[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) remains a major complication in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Systemic administration of antitransforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) antibody has shown some promise in mouse models of DN. However, chronic blockade of the multifunctional TGB-beta could be problematic. Several downstream effects of TGF-beta are mediated by connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), which is up-regulated in several renal cells and secreted in the urine in the diabetic state. Using murine models of DN (type 1 and type 2) and a CTGF antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) of novel chimeric chemistry, we evaluated the specific role of this target in DN. In the type 1 model of DN, C57BL6 mice were made diabetic using streptozotocin injections and hyperglycemic animals were treated with CTGF ASOs (20 mg/kg/2 qw) for 4 months. ASO, but not mismatch control oligonucleotide, -treated animals showed significant reduction in target CTGF expression in the kidney with a concomitant decrease in proteinuria and albuminuria. Treatment with the CTGF ASO for 8 wk reduced serum creatinine and attenuated urinary albuminuria and proteinuria in diabetic db/db mice, a model of type 2 DN. The ASO also reduced expression of genes involved in matrix expansion such as fibronectin and collagen (I and IV) and an inhibitor of matrix degradation, PAI-1, in the renal cortex, contributing to significant reversal of mesangial expansion in both models of DN. Pathway analyses demonstrated that diabetes-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and its downstream target CREB was also inhibited by the ASO. Our results strongly suggest that blocking CTGF using a chimeric ASO holds substantial promise for the treatment of DN.
The FASEB Journal 11/2007; 21(12):3355-68. DOI:10.1096/fj.06-6713com · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The B7-family molecule CD86, expressed on the surface of pulmonary and thoracic lymph node antigen-presenting cells, delivers essential costimulatory signals for T-cell activation in response to inhaled allergens. CD86-CD28 signaling is involved in priming allergen-specific T cells, but it is unclear whether these interactions play a role in coordinating memory T-helper 2 cell responses. In the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma, administration of CD86-specific antibody before systemic sensitization suppresses inhaled OVA-induced pulmonary inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). In previously OVA-sensitized mice, systemic and intranasal coadministration of CD86 antibody is required to produce these effects. To directly assess the importance of pulmonary CD86 expression in secondary immune responses to inhaled allergens, mice were sensitized and locally challenged with nebulized OVA before treatment with an inhaled aerosolized CD86 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO). CD86 ASO treatment suppressed OVA-induced up-regulation of CD86 protein expression on pulmonary dendritic cells and macrophages as well as on recruited eosinophils. Suppression of CD86 protein expression correlated with decreased methacholine-induced AHR, airway inflammation, and mucus production following rechallenge with inhaled OVA. CD86 ASO treatment reduced BAL eotaxin levels, but it did not reduce CD86 protein on cells in the draining lymph nodes of the lung, and it had no effect on serum IgE levels, suggesting a local and not a systemic effect. These results demonstrate that CD86 expression on pulmonary antigen-presenting cells plays a vital role in regulating pulmonary secondary immune responses and suggest that treatment with an inhaled CD86 ASO may have utility in asthma and other chronic inflammatory lung conditions.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 07/2007; 321(3):938-46. DOI:10.1124/jpet.106.119214 · 3.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 mediate allergic pulmonary inflammation and airways hyperreactivity (AHR) in asthma models through signaling dependent upon the IL-4 receptor-alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha). IL-13 has been further implicated in the overproduction of mucus by the airway epithelium and in lung remodeling that commonly accompanies chronic inflammation. IL-4Ralpha-deficient mice are resistant to allergen-induced asthma, highlighting the therapeutic promise of selective molecular inhibitors of IL-4Ralpha. We designed a chemically modified IL-4Ralpha antisense oligonucleotide (IL-4Ralpha ASO) that specifically inhibits IL-4Ralpha protein expression in lung eosinophils, macrophages, dendritic cells, and airway epithelium after inhalation in allergen-challenged mice. Inhalation of IL-4Ralpha ASO attenuated allergen-induced AHR, suppressed airway eosinophilia and neutrophilia, and inhibited production of airway Th2 cytokines and chemokines in previously allergen-primed and -challenged mice. Histologic analysis of lungs from these animals demonstrated reduced goblet cell metaplasia and mucus staining that correlated with inhibition of Muc5AC gene expression in lung tissue. Therapeutic administration of inhaled IL-4Ralpha ASO in chronically allergen-challenged mice produced a spectrum of anti-inflammatory activity similar to that of systemically administered Dexamethasone with the added benefit of reduced airway neutrophilia. These data support the potential utility of a dual IL-4 and IL-13 oligonucleotide inhibitor in allergy/asthma, and suggest that local inhibition of IL-4Ralpha in the lung is sufficient to suppress allergen-induced pulmonary inflammation and AHR.
American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 04/2007; 36(3):276-85. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2005-0456OC · 3.99 Impact Factor