[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
In view of the prevalence of oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, the loss of low-molecular-weight biomolecules by hemodialysis and the antioxidant potential of some uremic solutes that accumulate in CKD, we used in vitro model systems to test the antioxidant potential of the following uremic solutes: uric acid, hippuric acid, p-cresol, phenol, methylguanidine, L-arginine, L-tyrosine, creatinine and urea.
The in vitro antioxidant efficiencies of the uremic solutes, isolated or in mixtures, were tested with the following assays: i) ABTS radical cation decolorization assay; ii) hypochlorous acid (HOCl/OCl−) scavenging activity; iii) superoxide anion radical (O2•-) scavenging activity; iv) crocin bleaching assay (capture of peroxyl radical, ROO•); v) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity.
Four of the tested uremic solutes (p-cresol, phenol, L-tyrosine, uric acid) were effective antioxidants and their IC50 were found in three model systems: ABTS•+, HOCl/OCl− and crocin bleaching assay. In the 4-solutes mixtures, each one of the solute captured 12.5% for the IC50 of the mixture to ABTS•+ or HOCl/OCl−, exhibiting a virtually exact additive effect. In the 2-solutes mixtures, for ROO• capture, it was observed the need of more mass of uremic solutes to reach an IC50 value that was higher than the projected IC50, obtained from the IC50 of single solutes (25% of each, in the binary mixtures) in the same assay. In model systems for O2•- and H2O2, none of the uremic solutes showed scavenging activity.
The use of the IC50 as an analytical tool to prepare and analyze mixtures allows the determination of their scavenging capacities and may be useful for the assessment of the antioxidant status of biological samples under conditions of altered levels of the endogenous antioxidant network and/or in the employment and monitoring of exogenous antioxidant therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the effect of nicotine on the LDL oxidation by the MPO/H2O2/Cl- system and the effect of HOCl on LDL and some of its components, such as methyl linoleate, vitamin E and the amino acid tryptophan were explored. Nicotine, in micromolar concentrations, enhanced the tryptophan oxidation, either present in LDL or free, in solution. Nicotine also decreased the formation of conjugated dienes and oxygen consumption in a methyl linoleate / HOCl system, and there was evidence to suggest an increase in chlorohydrin formation. Acceleration of the vitamin E oxidation by HOCl was also observed in the presence of nicotine. These data show that the interaction of nicotine and HOCl can promote significant biochemical modifications in LDL particle and some of its components involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and other diseases.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 03/2015; 87(1):183-92. DOI:10.1590/0001-3765201520140156 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study measures the curcumin concentration in rat plasma by liquid chromatography and investigates the changes in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity of streptozotocin-diabetic rats treated with curcumin-enriched yoghurt. The analytical method for curcumin detection was linear from 10 to 500 ng/mL. The and the time to reach () of curcumin in plasma were 3.14 ± 0.9 μg/mL and 5 minutes (10 mg/kg, i.v.) and 0.06 ± 0.01 μg/mL and 14 minutes (500 mg/kg, p.o.). The elimination half-time was 8.64 ± 2.31 (i.v.) and 32.70 ± 12.92 (p.o.) minutes. The oral bioavailability was about 0.47%. Changes in the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were investigated in four groups: normal and diabetic rats treated with yoghurt (NYOG and DYOG, resp.) and treated with 90 mg/kg/day curcumin incorporated in yoghurt (NC90 and DC90, resp.). After 15 days of treatment, the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity were significantly improved in DC90 rats in comparison with DYOG, which can be associated with an increase in the AKT phosphorylation levels and GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscles. These findings can explain, at least in part, the benefits of curcumin-enriched yoghurt to diabetes and substantiate evidences for the curcumin metabolite(s) as being responsible for the antidiabetic activity.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2015; 2015:1-13. DOI:10.1155/2015/678218 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Knowing that curcumin has low bioavailability when administered orally, and that piperine has bioenhancer activity by inhibition of hepatic and intestinal biotransformation processes, the aim of this study was to investigate the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin (90 mg/kg) and piperine (20 or 40 mg/kg), alone or co-administered, incorporated in yoghurt, in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The treatment for 45 days of STZ-diabetic rats with curcumin-enriched yoghurt improved all parameters altered in this experimental model of diabetes: the body weight was increased in association with the weight of skeletal muscles and white adipose tissues; the progressive increase in the glycemia levels was avoided, as well as in the glycosuria, urinary urea, dyslipidemia, and markers of liver (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases and alkaline phosphatase) and kidney (urinary protein) dysfunction; the hepatic oxidative stress was decreased, since the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase and gluthatione peroxidase were increased, and the levels of malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl groups were reduced. The dose of 20 mg/kg piperine also showed antidiabetic and antioxidant activities. The treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with both curcumin and 20 mg/kg piperine in yoghurt did not change the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of curcumin; notably, the treatment with both curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine abrogated the beneficial effects of curcumin. In addition, the alanine aminotransferase levels were further increased in diabetic rats treated with curcumin and 40 mg/kg piperine in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. These findings support that the co-administration of curcumin with a bioenhancer did not bring any advantage to the curcumin effects, at least about the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities, which could be related to changes on its biotransformation.
PLoS ONE 12/2014; 9(12):e113993. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0113993 · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biological activities of flavonoids have been extensively reviewed in literature. The biochemical profile of afzelin, kaempferitrin, and pterogynoside acting on reactive oxygen species was investigated in this paper. The flavonoids were able to act as scavengers of the superoxide anion, hypochlorous acid and taurine chloramine. Although flavonoids are naturally occurring substances in plants which antioxidant activities have been widely advertised as beneficial, afzelin, kaempferitrin, and pterogynoside were able to promote cytotoxic effect. In red blood cells this toxicity was enhanced, depending on flavonoids concentration, in the presence of hypochlorous acid, but reduced in the presence of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane) free radical. These flavonoids had also promoted the death of neutrophils, which was exacerbated when the oxidative burst was initiated by phorbol miristate acetate. Therefore, despite their well-known scavenging action toward free radicals and oxidants, these compounds could be very harmful to living organisms through their action over erythrocytes and neutrophils.
Archives of Pharmacal Research 10/2014; 38(6). DOI:10.1007/s12272-014-0487-1 · 1.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aims: The study investigated the in vivo antioxidant activity and the in vitro radical scavenging capacity of the Combretum lanceolatum Pohl (Combretaceae) flowers ethanolic extract (ClEtOH) in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil; between February 2012 and December 2012.
Methodology: Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Normal rats treated with water/vehicle (N); diabetic rats treated with water (DC); diabetic rats treated with 250 mg/kg (DT250) or with 500mg/kg (DT500) of ClEtOH. After 21 days of treatment, liver samples were used for the analysis of the oxidative stress biomarkers and activity of antioxidant enzymes. In vitro radical scavenger capacity was investigated by the following methods: DPPH radical scavenging, ABTS radical cation decolorization and crocin bleaching assays.
Results: Significant oxidative stress was observed in liver of DC, since the malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation) levels were increased in comparison with N. Increased activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were also observed in DC, which could represent a compensatory mechanism against oxidative stress. Glutathione (GSH) levels were lower and similar between N and DC. The MDA levels were significantly decreased
in liver of rats from DT250 and DT500, reaching levels similar those of N, suggesting that ClEtOH prevented lipoperoxidation. The treatment of diabetic rats with ClEtOH also increased the GSH levels, as well as increased the GSH-Px activity, and did not change the SOD activity. The results of in vitro radical scavenging capacity indicated that ClEtOH is highly active.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that ClEtOH has antioxidant properties in liver of diabetic rats, decreasing lipoperoxidation and increasing the endogenous antioxidant responses. Both the antihyperglycemic effect and the capacity to scavenge free radicals may be related to the antioxidant activity of ClEtOH in diabetes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: To assess the correlations among periodontitis and the salivary activities of the following enzymes: lactate dehydrogenase (LD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, bone isoform (TRAPb).
Method: Individuals without periodontitis (WP; n=26; 36.15±9.92 years old) and with periodontitis (P; n=19; 41.76±9.86 years old) of both genders, non-smoking, healthy. For the diagnosis of periodontitis, the following clinical parameters were evaluated in whole mouth: visible plaque index, probing depth, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment level. It was used collected unstimulated saliva. LD, AST and ALT activities were made by monitoring NADH disappearance at 340nm. MPO activity was determined in the presence of substrates 3,3'-diaminobenzidine and guaiacol and dapsone (inhibitor of salivary peroxidase). SOD activity was determined by monitoring formazan generation at 470nm. TRAPb activity was made by hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate at 405nm in the presence of tartrate and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibitors. Statistical analysis: Student t test, p<0.05.
Result: LD activity was approximately 2-fold increased in P group (1410.29±187.79 U/L) in comparison to WP (671.46±96.57 U/L). The transaminases activities were, for AST, WP: 40.96±6.74 U/L and P: 70.21±12.30 U/L (71% increased); for ALT, WP: 7.38±1.38 U/L and P: 16.13±3.90 U/L (approximately 2-fold increased). MPO activity was significantly increased (50%) in P group (678.58±59.86 U/L) in comparison to WP (450.23±43.37 U/L). The activity of SOD was approximately 2-fold increased in P group when compared to WP (82.94±13.30 U/L and 42.92±7.37 U/L, respectively). TRAPb activities for WP and P groups were, respectively, 1.70±0.33 U/L and 2.86±0.51 U/L.
Conclusion: The LD, AST, ALT, MPO and SOD activities were higher in P group than WP; for TRAPb activity, it was observed only a trend to increased values in P group. The evaluation of these enzymes has a high potential to help in the periodontitis therapeutic monitoring.
92nd General Session and Exhibition of the IADR / IADR Africa/Middle East Regional Meeting, Cape Town, South Africa; 06/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mushrooms possess nutritional and medicinal properties that have long been used for human health preservation and that have been considered by researchers as possible sources of free radical scavengers. In this work, the antioxidant properties of water extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, produced by maceration and decoction, are demonstrated in vitro. Resistance to oxidation is demonstrated through three mechanisms: i) inhibition of enzymatic oxidative process, with 100% inhibition of HRP (horseradish peroxidase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase); ii) inhibition of cellular oxidative stress, with 80% inhibition of the oxidative burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs); and iii) direct action over reactive species, with 62% and 87% suppression of HOCl and superoxide anion radical (O2 ), respectively. From the data, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of A. blazei has significant antioxidant activity, indicating its possible application for nutraceutical and medicinal purposes.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 08/2013; DOI:10.1590/S0001-37652013005000044 · 0.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy (PDT) using Curcumin as photosensitizer for the inactivation of multispecies biofilms formed by Candida albicans (ATCC 90028), Candida glabrata (ATCC 2001) and Streptococcus mutans(ATCC 25175).
Method: Specimens (n=144) of denture base acrylic resin were made with standarded rough surfaces and sterilized in ethylene oxide. Specimens were placed in 24-well microtiter plates. Standard cells suspensions were performed for bacteria (108cells/ml) and yeast (107cells/ml), and aliquots of 500µL of each microorganism were inoculated, and the plates were incubated (1.5h/37°C/75rpm). Then, each sample was washed with PBS, BHI medium was added and plates were incubated (48h/37°C/75rpm) to allow the bioﬁlm growth. After bioﬁlm formation, samples were washed twice with PBS. PDT was performed by the administration of Curcumin (80, 100, 120µM) and exposure to 37,5 J/cm2of LED light (~455 nm). Additional samples were treated with PDZ or LED light only. Positive control samples had neither light nor Curcumin. After PDT colony counts were quantified (CFU/mL), cells metabolism were determined using the XTT assay. The data were statistically analyzed by Kruskall-Wallis and a post hoc Dunn test. Differences were considered statistically significant at p< 0.05.
Result: The association of Curcumin with LED showed significant reduction in the viable cells number (CFU/ml) at concentration of 120 µM for C. albicans (1,01 log10). For C. glabrata and S. mutans the photoinativation was independent at the concentration used when compared with positive control group (~1,00 log10 and~1,12 log10 reduction, respectively). There was significant reduction in cell metabolism for all concentration evaluated (~34%), and no statistical difference among them was obtained. The administration of light and photosensitizer only did not cause any damage in cells.
Conclusion: It was concluded that PDT may represent an alternative treatment for reduce multispecies biofilm.
IADR/AADR/CADR General Session and Exhibition 2013; 03/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 1.743 μg/mL ± 0.063) was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 12/2012; 13(7):9260-77. DOI:10.3390/ijms13079260 · 2.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: he combination of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and pyrazinamide (PYR) is used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Although this treatment is effective in most clinical cases, the side-effects and the development of mycobacterium resistance have hindered its success. There is evidence that the combination of INH, RMP and ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) is useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the influence of this drug combination on the hepatotoxicity of INH is unknown. In this study, the safety of combined INH, RMP and CIPRO was evaluated. Male albino rabbits (n = 20) were divided into four groups and subjected to multiple oral doses for 7 days according to the following treatments: water (group 1); 50 mg/kg INH (group 2); 50 mg/kg INH + 100 mg/kg RMP (group 3) and 50 mg/kg INH + 100 mg/kg RMP + 50 mg/kg CIPRO (group 4). Blood samples were taken before and after treatments for the determination of ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin to assess hepatotoxicity. For pharmacokinetic analysis, serial blood samples were collected over 24 h on day 7 of treatment. Plasma concentrations of INH and acetylisoniazid (AcINH) were determined by HPLC. Biochemical parameters did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups that received the drug combinations. The pharmacokinetic profile of INH was also similar for both groups of combinations. These findings allow us to infer that the inclusion of CIPRO did not increase the risk of hepatotoxicity when compared with the classic combination of INH and RMP.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-irradiation time (PIT) on curcumin (Cur)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) against planktonic and biofilm cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Suspensions and biofilms of Candida species were maintained in contact with different concentrations of Cur for time intervals of 1, 5, 10 and 20min before irradiation and LED (light emitting diode) activation. Additional samples were treated only with Cur, without illumination, or only with light, without Cur. Control samples received neither light nor Cur. After PDT, suspensions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, while biofilm results were obtained using the XTT-salt reduction method. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) observations were performed to supply a better understanding of Cur penetration through the biofilms after 5 and 20min of contact with the cultures. RESULTS: Different PITs showed no statistical differences in Cur-mediated PDT of Candida spp. cell suspensions. There was complete inactivation of the three Candida species with the association of 20.0μM Cur after 5, 10 and 20min of PIT. Biofilm cultures showed significant reduction in cell viability after PDT. In general, the three Candida species evaluated in this study suffered higher reductions in cell viability with the association of 40.0μM Cur and 20min of PIT. Additionally, CLSM observations showed different intensities of fluorescence emissions after 5 and 20min of incubation. CONCLUSION: Photoinactivation of planktonic cultures was not PIT-dependent. PIT-dependence of the biofilm cultures differed among the species evaluated. Also, CLSM observations confirmed the need of higher time intervals for the Cur to penetrate biofilm structures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro investigations of curcumin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) are encouraging, but there is a lack of reliable in vivo evidence of its efficacy. This study describes the photoinactivation of Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidiasis, using curcumin as a photosensitizer. Forty immunosuppressed mice were orally inoculated with C. albicans and after five days, they received topical curcumin (20, 40 and 80 μM) and illumination with LED light. The use of curcumin or light alone were also investigated. Positive control animals did not receive any treatment and negative control animals were not inoculated with C. albicans. The number of surviving yeast cells was determined and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Histological evaluation of the presence of yeast and inflammatory reaction was also conducted. All exposures to curcumin with LED light caused a significant reduction in C. albicans viability after PDT, but the use of 80 μM curcumin associated with light was able to induce the highest log(10) reduction in colony counts (4 logs). It was concluded that curcumin-mediated PDT proved to be effective for in vivo inactivation of C. albicans without harming the host tissue of mice.
Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 08/2012; 51(3). DOI:10.3109/13693786.2012.714081 · 2.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between periodontitis and several traditional and non-traditional risk markers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in healthy subjects.
Method: This case-control study was approved (Res.196/05) by the Ethics Committees in Human Research. Thirty generally healthy non-smoking adults with chronic periodontitis and 30 without, were tested for these risk markers (blood pressure, body mass index, seric levels of C-reactive protein; triglycerides; total cholesterol; lipoproteins: HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol; Framingham cardiovascular risk score; waist/hip ratio; waist circumference; and microalbuminuria) by standard methods. The statistical analysis employed the chi-squared test to test the associations between the periodontitis and cardiac risk classifications and also to compare with their reference intervals, taking into account the frequency of patients in each category. The Student´s t-test evaluated the means of the quantitative variables; the groups were compared by the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test or by taking the logarithms of the data and then applying Student´s t-test to the results. Differences were taken as significant when p < 0.05. The two groups were also separately subjected to multivariate canonical correlation analysis (SAS software), in order to reveal correlations between the canonical variables for the periodontal diagnostic variables (number of teeth; values of probing pocket depth, attachment loss, bleeding on probing; plaque index) and the cardiovascular biomarkers serum and urinary levels, blood pressure and body anthropometric measurements.
Result: Systolic and diastolic blood pressures showed prehypertension in the test group and were significantly correlated with periodontitis. However, the others risk markers were not; the most of values of the biological parameters fell within the reference intervals.
Conclusion: Given the observed association between moderate-severe periodontitis and raised blood pressure, it is possible that periodontitis is related to early events in CVD, but is not sufficiently severe in the test group to cause changes in the other markers studied.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
Data obtained from in vitro investigations of curcumin-mediated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) are encouraging, but the lack of reliable in vivo evidence has not allowed this method to be confirmed as an effective therapy for oral candidiasis. Thus, this study describes the photoinactivation of Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidiasis, using curcumin as a photosensitizer.
Forty five Swiss mice were immunosuppressed, provided tetracycline to their drinking water, and then orally inoculated with a suspension of C. albicans. Five days after oral inoculation, animals belonging to P+L+ groups (animals treated with PDT) received a topical administration of curcumin (20, 40 and 80µM) and illumination with LED light at 37.5J/cm2 (455nm). The use of curcumin or light alone were also investigated (P+L- and P-L+ groups, respectively). Positive control animals did not receive any treatment (P-L- group) and negative control animals were not inoculated with C. albicans. After swabbing to recover yeast from the tongue, the number of surviving yeast cells was determined (CFU/mL) and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). Animals were humanely killed, the tongues surgically removed and processed for histological evaluation of presence of yeast and inﬂammatory reaction.
All associations of curcumin with LED light were able to significantly reduce C. albicans viability after PDT, when compared with the log(CFU/mL) value of P-L- group. The use of 80µM associated with LED light was able promoted the highest log10 reduction in colony counts (over than 4 logs). The colony counts from P-L-, P+L- and P-L+ groups remained constant.
Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that curcumin-mediated PDT proved to be effective for in vivo inactivation of C. albicans without harming the host tissue of mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: This study evaluated the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) on colony growth and metabolism of two Candida species.
Method: Reference strains of Candida tropicalis (ATCC 4563) and Candida glabrata (ATCC 2001) were included in this study. Standard suspensions of each strain were obtained and then 100µL of the suspensions were transferred to 96-well microtiter plates. The samples were photosensitized with 20µM-Curcumin (CUR) and exposed to 5.28, 2.64 and 1.32 J/cm2 of LED light fluence. Control suspensions were treated with CUR only, or not exposed to LED light or CUR. Aliquots of experimental and control samples were serial diluted and plated in duplicate on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar. After plates incubation (37°C for 48 h), colonies were counted and the colony-forming unit per milliliter were calculated (CFU/ml). Metabolic activity of samples was measured by XTT reduction assay. The XTT solution was prepared by adding 1.5ml of XTT in 300µL of menadione solution (0.4M). Then, 12µL of this solution was added to each samples and incubated in dark (37°C/ 3h). After this, the proportional colorimetric changes were analyzed in a microtiter plate reader at 492 nm. The experiments were performed with ten replicates for each condition and data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Dunn test (α=5%).
Result: A significant reduction on C. glabrata growth and metabolism were seen with the use of 2.64 and 5.28J/cm2. Similar findings were found for C. tropicalis, but for this species the metabolism were comparable among the three light fluencies used. The absence of colony growth and cell metabolism were not observed for any Candida species after photodynamic treatment.
Conclusion: Curcumin-mediated PDT proved to be effective to reduce the metabolic activity and colony growth of different Candida species.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy has been investigated as an alternative method of killing pathogens in response to the multiantibiotic resistance problem. This study evaluated the photodynamic effect of curcumin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and L929 fibroblasts. Suspensions of MSSA and MRSA were treated with different concentrations of curcumin and exposed to light-emitting diode (LED). Serial dilutions were obtained from each sample, and colony counts were quantified. For fibroblasts, the cell viability subsequent to the curcumin-mediated photodynamic therapy was evaluated using the MTT assay and morphological changes were assessed by SEM analysis. Curcumin concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 20.0 μM in combination with any tested LED fluences resulted in photokilling of MSSA. However, only the 20.0 μM concentration in combination with highest fluence resulted in photokilling of MRSA. This combination also promoted an 80% reduction in fibroblast cell metabolism and morphological changes were present, indicating that cell membrane was the main target of this phototherapy. The combination of curcumin with LED light caused photokilling of both S. aureus strains and may represent an alternative treatment for eradicating MRSA, responsible for significantly higher morbidity and mortality and increased healthcare costs in institutions and hospitals.
Lasers in Medical Science 02/2012; 28(2). DOI:10.1007/s10103-012-1064-9 · 2.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Evaluar parámetros bioquímicos y fisiológicos en adolescentes del sexo femenino con sobrepeso/obesidad o peso corporal normal y evaluar si factores de riesgo cardiovascular, postulados como componentes del síndrome metabólico, ya están presentes en esa franja de edad. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, habiéndose comparado la totalidad de niñas con edades entre 12 y 18 años, de un colegio de Ribeirão Preto (Brasil), divididas en dos grupos: sobrepeso/obesidad (n=30) y control (n=39). De cada niña, se evaluaron parámetros antropométricos (peso, estatura, pliegues cutáneos, circunferencias del abdomen y de la cadera) y bioquímicos (glucosa, insulina, lipidograma, urea, creatinina, fibrinógeno, PAI-1, ferritina, sodio y microalbuminuria). RESULTADOS: Las adolescentes con sobrepeso/obesidad presentaron niveles mayores de presión arterial, glucosa, triglicéridos, ácido úrico, PAI-1, fibrinógeno e insulina y niveles menores de colesterol-HDL respecto al grupo control. El análisis de alteraciones y formación de clusters de factores de riesgo demostró que el 76,7% de las adolescentes del grupo sobrepeso presentaron dos o más factores de riesgo relacionados al síndrome metabólico, mientras que el 79,5% de las adolescentes del grupo control presentaron ninguna o solamente una alteración. Los parámetros microalbuminuria y ferritina sérica no presentaron alteraciones y diferencias entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: Adolescentes del sexo femenino con sobrepeso/obesidad ya presentan hipertensión, dislipidemias, disfibrinólisis, hiperinsulinemia y clusters de factores de riesgo cardiovascular.
Revista Paulista de Pediatria 12/2011; 30(1):51-56. DOI:10.1590/S0103-05822012000100008
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of prolonged treatment of diabetic rats with curcumin-supplemented yoghurt on the physiological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus. An established metabolic cage model was used to assess these changes in three groups of streptozotocin-diabetic rats which had been administered, by gavage, curcumin blended into yoghurt in the doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight (BW) per d (groups DC30, DC60, DC90) for 31 d. One group of non-diabetic rats was also treated with 90 mg/kg BW per d curcumin (NDC90). Three control groups of diabetic animals received water (DW), yoghurt (DY) and insulin at 27·78 μmol/d by subcutaneous injection (DI). Also, two groups of non-diabetic animals received water (NDW) and yoghurt (NDY). Groups DI and DC90 exhibited significant falls, relative to DW and DY, in food and water intake, urine volume, glycaemia, urinary urea and glucose, proteinuria, serum TAG and activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, and higher hepatic glycogen and BW. These improvements were greater in DI than in DC90. No difference was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol, or in the masses of adipose and muscular tissues, between DC90 and DW or DY. Moreover, the improvements in curcumin-treated rats, relative to DW and DY, were significant and dose-dependent. The NDC90 group also showed no difference from the NDW or NDY groups, in any of the markers for diabetes. In conclusion, curcumin mixed into yoghurt at the highest dose tested exhibited anti-diabetic activity, improving significantly most of the markers assessed in this study.
The British journal of nutrition 11/2011; 108(3):440-8. DOI:10.1017/S0007114511005769 · 3.34 Impact Factor