temperature indicator for a rapidly expanding SN Ia in the premaximum phases.
    Publications- Astronomical Society of Japan 01/2009; 61. · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    Naohiro Takanashi, Masaaki Hiramatsu
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    ABSTRACT: The TENPLA project (pronounced as “ten-pla”, like a famous Japanese food “Tempura”) is designed to communicate Astronomy with the public in Japan. We have been working to suggest various ways to enjoy astronomy. We have organised star gazing parties, science cafés, and lectures. We have made many goodies which make people interested in astronomy (e.g. “Astronomical Toilet Paper”). We have also provided opportunities to communicate with each other for people who have interests in such activities. In this paper we present a broad overview of the TENPLA project.
    Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union 12/2008; 5.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a measurement of the rate of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) from the first of three seasons of data from the SDSS-II Supernova Survey. For this measurement, we include 17 SNe Ia at redshift z ≤ 0.12. Assuming a flat cosmology with Ωm = 0.3 = 1 − ΩΛ, we find a volumetric SN Ia rate of [ 2.93+ 0.17−0.04(systematic)+ 0.90−0.71(statistical) ] × 10−5 SNe Mpc −3 h370 yr −1, at a volume-weighted mean redshift of 0.09. This result is consistent with previous measurements of the SN Ia rate in a similar redshift range. The systematic errors are well controlled, resulting in the most precise measurement of the SN Ia rate in this redshift range. We use a maximum likelihood method to fit SN rate models to the SDSS-II Supernova Survey data in combination with other rate measurements, thereby constraining models for the redshift evolution of the SN Ia rate. Fitting the combined data to a simple power-law evolution of the volumetric SN Ia rate, rV (1 + z)β, we obtain a value of β = 1.5 ± 0.6, i.e., the SN Ia rate is determined to be an increasing function of redshift at the ~2.5 σ level. Fitting the results to a model in which the volumetric SN rate is rV = Aρ(t) + B(t), where ρ (t) is the stellar mass density and (t) is the star formation rate, we find A = (2.8 ± 1.2) × 10−14 SNe M−1 yr −1, B = (9.3+ 3.4−3.1) × 10−4 SNe M−1.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 682(1):262. · 6.73 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

312 Citations
96.15 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2008–2011
    • National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
      • Division of Optical and Infrared Astronomy
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2011
    • The University of Tokyo
      • • Institute of Industrial Science
      • • Institute for Cosmic Ray Research
      Tokyo, Tokyo-to, Japan