[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to
defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and
death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the
treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment
of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly
important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives
and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants
were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000
Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro
(LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one
elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of
insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa
, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioi-dea,Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus
, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be ecommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum , and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 06/2013; · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder with symptoms of hyperglycaemia and it is estimated that by 2030, there will be over 4.8 million sufferers in Nigeria.(1) Bauhinia monandra Kurz (Fabaceae), known as "Abafe" in the Nigerian Yoruba tribe, is ethnomedically used in Puerto Rico and Nigeria for diabetes.(1) The presence of β-carotene, fatty acids, quercetin (1), rutin (2, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside)(1) and 3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone(2) in its leaves has been reported. Antidiabetic activities of the stem-bark and leaf extracts(1) as well as the leaf antioxidant constituents(2) have been reported.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, the acute and subacute toxicity of Bauhinia monandra methanolic leaf extract were investigated in rats. Acute administration of the extract up to a dose of 8 g/kg body weight to the animals elicited no deaths or treatment related signs of toxicity. Oral subacute administration of the extract (2.0 and 4.0 g/kg body weight) did not show any macroscopic changes in the key organs investigated in the rats. Histopathological examination revealed no significant adverse effects on the liver, spleen, testes and kidneys except for focal expansion of the interstitial stroma and lymphoid follicles in the lungs. Biochemical investigations revealed no significant (p>0.05) alterations in the total cholesterol, total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in the serum. However, there was a significant (p
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus, a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperglycemia due to deficiency of insulin, is a disease involving the endocrine pancreas and causes considerable morbidity and mortality in the world. In Nigeria, many plants, especially those implicated in herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes, have not been screened for their elemental constituents while information on phytochemistry of some of them is not available. There is therefore the need to document these constituents as some of these plants are becoming increasingly important as herbal drugs or food additives. The accelerator-based technique PIXE, using the 1.8MeV collimated proton beam from the 2.5MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at INFN, LNL, Legnaro (Padova) Italy, was employed in the determination of the elemental constituents of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants. Leaves of Gardenia ternifolia, Caesalpina pulcherrima, Solemostenon monostachys, whole plant of Momordica charantia and leaf and stem bark of Hunteria umbellata could be taken as vegetables, neutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in the management of diabetes. However, Hexabolus monopetalus root should be used under prescription.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms 01/2008; 266(10):2387-2390. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The toxicity and mutagenic potential of most African plants implicated in the management of cancer have not been investigated. The ethanolic extracts of selected Nigerian plants were subsequently studied using the brine shrimp lethality tests, inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of chromosomal aberrations in vivo in rat lymphocytes. Morinda lucida root bark, Nymphaea lotus whole plant and Garcinia kola root were active in the three test systems. Bryophyllum calycinum whole plant, Annona senegalensis root, Hymenocardia acida stem bark, Erythrophleum suaveolens leaves and Spondiathus preussii stem bark were toxic to brine shrimps and caused chromosomal damage in rat lymphocytes. Ficus exasperata leaves, Chrysophyllum albidum root bark and Hibiscus sabdariffa leaves were non-toxic to all the three test systems. Chenopodium ambrosioides whole plant was non-toxic to brine shrimps and rat lymphocyte chromosomes but showed inhibition in the conventional telomerase assay indicating a possible selectivity for human chromosomes. The result justified the use of the first eight plants and Chenopodium ambrosioides in the management of cancer in south west Nigeria although they appear to be non-selective and their mode of action may be different from plant to plant. All these plants except Chenopodium ambrosioides are also mutagenic and cytotoxic.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 10/2007; 113(3):427-32. · 2.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: PIXE analyses of some Nigerian biologically active plants were carried out. Two groups of plants were analyzed.
These groups of plants are commonly used as medicinal plants in Nigeria for which pharmacopoeia standards are being
established to enable their use for pharmaceutical purposes. These are Jatropha curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) – antimicrobial,
Bridelia ferruginea Benth (Euphorbiaceae) – astringent and hypoglycemic agent, Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae),
Senna occidentalis Linn (Caesalpinaceae)- laxative, and Chromoleana odorata (L) R.M. King & Robinson (Asteraceae)
antimicrobial. PIXE measurements were carried out using collimated proton beams produced by the 2.5 MV AN 2000
accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy. Twenty
elements were detected in the samples. The results showed that none of the plants contains any toxic heavy metals such as Pb,
As, Cd and Hg. Three plants Jatropha curcas (Nsukka) (4.6 ± 3.1 ppm), Chromoleana odorata (Ife) (11.6 ± 7.4 ppm) and Senna
occidentalis (Ife) (5.7 ± 4.7) showed detectable levels of selenium. The plant samples obtained from Jos (Guinea Savannah)
generally showed higher concentrations of some elements compared to the other three locations Nsukka (Derived Savannah),
Ile-Ife (Rain forest) and Zaria (Sudan Savannah) from which plants were collected. The elements were relatively more highly
concentrated in the leaves than the stem and bark. The results give a good picture of the distribution of elements in the plantsfrom different locations, with evidence that environment has effect on the constituents of the plants.
XI International Conference on PIXE and its Analytical Applications, Puebla, Mexico,; 05/2007
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aqueous infusion (tea) of Stachytarpheta cayennensis leaves is used ethnomedically in Peru, Nigeria and other tropical countries for the management of diabetes. Oral administration (p. o.) of aqueous (125 mg/kg) and methanolic (2000 mg/kg) extracts of the leaves to alloxan-diabetic rats showed significant blood glucose reductions by 43 and 53%, respectively, at the end of a 4 hour period similar to the strong effect of glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, P. O.). The methanolic extract was successively partitioned into ethyl acetate, butanol and water fractions, and the same test showed that the butanol fraction (2000 mg/kg) had the highest (50%) hypoglycaemic activity at 4 hours after oral administration. It was also the most active fraction when tested in vitro [insulin release from an insulin secreting cell line (INS-1)] and was also active in normal rats and rats made hyperglycaemic by a glucose load. Its activity was comparable to that of glibenclamide (positive control) in these models. This active butanol fraction was subjected to chromatographic subfractionation; some subfractions reduced hyperglycaemia in alloxan-diabetic rats to 60 and 78% and induced insulin release from the INS-1 cells; other subfractions, however, gave hyperglycaemic activities IN VIVO and inhibition of insulin release from the INS-1 cells. Three major compounds of the butanol fraction were isolated and characterised as 6beta-hydroxyipolamide, ipolamide and isoverbascoside; they increased insulin secretion from INS-1 cells to 125, 128 and 127%, respectively, whereas glibenclamide increased insulin secretion to 157%. The results justify the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of diabetes and suggest that the butanol fraction and some of its isolated constituents mediate their actions primarily by stimulating insulin release directly.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary Analysis of thirteen medicinal plants of various biological activities commonly used in South-western Nigeria was carried
out using PIXE technique. Nine of these plants are anti-cancer while four are antimicrobial. PIXE measurements were carried
out using collimated proton beams delivered by the 2. 5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at the Istituto Nazionale di
Fisica Nucleare (INFN), (LNL) Legnaro, (Padova), Italy. The results showed the presence of twenty three different elements
in the plants and none of them contains any toxic heavy metals. Only Chenopodium ambrosioides showed detectable levels of selenium which is considered important in cancer prevention.
Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry 01/2006; 270(3):515-521. · 1.47 Impact Factor