[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Emphasizing circumstances that determine increasingly popular surgical approach of breast conserving surgery (BCS), used in lower grade breast tumors, while maintaining survival that is found when more radical procedures are used.
Several leading oncological protocols in the world are compared, using PubMed database, and our own experience. Data gathered are compared to conclusions of Consensus Conference on Breast Conservation (Milan, 2005). Furthermore, surgical contraindications found in our everyday work are considered, having in mind satisfactory cosmetic outcome, as well as keeping the 1 cm border of "clear" edges. Such more practical problems of edge detection can compromise BCS results.
After observing several relevant protocols, we found very high frequency of mastectomy vs. BCS, despite the fact that stage of disease was low. We also found only 20% of absolute contraindications for BCS. Most frequent contraindication for BCS was multicentricity of the tumor (with micro calcifications), especially in ductal in situ carcinoma.
BCS followed by radiation therapy with tumor-free edges is standard procedure in treatment of T1 and small T2 breast cancers. This approach implies higher risk of local recurrence (LR), although local recurrence is low (1% per year), with rates of survival similar to radical procedures.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Carotid siphon calcification is often visible on unenhanced head CT (UCT), but the relation to proximal carotid artery stenosis (CAS) is unclear. We investigated the association of carotid siphon calcification with the presence of CAS. METHODS: This IRB-waived retrospective study included 160 consecutive patients suspected of stroke (age 64 ± 14 years, 63 female) who underwent head UCT and CTA of the head and neck. CAS was rated on CTA as not present or present with non-significant (<50 %), moderate (50-69 %) or significant (≥70 %) stenosis. Presence, shape (on UCT) and volume (on CTA) of carotid siphon calcifications were related to CAS. RESULTS: Carotid siphon calcification was absent in 41 % of patients and bilateral in 94 % of those with calcifications. Presence, shape and volume of calcification resulted in odds ratios for having significant CAS of 10.1, 3.9 and 8.4, with 95 % CIs of 1.3-79.6, 1.1-14.1 and 2.6-26.8, respectively. Corresponding NPVs were 0.98, 0.98 and 0.96, while PPVs were 0.14, 0.07 and 0.29, respectively. CONCLUSION: Absence of calcification in the carotid artery siphon on UCT has high negative predictive value for carotid artery stenosis in patients with suspected stroke. However, siphon calcification is not a reliable indicator of significant carotid artery stenosis. KEY POINTS: • Many stroke patients do not have calcification in the carotid artery siphon. • Carotid stenosis ≥50 % is unlikely in stroke patients without siphon calcification. • Carotid siphon calcium is a poor indicator of significant carotid artery stenosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This retrospective analysis presents our experience in treating Fournier gangrene (FG) and aims to bring in focus diagnostic and therapeutic problems as well as early and aggressive treatment.
A total of 16 male patients were included in the study. The gastrointestinal form was seen in 5 and the urogenital form in 11 patients. The subjects ranged in age from 39 to 74 years (average 61) for the urogenital, and from 48 to 72 (average 58) for the gastrointestinal form. Other conditions were seen in 9 patients (diabetes mellitus was most common). Most patients were infected with several bacteria. We performed colostomy in 1 patient, orchidectomy in 2 patients, cystostomy in 2 patients and penis amputation in 1 patient. Ultrasound-guided biopsy or aspiration, and CT was also used. Aggressive surgical necrectomy and aggressive antimicrobial therapy was used.
Treatment was successful in 14 of 16 patients (87.5%). The length of hospitalization was 19-58 days (average 48) for the urogenital form and 24-56 days (average 41) for the gastrointestinal form. Mortality was 12.5%. A lethal outcome was recorded in two patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The average time between onset and hospitalization was 3-11 days (5 on average) for urogenital FG and 4-10 days (average 6) for gastrointestinal FG. Treatment was significantly longer in patients with a comorbidity, such as diabetes or liver cirrhosis due to alcohol abuse.
Early diagnosis as well as intensive and aggressive treatment are key to successful treatment of FG. Comorbidity increases length of therapy and lowers the chance for recovery. Disease can be seen again several years after the initial outburst.
Urologia Internationalis 08/2011; 87(2):186-91. · 1.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this case report we describe rare metastatic appearance of cutaneous malignant melanoma ( MM) in small intestine followed by clinical appearance of acute surgical abdomen. A 42-year old women operated in our hospital in April 2009. due to unusual naevus on her right arm. Pathologicaly it was MM grossly 1.5 cm, microscopically Breslow 11 mm, Clark's level IV (T4), number of mitosis 1.4 per mm2, without ulcerations. She was sent to continue treatment at the National Referal Center for Melanoma in KB "S. milosrdnice" Zagreb, Croatia. A month later wider excision (3 cm free margin) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was made there followed by axillary lymphadenectomy due to positive axillary finding. She received six cycles of chemotherapy. She arrived in our hospital in May 2010, under clinical picture of small intestine ileus and acute surgical abdomen. After preparation she was operated the same day. The cause of ileus was metastasis of MM in the small interstine. We made intestinal resection with termino-terminal anastomosis. The patient was released to home care ten days after operation without any complication. This case report demonstrates rarely described case of MM metastasis in the small intestine found causing ileus.
Acta medica Croatica: c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti 01/2011; 65(3):279-83.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a debate in the literature whether a pathologic nipple discharge is a distinct sign of breast carcinoma. Our own results obtained by the use of microdochectomy as a minimally invasive operative procedure in 184 patients with pathologic nipple discharge were analysed. The aim of this retrospective 20-year study was to assess the efficacy of microdochectomy in detecting early stages of intraductal breast carcinoma.
The study included data on 184 patients aged 24-77 years (median 46.6) divided into two groups of premenopausal (n = 123) and postmenopausal (n = 61) women. There were 139 patients with unilateral single-duct sanguinolent discharge and 45 patients with other types of nipple discharge. The operative procedure consisted of the discharging duct excision by use of a guide probe, preceded by cytology and ductography studies.
Histopathology of the excised ducts revealed only three carcinomas in premenopausal women and ten carcinomas in postmenopausal women. In a total of 13 carcinomas, there were 4 ductal carcinomas in situ, detected in patients aged 41-72 (median 66) years. Twelve carcinomas were associated with sanguinolent nipple discharge. Papilloma was the most common histology finding (56.5%).
Results of the study suggested mainly the association of sanguinolent single-duct nipple discharge and papilloma, whereas the rate of malignancies detected (7.0%) was consistent with literature reports. Microdochectomy proved to be a highly efficient operative method free from any impairment of the breast integrity. Conservative treatment with close clinical monitoring of the patient with cytology and ultrasonographic assessment might be possible in selected cases.
Archives of Gynecology 05/2010; 283(4):851-4. · 0.91 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess differences between patients with breast cancer before, during and after the 1991-1995 war in Croatia.
We analyzed 660 patients of Pozesko-Slavonska County, during the three periods. Relative predictive values of patient's characteristics and stage of tumor were assessed using the X2-test, and survival with Kaplan-Meier analysis.
Tumors were significantly more often of higher stages (IIA and IIB) and with axillary lymph node metastases (N1) during the war, than in pre-war and post-war period.Breast cancer was significantly more frequent in patients who previously experienced death in the family (35,3%). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed correlation between survival, T and N stages of tumor and clinical stage of tumor.
The war aggression towards Croatia with its impact on our patients, contributed to modification of characteristics of breast cancer in the analyzed period.
Advances in Medical Sciences 11/2009; 54(2):283-8. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In spite of the general consensus on the issue, to point to major dilemmas which appear in this matter of multidisciplinary interest, and to review current concepts on how to achieve optimal diagnostic and therapeutic outcome.
Recent literature data show that the rate of gestational breast cancer, according to most protocols, range from 0.2% to 3.8%. By definition, the clinical manifestation of this type of carcinoma is expected to occur during pregnancy or within one year after delivery. The mode of treatment and prognosis is identical to those of women with breast carcinoma beyond pregnancy, except for radiotherapy that is not indicated during pregnancy and selective use of cytostatics in polychemotherapy during the first trimester. The only exceptions to this practice are women with any advanced stage of the disease due to delayed diagnosis. Results of large studies indicate that the therapy for breast cancer has no adversarial effect on the prognosis of subsequent pregnancy.
The evaluation and management of women with gestational breast cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach. A chemotherapeutic regimen should be individualised to a maximum reduction of risk, if applied in the second and third trimester. Surgical therapy may include mastectomy and sparing operative procedures. Sentinel node biopsy should be considered in node negative patients. Radiotherapy should be postponed to the postpartum period.
Advances in Medical Sciences 11/2008; 53(2):167-71. · 0.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article compares experiences in the diagnosis and treatment of phyllodes tumors from 2 regional institutions with the relevant literature.
From 1991 to 2005, 2,848 breast cancer patients were treated in our institutions, 36 (1.44%) for phyllodes tumors. The average tumor size was 5.1 cm (range 1.4-19.6). Triple assessment was the standard diagnostic algorithm. Wide excision with tumor-free margins was carried out in 29 (80.5%) cases and mastectomy in 7 (19.4%) cases. Axillary lymphadenectomy was performed in patients with positive lymph nodes.
Histology showed the phyllodes tumors to be benign in 27 (75.0%), malignant in 6 (16.6%), and borderline in 3 (8.3%) cases. Follow-up was from 5 months to 16 years. In this period, recurrences of 3 (8.3%) malignant and 2 (5.6%) benign phyllodes tumors were diagnosed and treated. 10 (27.7%) patients treated with wide local excision showed deformities in the form of scarring. The steroid receptor status was of no prognostic value in our patients, and chemotherapy was used in only 1 (2.7%) patient. 5-year survival was 86.2%.
Our study shows that tumor size, margin infiltration, mitotic activity and degree of cellular atypia are important prognostic factors. Problems in diagnosing this condition arise from its similarity to fibroadenoma. Although wide local excision is usually the treatment of choice, tumor recurrence is common. Axillary lymphadenectomy in malignant phyllodes tumors is, in our opinion, still controversial.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of breast cancer during pregnancy and breast-feeding is a very rare but challenging clinical problem whose solution, along with medical, also involves legal, ethical, religious and psychosocial standards. In this study, the evolution of medical views on the subject has been presented. From extremely pessimistic ones, which were prevalent in the past, to modern views which are valid today when pregnancy is considered a mere coincidence and not a cause for the disease. However, the doctor is faced with them in the way of a number of dilemmas. Inspite of the rare incidence of breast cancer among pregnant women, there are only 0.2% to 3.8% cancerstricken patients, that is 1:3,000–1:10,000 pregnancies, there appear still numerous dilemmas and controversies regarding breast cancer diagnostics, treatement¬ and other aspects that are of crucial interest both for the doctor and the patient. From the correct approach to solving many of those dilemmas arise many prognostic implications both for the mother and the child. Despite adequately conformed views on this multidisciplinarily pervading problem in medicine, the aim of this study is to point to the most fundamental dilemmas which draw the attention of the medical profession.