[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerotic changes associated with dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease risk are believed to begin in childhood. While previous studies have linked added sugars consumption to low high-density lipoprotein (HDL), little is known about the long-term impact of this consumption. This study aims to assess the association between added sugars intake and HDL cholesterol levels during adolescence, and whether this association is modified by obesity.
We used data from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's Growth and Health Study, a 10-year cohort study of non-Hispanic Caucasian and African-American girls (N=2379) aged 9 and 10 years at baseline recruited from 3 sites in 1987-1988 with biennial plasma lipid measurement and annual assessment of diet using a 3-day food record. Added sugars consumption was dichotomized into low (0% to <10% of total energy) and high (≥10% of total energy). In a mixed model controlling for obesity, race, physical activity, smoking, maturation stage, age, and nutritional factors, low compared with high added sugar consumption was associated with a 0.26 mg/dL greater annual increase in HDL levels (95% CI 0.48 to 0.04; P=0.02). Over the 10-year study period, the model predicted a mean increase of 2.2 mg/dL (95% CI 0.09 to 4.32; P=0.04) among low consumers, and a 0.4 mg/dL decrease (95% CI -1.32 to 0.52; P=0.4) among high consumers. Weight category did not modify this association (P=0.45).
Low added sugars consumption is associated with increasing HDL cholesterol levels throughout adolescence.
Journal of the American Heart Association 12/2014; 3(1):e000615. DOI:10.1161/JAHA.113.000615
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background/Objectives:Although single, high doses of vitamin D effectively maintain vitamin D sufficiency in several populations, no studies have evaluated healthy adults over winter, during which vitamin D status declines. This study investigated whether high-dose vitamin D3 given once to healthy adults before winter will (1) prevent the wintertime decline in vitamin D status, (2) promote vitamin D sufficiency 1 year following the dose and (3) prevent the rise of parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations.Subjects/Methods:In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we assessed plasma 25(OH)D and PTH concentrations at baseline, 5, 90 and 365 days after drug administration in 28 healthy adults. In all, >80% of subjects returned at each time point.Results:At baseline, the young, healthy participants had a mean plasma 25(OH)D concentration of 17.5±6.1 ng/ml. Only two subjects exhibited plasma 25(OH)D concentrations >30 ng/ml. At 5 days, subjects randomized to vitamin D3 had a higher mean plasma 25(OH)D concentration compared with the placebo group (39.1 vs 19.1 ng/ml, P<0.001). Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations returned to baseline at 90 and 365 days in the vitamin D3 group and remained unchanged in the placebo group. PTH and calcium concentrations were unrelated to changes in 25(OH)D levels and similar between groups over time.Conclusions:A dose of 250 000 IU of vitamin D3 given once in November resulted in a robust increase in plasma 25(OH)D after 5 days, but it was unable to sustain this increase after 90 days. A larger or more frequent dosing regimen may be needed for long-term vitamin D sufficiency.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 1 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ejcn.2014.209.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2014; 69(2). DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2014.209 · 2.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Pancreatic insufficiency is common in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and leads to malabsorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Multivitamins, including vitamins A, D, E, and K, are routinely prescribed to patients with CF to prevent vitamin deficiencies. Our objective was to examine the relationship between fat-soluble vitamin supplements and their impact on blood concentrations. Methods: This was a retrospective chart review of patients with CF who were treated at Emory Clinic and Emory University Hospital during 2008-2012. The amount of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation, serum markers of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations, CF transmembrane conductance regulator genotype, and other demographic information were recorded from electronic medical records. Mixed-effects models were used to investigate the trends over time of fat-soluble vitamin supplements and serum vitamin concentrations. Results: In total, 177 charts were eligible. Mean (SD) age was 26.1 (10.2) years. Ninety-two percent of patients had pancreatic insufficiency and 52% had the homozygous ΔF508 mutation. Recorded fat-soluble vitamin supplementation increased in the past 5 years (P < .001 for all). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D increased slightly (3% increase; P < .01); however, there were no changes in the blood concentrations of vitamins A, E, and K (P = .26-.96). Conclusions: Despite a near doubling of recorded fat-soluble vitamin supplementation over the past 5 years, there was no parallel increase in blood concentrations of these vitamins. Potential reasons include suboptimal dosages, low adherence, or ongoing issues with malabsorption.
Nutrition in Clinical Practice 04/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.1177/0884533614530170 · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Redox status and inflammation are important in the pathophysiology of numerous chronic diseases. Epidemiological studies have linked vitamin D status to a number of chronic diseases. We aimed to examine the relationships between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and circulating thiol/disulfide redox status and biomarkers of inflammation. DesignThis was a cross-sectional study of N=693 adults (449 females, 244 males) in an apparently healthy, working cohort in Atlanta, GA. Plasma glutathione (GSH), cysteine (Cys), and their associated disulfides were determined with high performance liquid chromatography, and their redox potentials (Eh GSSG and Eh CySS) were calculated using the Nernst equation. Serum inflammatory markers included interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor-α, assayed on a multiplex platform; and C-reactive protein (CRP), assayed commercially. Relationships were assessed with multiple linear regression analyses. ResultsSerum 25(OH)D was positively associated with plasma GSH (β ± SE: 0.002 ± 0.0004) and negatively associated with plasma Eh GSSG (β ± SE: -0.06 ± 0.01) and Cys (β ± SE: -0.01 ± 0.003) (P<0.001 for all); statistical significance remained after adjusting for age, gender, and race, percent body fat, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.01-0.02). The inverse relationship between serum 25(OH)D and CRP was confounded by percent body fat, and full adjustment for covariates attenuated serum 25(OH)D relationships with other inflammatory markers to non-statistical significance. Conclusions
Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were independently associated with major plasma thiol/disulfide redox systems, suggesting that vitamin D status may be involved in redox-mediated pathophysiology.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Traditional cardiovascular risk factors lead to endothelial injury and activation of leucocytes and platelets that initiate and propagate atherosclerosis. We proposed that clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD imparts a pleiotropic effect that extends beyond anti-platelet aggregation to other athero-protective processes.
Forty-one subjects were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to either clopidogrel 75 mg daily or placebo for 6-weeks, and then transitioned immediately to the other treatment for an additional 6 weeks. We assessed 1) endothelial function as flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery, 2) arterial stiffness and central augmentation index using applanation tonometry, 3) vascular function as fingertip reactive hyperemia index, 4) inflammation by measuring plasma CD40 ligand and serum high-sensitivity c-reactive protein levels, 5) oxidative stress by measuring plasma aminothiols, and 6) circulating progenitor cells, at baseline and at the end of each 6-week treatment period.
Clopidogrel therapy resulted in a significant reduction in soluble CD40 ligand (p=0.03), a pro-thrombotic and pro-inflammatory molecule derived mainly from activated platelets. However, clopidogrel therapy had no effect on endothelial function, arterial stiffness, inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, or progenitor cells.
Our findings suggest a solitary anti-platelet effect of clopidogrel therapy in patients with stable CAD, with no effect on other sub-clinical markers of cardiovascular disease risk.
Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 12/2013; DOI:10.1097/FJC.0000000000000057 · 2.83 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Many patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) have walking impairment despite therapy. Experimental studies in animals demonstrate improved perfusion in ischemic hind limb after mobilization of bone marrow progenitor cells (PCs), but whether this is effective in patients with PAD is unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether therapy with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) improves exercise capacity in patients with intermittent claudication. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS In a phase 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 159 patients (median [SD] age, 64  years; 87% male, 37% with diabetes) with intermittent claudication were enrolled at medical centers affiliated with Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia, between January 2010 and July 2012. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomized (1:1) to received 4 weeks of subcutaneous injections of GM-CSF (leukine), 500 μg/day 3 times a week, or placebo. Both groups were encouraged to walk to claudication daily. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was peak treadmill walking time (PWT) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes were PWT at 6 months and changes in circulating PC levels, ankle brachial index (ABI), and walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) and 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores. RESULTS Of the 159 patients randomized, 80 were assigned to the GM-CSF group. The mean (SD) PWT at 3 months increased in the GM-CSF group from 296 (151) seconds to 405 (248) seconds (mean change, 109 seconds [95% CI, 67 to 151]) and in the placebo group from 308 (161) seconds to 376 (182) seconds (change of 56 seconds [95% CI, 14 to 98]), but this difference was not significant (mean difference in change in PWT, 53 seconds [95% CI, -6 to 112], P = .08). At 3 months, compared with placebo, GM-CSF improved the physical functioning subscore of the SF-36 questionnaire by 11.4 (95% CI, 6.7 to 16.1) vs 4.8 (95% CI, -0.1 to 9.6), with a mean difference in change for GM-CSF vs placebo of 7.5 (95% CI, 1.0 to 14.0; P = .03). Similarly, the distance score of the WIQ improved by 12.5 (95% CI, 6.4 to 18.7) vs 4.8 (95% CI, -0.2 to 9.8) with GM-CSF compared with placebo (mean difference in change, 7.9 [95% CI, 0.2 to 15.7], P = .047). There were no significant differences in the ABI, WIQ distance and speed scores, claudication onset time, or mental or physical component scores of the SF-36 between the groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Therapy with GM-CSF 3 times a week did not improve treadmill walking performance at the 3-month follow-up. The improvements in some secondary outcomes with GM-CSF suggest that it may warrant further study in patients with claudication. TRIAL REGISTRATION clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01041417.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 11/2013; 310(24). DOI:10.1001/jama.2013.282540 · 29.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Mental stress provokes myocardial ischemia in many patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia (MSIMI) portends a worse prognosis, independent of standard cardiac risk factors or outcome of traditional physical stress testing. Angiotensin II plays a significant role in the physiological response to stress, but its role in MSIMI remains unknown. Our aim was to evaluate whether the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) is associated with a differential effect on the incidence of MSIMI compared with ischemia during physical stress.Methods
Retrospective analysis of 218 patients with stable CAD, including 110 on ACEI, was performed. 99m-Tc-sestamibi myocardial perfusion imaging was used to define ischemia during mental stress, induced by a standardized public speaking task, and during physical stress, induced by either exercise or adenosine.ResultsOverall, 40 patients (18%) developed MSIMI and 80 patients (37%) developed ischemia during physical stress. MSIMI occurred less frequently in patients receiving ACEIs (13%) compared with those not on ACEIs (24%; p = .030, adjusted odds ratio = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.19-0.91). In contrast, the frequency of myocardial ischemia during physical stress testing was similar in both groups (39% versus 35% in those on and not on ACEIs, respectively); adjusted odds ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval = 0.48-1.73).Conclusion
In this retrospective study, patients using ACEI therapy displayed less than half the risk of developing ischemia during mental stress but not physical stress. This possible beneficial effect of ACEIs on MSIMI may be contributing to their salutary effects in CAD.
Psychosomatic Medicine 10/2013; 75(9). DOI:10.1097/PSY.0000000000000015 · 4.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Compared with whites, black Americans suffer from a disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that racial differences in the prevalence of CVD could be attributed, in part, to impaired vascular function in blacks after adjustment for differences in risk factor burden.
We assessed vascular function in 385 black and 470 white subjects (mean age, 48±11 years; 45% male). Using digital pulse amplitude tonometry (EndoPAT) we estimated the reactive hyperemia index (RHI), a measure of microvascular endothelial function, and peripheral augmentation index (PAT-AIx). Central augmentation index (C-AIx) and pulse-wave velocity (PWV) were measured as indices of wave reflections and arterial stiffness, respectively, using applanation tonometry (Sphygmocor). Compared with whites, blacks had lower RHI (2.1±0.6 versus 2.3±0.6, P<0.001), greater arterial wave reflections assessed as both PAT-AIx (20.4±21.5 versus 17.0±22.4, P=0.01) and CAIx (20.8±12.3 versus 17.5±13.3, P=0.001), and greater arterial stiffness, measured as PWV (7.4±1.6 versus 7.1±1.6 m/s, P=0.001). After adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors, black race remained a significant predictor of lower RHI and higher PAT-AIx and CAIx (all P<0.001) in all subjects and of higher PWV in men (P=0.01). Furthermore, these associations persisted in a subgroup analysis of "healthy" individuals free of CVD risk factors.
Black race is associated with impaired microvascular vasodilatory function, and greater large arterial wave reflections and stiffness. Because impairment in these vascular indices may be associated with worse long-term outcomes, they may represent underlying mechanisms for the increased CVD risk in blacks.
Journal of the American Heart Association 02/2013; 2(2):e002154. DOI:10.1161/JAHA.112.002154
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Since switching to the COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HIV-1 Test, v. 1.0 from the Amplicor HIV-1 Monitor Test, v. 1.5, an increase in detectable viral load results was noted. We were concerned that this was due to the use of Plasma Preparation Tubes (PPT) in this test. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of different pre-analytical processing conditions on HIV-1 viral load results on the COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HIV-1 Test. STUDY DESIGN: Sixty-three HIV-infected patients were consented and had 3 PPTs and 1 K(2)EDTA drawn for HIV-1 viral load testing. Three methods of PPT processing were compared against the referent K(2)EDTA tube which was spun at 1100×g for 20min, poured off and frozen; PPT1 was refrigerated with an additional centrifugation prior to testing, PPT2 was processed similarly to EDTA, and PPT3 was centrifuged, frozen and centrifuged again prior to testing. RESULTS: PPT1 and PPT3 yielded results that were most similar to the referent EDTA processing, with a concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of 0.80 and 0.85, compared to PPT2 with CCC of 0.37. Both PPT1 and PPT3 involved additional centrifugation prior to testing. In 26 patients with residual samples from the PPT2 processing, 9 (34.6%) were found to have the presence of proviral DNA, which likely contributed to the elevated HIV-1 RNA viral loads in these individuals. CONCLUSION: PPTs can be used in the COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HIV-1 Test with an additional centrifugation in order to avoid misleading elevated HIV-1 RNA viral loads that may change patient management.
Journal of clinical virology: the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology 01/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jcv.2012.12.015 · 3.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a discrepancy between the marked reduction in adverse events with statins and their modest effect on atheroma regression. We hypothesized that, in a Western population, high-dose atorvastatin will result in alterations in coronary atheroma composition, phenotype, and microvascular function.
Serial coronary radiofrequency intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS), coronary flow reserve (CFR), and hyperemic microvascular resistance (HMR) were performed at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin in 20 patients with moderate coronary artery disease (CAD). For each VH-IVUS frame (n = 2249), changes in total plaque atheroma, composition, and phenotype (pathological intimal thickening, fibrotic plaque, fibroatheroma), and serial remodeling were assessed.
Total serum cholesterol decreased from 186.0 mg/dL (interquartile range [IQR], 168.0 to 212.5 mg/dL) to 139.0 mg/dL (IQR, 124.3 to 151.3 mg/dL). Percent atheroma volume did not change significantly (-0.5% [IQR, -2.8% to 3.7%]; P=.90) and serial remodeling analysis demonstrated 40% constrictive, 24% incomplete, and 36% expansive patterns. There was a trend toward lower percent fibrous tissue (-3.47 ± 1.78%; P=.07) and percent fibro-fatty tissue (-2.52 ± 1.24%; P=.06) and increase in percent necrotic core (+2.74 ± 1.65%; P=.11) and percent dense calcium (+1.99 ± 0.81; P=.02), which translated into significantly less pathological intimal thickening (4% vs 12%; P<.0001) and more fibroatheromas (67% vs 57%; P<.0001) at follow-up compared to baseline. There were modest non-significant improvements in CFR (+0.26 [IQR, -0.37 to 0.76]; P=.23) and HMR (-0.22 [IQR, -0.56 to 0.28]; P=.12).
In this pilot study of Western patients with moderate CAD, high-dose atorvastatin resulted in alterations in coronary atheroma composition with corresponding changes in plaque phenotype and modest improvement in coronary microvascular function.
The Journal of invasive cardiology 10/2012; 24(10):522-9. · 1.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Extremes of wall shear stress (WSS) have been associated with plaque progression and transformation, which has raised interest in the clinical assessment of WSS. We hypothesized that calculated coronary WSS is predicted only partially by luminal geometry and that WSS is related to plaque composition.
Twenty-seven patients with coronary artery disease underwent virtual histology intravascular ultrasound and Doppler velocity measurement for computational fluid dynamics modeling for WSS calculation in each virtual histology intravascular ultrasound segment (N=3581 segments). We assessed the association of WSS with plaque burden and distribution and with plaque composition. WSS remained relatively constant across the lower 3 quartiles of plaque burden (P=0.08) but increased in the highest quartile of plaque burden (P<0.001). Segments distal to lesions or within bifurcations were more likely to have low WSS (P<0.001). However, the majority of segments distal to lesions (80%) and within bifurcations (89%) did not exhibit low WSS. After adjustment for plaque burden, there was a negative association between WSS and percent necrotic core and calcium. For every 10 dynes/cm(2) increase in WSS, percent necrotic core decreased by 17% (P=0.01), and percent dense calcium decreased by 17% (P<0.001). There was no significant association between WSS and percent of fibrous or fibrofatty plaque components (P=NS).
IN PATIENTS WITH CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE: (1) Luminal geometry predicts calculated WSS only partially, which suggests that detailed computational techniques must be used to calculate WSS. (2) Low WSS is associated with plaque necrotic core and calcium, independent of plaque burden, which suggests a link between WSS and coronary plaque phenotype. (J Am Heart Assoc. 2012;1:e002543 doi: 10.1161/JAHA.112.002543.).
Journal of the American Heart Association 08/2012; 1(4):e002543. DOI:10.1161/JAHA.112.002543
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to facilitate interpretation of (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) diuretic scans by identifying key interpretative variables and developing a predictive model for computer-assisted diagnosis.
Ninety-seven studies were randomly selected from an archived database of MAG3 baseline and furosemide acquisitions and scan interpretations (obstruction, equivocal finding, or no obstruction) derived from a consensus of three experts. Sixty-one studies (120 kidneys) were randomly chosen to build a predictive model for diagnosing or excluding obstruction. The other 36 studies (71 kidneys) composed the validation group. The probability of normal drainage (no obstruction) at the baseline acquisition and the probability of no obstruction, equivocal finding, or obstruction after furosemide administration were determined by logistic regression analysis and proportional odds modeling of MAG3 renographic data.
The single most important baseline variable for excluding obstruction was the ratio of postvoid counts to maximum counts. Renal counts in the last minute of furosemide acquisition divided by the maximum baseline acquisition renal counts and time to half-maximum counts after furosemide administration in a pelvic region of interest were the critical variables for determining obstruction. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for predicting normal drainage in the validation sample was 0.93 (standard error, 0.02); sensitivity, 85%; specificity, 93%. The AUC for the diagnosis of obstruction after furosemide administration was 0.84 (standard error, 0.06); sensitivity, 82%; specificity, 83%.
A predictive system has been developed that provides a promising computer-assisted diagnosis approach to the interpretation of MAG3 diuretic renal scans; this system has also identified the key variables required for scan interpretation.
American Journal of Roentgenology 08/2011; 197(2):325-33. DOI:10.2214/AJR.10.5909 · 2.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) software is best evaluated by comparison to a gold standard which represents the true status of disease. In many settings, however, knowledge of the true status of disease is not possible and accuracy is evaluated against the interpretations of an expert panel. Common statistical approaches to evaluate accuracy include receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and kappa analysis but both of these methods have significant limitations and cannot answer the question of equivalence: Is the CAD performance equivalent to that of an expert? The goal of this study is to show the strength of log-linear analysis over standard ROC and kappa statistics in evaluating the accuracy of computer-aided diagnosis of renal obstruction compared to the diagnosis provided by expert readers.
Log-linear modeling was utilized to analyze a previously published database that used ROC and kappa statistics to compare diuresis renography scan interpretations (non-obstructed, equivocal, or obstructed) generated by a renal expert system (RENEX) in 185 kidneys (95 patients) with the independent and consensus scan interpretations of three experts who were blinded to clinical information and prospectively and independently graded each kidney as obstructed, equivocal, or non-obstructed.
Log-linear modeling showed that RENEX and the expert consensus had beyond-chance agreement in both non-obstructed and obstructed readings (both p < 0.0001). Moreover, pairwise agreement between experts and pairwise agreement between each expert and RENEX were not significantly different (p = 0.41, 0.95, 0.81 for the non-obstructed, equivocal, and obstructed categories, respectively). Similarly, the three-way agreement of the three experts and three-way agreement of two experts and RENEX was not significantly different for non-obstructed (p = 0.79) and obstructed (p = 0.49) categories.
Log-linear modeling showed that RENEX was equivalent to any expert in rating kidneys, particularly in the obstructed and non-obstructed categories. This conclusion, which could not be derived from the original ROC and kappa analysis, emphasizes and illustrates the role and importance of log-linear modeling in the absence of a gold standard. The log-linear analysis also provides additional evidence that RENEX has the potential to assist in the interpretation of diuresis renography studies.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: HIV-awareness programs tailored toward the needs of rural communities are needed. We sought to quantify change in HIV knowledge in three rural Nigerian villages following an integrated culturally adapted and technology assisted educational intervention.
A prospective 14-week cohort study was designed to compare short-term changes in HIV knowledge between seminar-based education program and a novel program, which capitalized on the rural culture of small-group oral learning and was delivered by portable digital-audio technology.
Participants were mostly Moslem (99%), male (53.5%), with no formal education (55%). Baseline HIV knowledge was low (<80% correct answers for 9 of the 10 questions). Knowledge gain was higher (p < 0.0001 for 8 of 10 questions) in the integrated culturally adapted and technology-facilitated (n = 511) compared with the seminar-based (n = 474) program.
Baseline HIV-awareness was low. Culturally adapted, technology-assisted HIV education program is a feasible cost-effective method of raising HIV awareness among low-literacy rural communities.
BMC International Health and Human Rights 02/2010; 10:2. DOI:10.1186/1472-698X-10-2 · 1.44 Impact Factor
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[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to compare diuresis renography scan interpretation generated by a renal expert system with the consensus interpretation of 3 expert readers.
The expert system was evaluated in 95 randomly selected furosemide-augmented patient studies (185 kidneys) obtained for suspected obstruction; there were 55 males and 40 females with a mean age +/- SD of 58.6 +/- 16.5 y. Each subject had a baseline (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ((99m)Tc-MAG3) scan followed by furosemide administration and a separate 20-min acquisition. Quantitative parameters were automatically extracted from baseline and furosemide acquisitions and forwarded to the expert system for analysis. Three experts, unaware of clinical information, independently graded each kidney as obstructed/probably obstructed, equivocal, and probably nonobstructed/nonobstructed; experts resolved differences by a consensus reading. These 3 expert categories were compared with the obstructed, equivocal, and nonobstructed interpretations provided by the expert system. Agreement was assessed using weighted kappa, and the predictive accuracy of the expert system compared with expert readers was assessed by the area under receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve) curves.
The expert system agreed with the consensus reading in 84% (101/120) of nonobstructed kidneys, in 92% (33/36) of obstructed kidneys, and in 45% (13/29) of equivocal kidneys. The weighted kappa between the expert system and the consensus reading was 0.72 and was comparable with the weighted kappa between experts. There was no significant difference in the areas under the ROC curves when the expert system was compared with each expert using the other 2 experts as the gold standard.
The renal expert system showed good agreement with the expert interpretation and could be a useful educational and decision support tool to assist physicians in the diagnosis of renal obstruction. To better mirror the clinical setting, algorithms to incorporate clinical data must be designed, implemented, and tested.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 03/2008; 49(2):216-24. DOI:10.2967/jnumed.107.045484 · 5.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the efficacy of cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in raising serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH)]D) levels and reducing parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
In this double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study, participants with CKD stage 3 and 4 (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m2), vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D <30 ng/mL), and serum intact PTH levels >70 pg/mL were randomly assigned to receive either 50 000 IU of cholecalciferol or placebo once weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes (25[OH]D and PTH levels) were measured at baseline, week 6, and week 12. Secondary outcomes (1,25-dihydroxvitamin D and bone turnover markers) were measured at baseline and week 12. Because of skewed data distribution, statistical analyses were performed on a logarithmic scale. The difference between the group means was exponentiated to provide the geometric mean ratio. A linear mixed model using an unstructured variance-covariance matrix was used to examine change in the primary and secondary outcomes over time.
Geometric mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations of the study groups were similar at baseline (P = .77). At week 6, a significant difference between the treatment and placebo groups was detected (P = .001); this difference was maintained at week 12 (P = .002). Among cholecalciferol-treated participants, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased on average from 17.3 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.8-25.2) at baseline to 49.4 ng/mL (95% CI, 33.9-72.0) at week 12. As-treated analysis indicated a trend toward lower PTH levels among cholecalciferol-treated participants (P = .07).
Weekly cholecalciferol supplementation appears to be an effective treatment to correct vitamin D status in patients with CKD.
Endocrine Practice 01/2008; 14(1):10-7. DOI:10.4158/EP.14.1.10 · 2.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the impact of sex on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir. Interaction between lopinavir/ritonavir and tenofovir was also evaluated. Steady-state plasma samples were obtained from virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients on lopinavir/ritonavir 800/200-mg soft gel capsule taken once daily. Drug assays were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters estimated by noncompartmental method were reported as 90% confidence intervals (CIs) about the geometric mean ratio (GMR). There were 9 males and 11 females. No sex differences were observed in lopinavir/ritonavir pharmacokinetics profile. The GMR(sex) (women compared with men) for lopinavir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC(24)), maximum concentration (C(max)), and minimum concentration (C(min)) was 0.95 (90% CI, 0.70-1.29), 0.88 (90% CI, 0.67-1.15), and 1.27 (90% CI, 0.60-2.66), respectively. Similarly, the GMR(sex) for ritonavir AUC(24), C(max), and C(min) was 0.84 (90% CI, 0.57-1.24), 0.79 (90% CI, 0.50-1.22), and 1.02 (90% CI, 0.58-1.80), respectively. Tenofovir coadministration led to a reduction in lopinavir/ritonavir plasma exposure, giving a lopinavir GMR(tenofovir) for C(max) of 0.72 (90% CI, 0.57-0.93) and AUC(24) of 0.74 (90% CI, 0.56-0.98), respectively. No difference in lopinavir/ritonavir plasma concentrations between sexes was demonstrated in this study. However, tenofovir coadministration lowered lopinavir/ritonavir plasma exposure.
The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 09/2007; 47(8):970-7. DOI:10.1177/0091270007302564 · 2.47 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Decision support systems have the capacity to improve diagnostic performance and reduce physician errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of classification and regression trees (CART) with bootstrap aggregation as a decision support system in the baseline plus furosemide (F + 20) diuresis renography protocol to determine when obstruction can be excluded without the furosemide acquisition and to identify the key parameters for making this determination.
Patients with suspected ureteral obstruction were randomly assigned to a training set (80 patients, 157 kidneys) and a validation set (64 patients, 124 kidneys). Forty quantitative parameters (curve parameters, MAG3 clearance and voiding indices) were generated from each baseline Tc-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) scan. Three expert readers independently evaluated each kidney regarding the need for furosemide and resolved differences by majority vote. CART with bootstrap aggregation was applied to the training set to generate prediction algorithms which were tested in the validation set.
The algorithm agreed with the expert decision on the necessity of furosemide in 90% (111 of 124 kidneys), with misclassification rates of 10.0% and 10.9% for the left and right kidneys, respectively. The most important discriminators were the postvoid-to-maximum count ratio, the cortical 20-minute-to-maximum count ratio, and the postvoid-to-1-to-2-minute count ratio.
CART can identify the key parameters for discriminating between nonobstruction and possible obstruction, has the potential to serve as a decision support tool to avoid unnecessary furosemide imaging, and can be applied to more complex imaging problems.