[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compressed sensing is a signal processing method that acquires data directly
in a compressed form. This allows one to make less measurements than what was
considered necessary to record a signal, enabling faster or more precise
measurement protocols in a wide range of applications. Using an
interdisciplinary approach, we have recently proposed in [arXiv:1109.4424] a
strategy that allows compressed sensing to be performed at acquisition rates
approaching to the theoretical optimal limits. In this paper, we give a more
thorough presentation of our approach, and introduce many new results. We
present the probabilistic approach to reconstruction and discuss its optimality
and robustness. We detail the derivation of the message passing algorithm for
reconstruction and expectation max- imization learning of signal-model
parameters. We further develop the asymptotic analysis of the corresponding
phase diagrams with and without measurement noise, for different distribution
of signals, and discuss the best possible reconstruction performances
regardless of the algorithm. We also present new efficient seeding matrices,
test them on synthetic data and analyze their performance asymptotically.
Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory and Experiment 06/2012; 2012(08). · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compressed sensing is triggering a major evolution in signal acquisition. It
consists in sampling a sparse signal at low rate and later using computational
power for its exact reconstruction, so that only the necessary information is
measured. Currently used reconstruction techniques are, however, limited to
acquisition rates larger than the true density of the signal. We design a new
procedure which is able to reconstruct exactly the signal with a number of
measurements that approaches the theoretical limit in the limit of large
systems. It is based on the joint use of three essential ingredients: a
probabilistic approach to signal reconstruction, a message-passing algorithm
adapted from belief propagation, and a careful design of the measurement matrix
inspired from the theory of crystal nucleation. The performance of this new
algorithm is analyzed by statistical physics methods. The obtained improvement
is confirmed by numerical studies of several cases.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measure and compare three correlation lengths proposed to describe the extent of structural order in amorphous systems. In particular, the recently proposed "patch correlation length" is measured as a function of temperature and fragility and shown to be comparable with other measures. In addition, we demonstrate that the patch method also allows us to characterize the symmetries of the local order without any a priori knowledge of it.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this article, we review the progress made on the statistical mechanics of liquids and fluids embedded in curved space. Our main focus will be on two-dimensional manifolds of constant nonzero curvature and on the influence of the latter on the phase behavior, thermodynamics and structure of simple liquids. Reference will also be made to existing work on three-dimensional curved space and two-dimensional manifolds with varying curvature. Comment: 66 pages, 15 Figures. Submitted to Adv. Chem. Phys
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the low-temperature regime of an atomic liquid on the hyperbolic plane by means of molecular dynamics simulation and we compare the results to a continuum theory of defects in a negatively curved hexagonal background. In agreement with the theory and previous results on positively curved (spherical) surfaces, we find that the atomic configurations consist of isolated defect structures, dubbed "grain boundary scars," that form around an irreducible density of curvature-induced disclinations in an otherwise hexagonal background. We investigate the structure and the dynamics of these grain boundary scars.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the characteristic length scales associated with the glass transition phenomenon. By studying an atomic glass-forming liquid in negatively curved space, for which the local order is well identified and the amount of frustration opposing the spatial extension of this order is tunable, we provide insight into the structural origin of the main characteristics of the dynamics leading to glass formation. We find that the structural length and the correlation length characterizing the increasing heterogeneity of the dynamics grow together as temperature decreases. However, the system eventually enters a regime in which the former saturates as a result of frustration whereas dynamic correlations keep building up.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Are solids intrinsically different from liquids? Must a finite stress be applied in order to induce flow? Or, instead, do all solids only look rigid on some finite timescales and eventually flow if an infinitesimal shear stress is applied? Surprisingly, these simple questions are a matter of debate and definite answers are still lacking. Here we show that solidity is only a time-scale dependent notion: equilibrium states of matter that break spontaneously translation invariance, e.g. crystals, flow if even an infinitesimal stress is applied. However, they do so in a way inherently different from ordinary liquids since their viscosity diverges for vanishing shear stress with an essential singularity. We find an ultra-slow decrease of the shear stress as a function of the shear rate, which explains the apparent yield stress identified in rheological flow curves. Furthermore, we suggest that an alternating shear of frequency $\omega$ and amplitude $\gamma$ should lead to a dynamic phase transition line in the ($\omega$,$\gamma$) plane, from a 'flowing' to a 'non-flowing' phase. Finally, we apply our results to crystals, show the corresponding microscopic process leading to flow and discuss possible experimental investigations. Comment: to be published in J. Stat. Phys
Journal of Statistical Physics 01/2010; · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study bootstrap percolation (BP) on hyperbolic lattices obtained by regular tilings of the hyperbolic plane. Our work is motivated by the connection between the BP transition and the dynamical transition of kinetically constrained models, which are in turn relevant for the study of glass and jamming transitions. We show that for generic tilings there exists a BP transition at a nontrivial critical density, $0<\rho_c<1$. Thus, despite the presence of loops on all length scales in hyperbolic lattices, the behavior is very different from that on Euclidean lattices where the critical density is either zero or one. Furthermore, we show that the transition has a mixed character since it is discontinuous but characterized by a diverging correlation length, similarly to what happens on Bethe lattices and random graphs of constant connectivity.
Journal of Statistical Physics 07/2009; · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide a consistent statistical-mechanical treatment for describing the thermodynamics and the structure of fluids embedded in the hyperbolic plane. In particular, we derive a generalization of the virial equation relating the bulk thermodynamic pressure to the pair correlation function and we develop the appropriate setting for extending the integral-equation approach of liquid-state theory in order to describe the fluid structure. We apply the formalism and study the influence of negative space curvature on two types of systems that have been recently considered: Coulombic systems, such as the one- and two-component plasma models, and fluids interacting through short-range pair potentials, such as the hard-disk and the Lennard-Jones models. Comment: 25 pages, 10 Figures
Journal of Statistical Mechanics Theory and Experiment 03/2009; · 1.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the influence of space curvature, and of the associated frustration, on the dynamics of a model glass former: a monatomic liquid on the hyperbolic plane. We find that the system's fragility, i.e., the sensitivity of the relaxation time to temperature changes, increases as one decreases the frustration. As a result, curving space provides a way to tune fragility and make it as large as wanted. We also show that the nature of the emerging "dynamic heterogeneities", another distinctive feature of slowly relaxing systems, is directly connected to the presence of frustration-induced topological defects.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study, by molecular dynamics simulation, the slowing down of particle motion in a two-dimensional monatomic model: a Lennard-Jones liquid on the hyperbolic plane. The negative curvature of the embedding space frustrates the long-range extension of the local hexagonal order. As a result, the liquid avoids crystallization and forms a glass. We show that, as temperature decreases, the single-particle motion displays the canonical features seen in real glass-forming liquids: the emergence of a ‘plateau’ at intermediate times in the mean square displacement, and a decoupling between the local relaxation time and the (hyperbolic) diffusion constant.
Philosophical Magazine A 11/2008; 88(Nos. 33-35):4025-4031.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: La frustration géométrique, ou l'impossibilité d'étendre l'ordre local d'un système pour paver l'espace, a été avancée comme une des origines possibles du ralentissement visqueux observé dans les liquides surfondus à l'approche de la transition vitreuse. Nous avons réalisé la première étude d'un modèle microscopique de liquide vitrifiable dans lequel la frustration géométrique est clairement définie et contrôlable: un système de particules monodisperses interagissant via un potentiel de type Lennard-Jones et plongées dans le plan hyperbolique, espace de courbure négative constante. Nous avons suivi l'évolution de la structure et de la dynamique du liquide lorsque la température et la frustration (courbure) varient au moyen de simulations de Dynamique Moléculaire. Pour cela, il nous a fallu généraliser les outils et méthodes utilisés en géométrie Euclidienne, en particulier les conditions aux limites périodiques.
La frustration pouvant être contrôlée, son influence sur le ralentissement visqueux a pu être caractérisée et nous avons mis en évidence le lien direct entre fragilité, caractérisant la dépendance super-Arrhénienne en température du temps de relaxation, et frustration. La relative simplicité du modèle (mono-atomique et bi-dimensionnel) permet d'accéder à l'ordre local, à l'extension de celui-ci au travers de fonctions de corrélation appropriées ainsi que de l'identification et de la visualisation des défauts topologiques et d'étudier sa relation avec la dynamique de relaxation. L'extension de l'ordre local (hexagonal) semble contrôler le ralentissement visqueux, comme prédit par la théorie de la transition vitreuse en termes de frustration. L'étude d'une susceptibilité dynamique à quatre points nous a également permis de mettre en évidence la croissance de la longueur caractéristique liée aux hétérogénéités dynamiques lorsque la température baisse, comme observé expérimentalement dans les systèmes vitrifiables. De manière intéressante, les évolutions des deux longueurs dynamiques et structurales semblent se découpler à basse température.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We provide a framework for building periodic boundary conditions on the pseudosphere (or hyperbolic plane), the infinite two-dimensional Riemannian space of constant negative curvature. Starting from the common case of periodic boundary conditions in the Euclidean plane, we introduce all the required mathematical notions and sketch a classification of periodic boundary conditions on the hyperbolic plane. We stress the possible applications in statistical mechanics for studying the bulk behavior of physical systems, and illustrate how to implement such periodic boundary conditions in two examples, the dynamics of particles on the pseudosphere and the study of classical spins on hyperbolic lattices.
Journal of Physics A Mathematical and Theoretical 10/2007; 40(43):12873. · 1.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. Comment: Text changed, 12 pages, 5 figures