[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mushrooms possess nutritional and medicinal properties that have long been used for human health preservation and that have been considered by researchers as possible sources of free radical scavengers. In this work, the antioxidant properties of water extracts from Agaricus blazei Murill, produced by maceration and decoction, are demonstrated in vitro. Resistance to oxidation is demonstrated through three mechanisms: i) inhibition of enzymatic oxidative process, with 100% inhibition of HRP (horseradish peroxidase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase); ii) inhibition of cellular oxidative stress, with 80% inhibition of the oxidative burst of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs); and iii) direct action over reactive species, with 62% and 87% suppression of HOCl and superoxide anion radical (O2 ), respectively. From the data, it was concluded that the aqueous extract of A. blazei has significant antioxidant activity, indicating its possible application for nutraceutical and medicinal purposes.
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 08/2013; · 0.85 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-irradiation time (PIT) on curcumin (Cur)-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) against planktonic and biofilm cultures of reference strains of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida dubliniensis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Suspensions and biofilms of Candida species were maintained in contact with different concentrations of Cur for time intervals of 1, 5, 10 and 20min before irradiation and LED (light emitting diode) activation. Additional samples were treated only with Cur, without illumination, or only with light, without Cur. Control samples received neither light nor Cur. After PDT, suspensions were plated on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar, while biofilm results were obtained using the XTT-salt reduction method. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) observations were performed to supply a better understanding of Cur penetration through the biofilms after 5 and 20min of contact with the cultures. RESULTS: Different PITs showed no statistical differences in Cur-mediated PDT of Candida spp. cell suspensions. There was complete inactivation of the three Candida species with the association of 20.0μM Cur after 5, 10 and 20min of PIT. Biofilm cultures showed significant reduction in cell viability after PDT. In general, the three Candida species evaluated in this study suffered higher reductions in cell viability with the association of 40.0μM Cur and 20min of PIT. Additionally, CLSM observations showed different intensities of fluorescence emissions after 5 and 20min of incubation. CONCLUSION: Photoinactivation of planktonic cultures was not PIT-dependent. PIT-dependence of the biofilm cultures differed among the species evaluated. Also, CLSM observations confirmed the need of higher time intervals for the Cur to penetrate biofilm structures.
Archives of oral biology 11/2012; · 1.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: he combination of isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP) and pyrazinamide (PYR) is used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Although this treatment is effective in most clinical cases, the side-effects and the development of mycobacterium resistance have hindered its success. There is evidence that the combination of INH, RMP and ciprofloxacin (CIPRO) is useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. However, the influence of this drug combination on the hepatotoxicity of INH is unknown. In this study, the safety of combined INH, RMP and CIPRO was evaluated. Male albino rabbits (n = 20) were divided into four groups and subjected to multiple oral doses for 7 days according to the following treatments: water (group 1); 50 mg/kg INH (group 2); 50 mg/kg INH + 100 mg/kg RMP (group 3) and 50 mg/kg INH + 100 mg/kg RMP + 50 mg/kg CIPRO (group 4). Blood samples were taken before and after treatments for the determination of ALT, AST, ALP and bilirubin to assess hepatotoxicity. For pharmacokinetic analysis, serial blood samples were collected over 24 h on day 7 of treatment. Plasma concentrations of INH and acetylisoniazid (AcINH) were determined by HPLC. Biochemical parameters did not show any statistically significant differences between the groups that received the drug combinations. The pharmacokinetic profile of INH was also similar for both groups of combinations. These findings allow us to infer that the inclusion of CIPRO did not increase the risk of hepatotoxicity when compared with the classic combination of INH and RMP.
Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition 09/2012; 24. · 2.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In vitro investigations of curcumin-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) are encouraging, but there is a lack of reliable in vivo evidence of its efficacy. This study describes the photoinactivation of Candida albicans in a murine model of oral candidiasis, using curcumin as a photosensitizer. Forty immunosuppressed mice were orally inoculated with C. albicans and after five days, they received topical curcumin (20, 40 and 80 μM) and illumination with LED light. The use of curcumin or light alone were also investigated. Positive control animals did not receive any treatment and negative control animals were not inoculated with C. albicans. The number of surviving yeast cells was determined and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (α = 0.05). Histological evaluation of the presence of yeast and inflammatory reaction was also conducted. All exposures to curcumin with LED light caused a significant reduction in C. albicans viability after PDT, but the use of 80 μM curcumin associated with light was able to induce the highest log(10) reduction in colony counts (4 logs). It was concluded that curcumin-mediated PDT proved to be effective for in vivo inactivation of C. albicans without harming the host tissue of mice.
Medical mycology: official publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 08/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy has been investigated as an alternative method of killing pathogens in response to the multiantibiotic resistance problem. This study evaluated the photodynamic effect of curcumin on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and L929 fibroblasts. Suspensions of MSSA and MRSA were treated with different concentrations of curcumin and exposed to light-emitting diode (LED). Serial dilutions were obtained from each sample, and colony counts were quantified. For fibroblasts, the cell viability subsequent to the curcumin-mediated photodynamic therapy was evaluated using the MTT assay and morphological changes were assessed by SEM analysis. Curcumin concentrations ranging from 5.0 to 20.0 μM in combination with any tested LED fluences resulted in photokilling of MSSA. However, only the 20.0 μM concentration in combination with highest fluence resulted in photokilling of MRSA. This combination also promoted an 80% reduction in fibroblast cell metabolism and morphological changes were present, indicating that cell membrane was the main target of this phototherapy. The combination of curcumin with LED light caused photokilling of both S. aureus strains and may represent an alternative treatment for eradicating MRSA, responsible for significantly higher morbidity and mortality and increased healthcare costs in institutions and hospitals.
Lasers in Medical Science 02/2012; · 2.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological activities of a plant extract depend on a complex sum of individual properties including the antioxidant activity. Several biological activities protect against the harmful action of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and here we focused our attention on the relationship between the biological activities tested and the antioxidant properties. In this study, the total flavonoid content as well as the antioxidant, antimicrobial, hemolytic and cytotoxicity activities of the methanolic extract of Leitothrix spiralis leaves were evaluated. The extract showed a total flavonoid content of 19.26% and the chemical characterization by HPLC-PAD confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major secondary metabolite compounds. Significant antioxidant activity (IC(50) = 1.743 μg/mL ± 0.063) was demonstrated and was effective against Gram-negative organisms and all Candida strains tested, and showed an ability to inhibit hyphal formation. Non-hemolytic and antiproliferative activity could be demonstrated.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(7):9260-77. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJETIVO: Evaluar parámetros bioquímicos y fisiológicos en adolescentes del sexo femenino con sobrepeso/obesidad o peso corporal normal y evaluar si factores de riesgo cardiovascular, postulados como componentes del síndrome metabólico, ya están presentes en esa franja de edad. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal, habiéndose comparado la totalidad de niñas con edades entre 12 y 18 años, de un colegio de Ribeirão Preto (Brasil), divididas en dos grupos: sobrepeso/obesidad (n=30) y control (n=39). De cada niña, se evaluaron parámetros antropométricos (peso, estatura, pliegues cutáneos, circunferencias del abdomen y de la cadera) y bioquímicos (glucosa, insulina, lipidograma, urea, creatinina, fibrinógeno, PAI-1, ferritina, sodio y microalbuminuria). RESULTADOS: Las adolescentes con sobrepeso/obesidad presentaron niveles mayores de presión arterial, glucosa, triglicéridos, ácido úrico, PAI-1, fibrinógeno e insulina y niveles menores de colesterol-HDL respecto al grupo control. El análisis de alteraciones y formación de clusters de factores de riesgo demostró que el 76,7% de las adolescentes del grupo sobrepeso presentaron dos o más factores de riesgo relacionados al síndrome metabólico, mientras que el 79,5% de las adolescentes del grupo control presentaron ninguna o solamente una alteración. Los parámetros microalbuminuria y ferritina sérica no presentaron alteraciones y diferencias entre los grupos. CONCLUSIONES: Adolescentes del sexo femenino con sobrepeso/obesidad ya presentan hipertensión, dislipidemias, disfibrinólisis, hiperinsulinemia y clusters de factores de riesgo cardiovascular.
Revista Paulista de Pediatria 12/2011; 30(1):51-56.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of prolonged treatment of diabetic rats with curcumin-supplemented yoghurt on the physiological and biochemical changes associated with diabetes mellitus. An established metabolic cage model was used to assess these changes in three groups of streptozotocin-diabetic rats which had been administered, by gavage, curcumin blended into yoghurt in the doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg body weight (BW) per d (groups DC30, DC60, DC90) for 31 d. One group of non-diabetic rats was also treated with 90 mg/kg BW per d curcumin (NDC90). Three control groups of diabetic animals received water (DW), yoghurt (DY) and insulin at 27·78 μmol/d by subcutaneous injection (DI). Also, two groups of non-diabetic animals received water (NDW) and yoghurt (NDY). Groups DI and DC90 exhibited significant falls, relative to DW and DY, in food and water intake, urine volume, glycaemia, urinary urea and glucose, proteinuria, serum TAG and activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases, and higher hepatic glycogen and BW. These improvements were greater in DI than in DC90. No difference was observed in the serum levels of total cholesterol or HDL-cholesterol, or in the masses of adipose and muscular tissues, between DC90 and DW or DY. Moreover, the improvements in curcumin-treated rats, relative to DW and DY, were significant and dose-dependent. The NDC90 group also showed no difference from the NDW or NDY groups, in any of the markers for diabetes. In conclusion, curcumin mixed into yoghurt at the highest dose tested exhibited anti-diabetic activity, improving significantly most of the markers assessed in this study.
The British journal of nutrition 11/2011; 108(3):440-8. · 3.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The resistance of Candida species to antifungals represents a major challenge for therapeutic and prophylactic strategies. This study evaluated photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by Curcumin (CUR) against clinical isolates of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata, both in planktonic and biofilm forms.
Suspensions of Candida were treated with three CUR concentrations and exposed to four LED fluences. The protocol that showed the best outcomes for inactivation of the planktonic phase was selected to be evaluated against Candida biofilms. In addition, two higher CUR concentrations were tested. The metabolic activity of biofilms was evaluated by means of XTT reduction assay and the biofilm biomass was evaluated using crystal violet (CV) staining assay. Data were analyzed in a mixed model nested ANOVA, Wilcoxon's nonparametric tests, and the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 5%).
The use of CUR in association with light was able to promote a significant antifungal effect against the planktonic form of the yeasts. When using 40 µM of CUR, the metabolic activity of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis biofilms was reduced by 85%, 85%, and 73%, respectively, at 18 J/cm(2) . CUR-mediated PDT also decreased the biofilm biomass of all species evaluated. In addition, CV staining showed that C. albicans isolates were strong biofilm-forming strains, when compared with C. glabrata and C. tropicalis isolates.
The results from the present investigation showed that low CUR concentrations can be highly effective for inactivating Candida isolates when associated with light excitation.
Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 11/2011; 43(9):927-34. · 2.46 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study describes the association of curcumin with light emitting diode (LED) for the inactivation of Candida albicans. Suspensions of Candida were treated with nine curcumin concentrations and exposed to LED at different fluences. The protocol that showed the best outcomes for Candida inactivation was selected to evaluate the effect of the preirradiation time (PIT) on photodynamic therapy (PDT) effectiveness, the uptake of curcumin by C. albicans cells and the possible involvement of singlet oxygen in the photodynamic action. Curcumin-mediated PDT was also assessed against biofilms. In addition to the microbiological experiments, similar protocols were tested on a macrophage cell line and the effect was evaluated by Methyltetrazolium assay (MTT) and SEM analysis. The optical properties of curcumin were investigated as a function of illumination fluence. When compared with the control group, a statistically significant reduction in C. albicans viability was observed after PDT (P < 0.05), for both planktonic and biofilm cultures. Photodynamic effect was greatly increased with the presence of curcumin in the surrounding media and the PIT of 20 min improved PDT effectiveness against biofilms. Although PDT was phototoxic to macrophages, the therapy was more effective in inactivating the yeast cell than the defense cell. The spectral changes showed a high photobleaching rate of curcumin.
Photochemistry and Photobiology 04/2011; 87(4):895-903. · 2.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess a suggested association between periodontitis and renal insufficiency by assaying kidney disease markers.
VARIABLES USED TO DIAGNOSE PERIODONTITIS WERE: (i) probing pocket depth (PPD), (ii) attachment loss (AL), (iii) bleeding on probing (BOP), (iv) plaque index (PI) and (v) extent and severity index. Blood and urine were collected from 60 apparently healthy non-smokers (men and women), consisting of a test group of 30 subjects with periodontitis (age 46±6 yrs) and a control group of 30 healthy subjects (age 43±5 yrs). Kidney function markers (urea, creatinine, uric acid and albumin contents) were measured in the serum and urine. Also, the glomerular filtration rate was estimated from creatinine clearance, from the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula and from the albumin : creatinine ratio in a 24-h sample of urine.
It was found that the control group had a greater mean number of teeth than the test group and that the two groups also differed in PPD, AL, BOP and PI, all these variables being higher in the test group (P=0.006). For the extent and severity index of both PPD and AL, the test group had much higher medians of both extent and severity than the control group (P=0.001). With regard to kidney function, none of the markers revealed a significant difference between the control and test groups and all measured values fell within the reference intervals.
It is proposed that severe periodontitis is not associated with any alteration in kidney function.
European journal of dentistry. 01/2011; 5(1):8-18.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previously, we have demonstrated that treatment of experimental diabetes with a decoction of Bauhinia forficata leaves is beneficial. In this study, we prepared a two-fold concentrate of this extract and tested its effects on physiological, biochemical and toxicity markers in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Dried and ground leaves were extracted with warm 70% hydroethanol and the filtrate concentrated by evaporation at 50°C. This solution was mixed with colloidal silicon dioxide (Tixosil-333 ®) and dried in a spouted bed (BfT). Rats were treated with water, insulin and Tixosil particles at low or high doses, alone or coated with dried BfT. Animals were periodically weighed and monitored for water and food intake; urinary volume, glucose, urea and protein; blood glucose, serum lipids, liver toxicity markers transaminase and phosphatase and masses of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Insulin treatment gave best rat growth and lowest values for all other markers. No other treatment affected any diabetic marker, but the enzyme activities were changed by diabetes and BfT. Thus, BfT toxicity could arise from secondary products of plant constituents or Tixosil interaction. Therefore, BfT prepared in the spouted bed as described, is unsuitable for treatment of diabetes, which implies that the method of preparation of any medicine is critical for its efficacy and toxicity.
AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY 11/2010; 9:7165-7173. · 0.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two constituents of Pterogyne nitens leaves, kaempferitrin, a diglycosylated flavonol, and galegin, a guanidine alkaloid, may be considered likely to exert an antidiabetic effect, on the basis of their chemical structures. Thus, experimentally diabetic rats were treated with P. nitens leaf extract, to observe the effects on biochemical and toxicological marker variables. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats (50 mg/kg body weight) were given ethanolic extract of the leaves (76 mg suspended in 0.5 mL of 10% aqueous glycerine per rat) (DP) by gavage, twice a day for 32 days. Diabetic controls were given 0.5 mL of 10% glycerine (DG), insulin (2.5 U in 0.3 mL s. c.) (DI) or 0.5 ml water (DW). Initial glycemia was 537.11 ± 10.35 mg/dL. Each week or fortnight after the treatment glucose, urea and protein contents were determined in the urine and glycemia and alkaline phosphatase activity in the serum. Except for proteinuria, the results for groups DP, DG and DW all differed significantly (p < 0.05) from those for group DI, which exhibited reduced values of all the other variables. The plant extract neither improved nor worsened the diabetic state of the rats; nor did it give rise to any hepato-biliary toxic effect.
Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 04/2010; 4:802-808.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astilbin (5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-2,3-dihydroflavonol-3-ß-o-rhamnoside), a flavonoid with a large range of biological activities, was isolated from Dimorphandra mollis, a shrub common to the Brazilian Cerrado. The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of astilbin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and its antioxidant activity against hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and total antioxidant activity (TAC) by the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation (ABTS•+). Astilbin inhibited MPO and HRP activities in a concentration-dependent relationship and effectively scavenged HOCl. The TAC by ABTS•+ of astilbin (IC50 ~ 20 mM) was higher than that of uric acid, which was used as a positive control. These data demonstrate that astilbin is a potent antioxidant and that it inhibits MPO and HRP activities efficiently.
Biological research 01/2010; 43(1):63-74. · 1.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaempferitrin (a flavonoid) and galegin (an alkaloid) have been indicated as hypoglycemic agents. Leaves of Pterogyne nitens, which contain both compounds, might be antidiabetic. We therefore treated diabetic rats with these leaves to observe the effects on their glycemia and physiological variables. Streptozotocin-diabetic rats were given ethanolic extract of the leaves (76 mg in 0.5 mL 10% glycerol) (DTPn), twice a day by gavage for 32 days. Diabetic controls were given 0.5 mL 10% glycerol (DTG), insulin (2.5 U in 0.3 mL) (DTI) or 0.5 mL water (DTA). During this treatment, we measured level of glycemia, the body weight, daily food and water intake and urine volume, once each week. The results for the DTPn, DTG and DTA groups all differed significantly from these for the DTI group. The latter exhibited greater body weights and lower physiological variables and glycemia than the groups DTPn, DTG and DTA, all of which gave similar results. From the data for DTI rats, we conclude that the study model was appropriate. Therefore, the plant extract (plus glycerol) neither improved nor worsened the diabetic state of the rats. It is possible that this plant might ameliorate diabetes experimental if the dose of extract, treatment route or severity of induced diabetes were altered.
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 06/2009; 19(2A):412-417. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine, in a group of eutrophic children and adolescents, the values of fasting leptinemia and its correlation with age and body mass index.
A cross-sectional study conducted in two public schools in Ribeirao Preto, Brazil. Anthropometric measurements and venous blood samples were obtained for determination of fasting leptinemia of 448 eutrophic and medium mature children and adolescents, of both genders, aged between 7 and 17.9 years. Using the Mann-Whitney test, comparisons were made between the concentrations obtained for boys and girls in each age group. Subsequently, using the Kruskal-Wallis test, values were compared in each age group and, using the Spearman correlation test, the correlations between fasting leptinemia and age and between fasting leptinemia and the z-scores of body mass index were assessed.
Fasting leptinemia values differed between boys and girls in all age groups and it was higher for girls. Among boys, the values of leptinemia did not show statistically significant variation; among girls, there was variability, with gradual increase according to age group. The correlation study showed positive correlation between leptinemia and z-scores of body mass index in both genders and between leptinemia and age only for girls.
The data show the necessity of establishing reference curves for fasting leptinemia taking into account gender age and body mass index.
Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira 12/2008; 55(4):463-7. · 0.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extracts and decoctions of Eugenia jambolana. Lam., Eugenia uniflora. L., and Eugenia punicifolia. (Humb., Bonpl. & Kunt) DC. are used in traditional medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. Although there have been reports that Eugenia jambolana. and Eugenia uniflora. have antidiabetic effects, no study has yet been made on Eugenia punicifolia.. We investigated the effects of aqueous, butanol, and methanol extracts of Eugenia punicifolia. leaves administered by gavage to streptozotocin-diabetic rats for 26 to 29 days. Body weight, food and fluid intake, urine volume, and urinary glucose and urea were evaluated every 7 days. At the end of the experiment, we measured serum cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides and bilirubin, hepatic glycogen and serum marker-enzymes (alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, alkaline phosphatase, γ.-glutamyltransferase, L-lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, α.-amylase, and angiotensin I converting enzyme). We found that in rats treated with the aqueous extracts, food and liquid intake, urinary volume, and body weight were all reduced, while for rats treated with the methanol extract, not only were liquid intake, urinary volume and body weight reduced, but urinary glucose and urea also decreased. Rats treated with the butanol extract showed no significant alterations in any of the parameters measured. Chronic treatment with extracts had no effect on the marker enzymes nor on serum bilirubin levels. The results indicate that aqueous extracts of Eugenia punicifolia. leaves produced an anorexic effect and that methanol extracts had a beneficial effect on the diabetic state by improving carbohydrate and protein metabolism without provoking hepatobiliary, microvascular, muscular, or pancreatic toxic effects.