ABSTRACT: We demonstrate that after implementation of recommendations for universal infant hepatitis B vaccination, HBV infection prevalence among children of foreign-born Asian parents in Georgia declined dramatically; horizontal transmission of infection within households has occurred infrequently; and the vast majority of infants and children have received the recommended hepatitis B vaccinations. These results provide evidence of the success of the hepatitis B infant vaccination program and highlight its potential impact on reducing chronic HBV infection morbidity and mortality among U.S. populations at high risk.
Vaccine 09/2009; 27(43):5942-7. · 3.77 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Influenza is a leading cause of illness among children. Studies rarely have measured influenza vaccine effectiveness among young children, particularly when antigenic match between vaccine and circulating viruses is suboptimal. We assessed vaccine effectiveness against medically attended, laboratory-confirmed influenza for children who were aged 6 to 59 months during the 2003-2004 influenza season.
In a case-control study that was conducted in a single pediatric practice, case patients who were aged 6 to 59 months and had laboratory-confirmed influenza were age matched 1:2 to eligible control subjects. Vaccination status was ascertained as of the date of the case patient's symptom onset. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate vaccine effectiveness, adjusting for underlying medical conditions and health care usage.
We identified 290 influenza case patients who were seen for medical care from November 1, 2003, to January 31, 2004. Vaccine effectiveness among fully vaccinated children, compared with unvaccinated children, was 49%. Partially vaccinated children who were aged 6 to 23 months had no significant reduction in influenza (vaccine effectiveness: -70%), but partially vaccinated children who were aged 24 to 59 months had a significant (65%) reduction in influenza, compared with unvaccinated children.
Full vaccination provided measurable protection against laboratory-confirmed influenza among children who were aged 6 to 59 months during a season with suboptimal vaccine match. No vaccine effectiveness was identified with partial vaccination among children who were aged 6 to 23 months, affirming that children need to be fully vaccinated to obtain protective effects. These results strengthen the evidence of the vaccine's ability to reduce substantially the burden of disease in this age group.
PEDIATRICS 04/2007; 119(3):e587-95. · 4.47 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: To describe investigation of a tightly clustered outbreak of invasive group A streptococcal (GAS) disease associated with a high mortality rate in a long-term care facility (LTCF).
Cross-sectional carriage survey and epidemiologic investigation of LTCF resident and employee cohorts.
A 104-bed community LTCF between March 1 and April 7, 2004.
A cohort of LTCF residents with assigned beds at the time of the outbreak.
Reinforcement of standard infection control measures and receipt of chemoprophylaxis by GAS carriers.
Four confirmed and 2 probable GAS cases occurred between March 16 and April 1, 2004. Four case patients died. The final case occurred during the investigation, before the patient was determined to be a GAS carrier. No case occurred during the 6 months after the intervention. Disease was caused by type emm3 GAS; 16.5% of residents and 2.4% of employees carried the outbreak strain. Disease was clustered in 1 quadrant of the LTCF and associated with nonintact skin. GAS disease or carriage was associated with having frequent personal visitors.
Widespread carriage of a virulent GAS strain likely resulted from inadequate infection control measures. Enhanced infection control and targeted prophylaxis for GAS carriers appeared to end the outbreak. In addition to employees, regular visitors to LTCFs should be trained in hand hygiene and infection control because of the potential for extended relationships over time, leading to interaction with multiple residents, and disease transmission in such residential settings. Specific attention to prevention of skin breaks and proper wound care may prevent disease. The occurrence of a sixth case during the investigation suggests urgency in addressing severe, large, or tightly clustered outbreaks of GAS infection in LTCFs.
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 01/2007; 27(12):1377-84. · 3.67 Impact Factor