Ricardo R. Munoz

University of Santiago, Chile, CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile

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Publications (53)164.4 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present new constraints on the star formation histories of six ultra-faint dwarf galaxies: Bootes I, Canes Venatici II, Coma Berenices, Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Our analysis employs a combination of high-precision photometry obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope, medium-resolution spectroscopy obtained with the DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph on the W.M. Keck Observatory, and updated Victoria-Regina isochrones tailored to the abundance patterns appropriate for these galaxies. The data for five of these Milky Way satellites are best fit by a star formation history where at least 75% of the stars formed by z~10 (13.3 Gyr ago). All of the galaxies are consistent with 80% of the stars forming by z~6 (12.8 Gyr ago) and 100% of the stars forming by z~3 (11.6 Gyr ago). The similarly ancient populations of these galaxies support the hypothesis that star formation in the smallest dark matter sub-halos was suppressed by a global outside influence, such as the reionization of the universe.
    10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on early pilot program results and progress made in the Survey of the Magellanic Stellar History (SMASH). SMASH is an NOAO community survey that is using the Dark Energy Camera (DECam) to map a 2400 deg^2 area (at 20% filling factor, or 480 deg^2 total) of the Magellanic Clouds and their periphery in ugriz. With depths of gri 24 and 23, SMASH will: (1) map the stellar periphery of the Clouds with old main sequence turnoff stars to a surface brightness limit of 35mag/arcsec^2,(2) identify the stellar component of the Magellanic Stream and Leading Arm for the first time, if they exist, and (3) derive spatially-resolved star formation histories covering all ages out to large radius from the Cloud centers. Combined with the Dark Energy Survey, SMASH will explore a vast area for hidden Magellanic Cloud populations, providing new insight into the complex and dramatic history of these two iconic dwarf galaxies.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Deep photometry of the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) stellar periphery (R=4 deg, 4.2 kpc) is used to study its line-of-sight depth with red clump (RC) stars. The RC luminosity function is affected little by young (<1 Gyr) blue-loop stars in these regions because their main-sequence counterparts are not observed in the color magnitude diagrams. The SMC's eastern side is found to have a large line-of-sight depth (~23 kpc) while the western side has a much shallower depth (~10 kpc), consistent with previous photographic plate photometry results. We use a model SMC RC luminosity function to deconvolve the observed RC magnitudes and construct the density function in distance for our fields. Three of the eastern fields show a distance bimodality with one component at the "systemic" ~67 kpc SMC distance and a second component at ~55 kpc. Our data are not reproduced well by the various extant Magellanic Cloud and Stream simulations. However, the models predict that the known HI Magellanic Bridge (stretching from the SMC eastward towards the LMC) has a decreasing distance with angle from the SMC and should be seen in both the gaseous and stellar components. From comparison with these models we conclude that the most likely explanation for our newly identified ~55 kpc stellar structure in the eastern SMC is a stellar counterpart of the HI Magellanic Bridge that was tidally stripped from the SMC ~200 Myr ago during a close encounter with the LMC. This discovery has important implications for microlensing surveys of the SMC.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 779(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present early results from a Hubble Space Telescope survey of the ultra-faint dwarf galaxies. These Milky Way satellites were discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and appear to be an extension of the classical dwarf spheroidals to low luminosities, offering a new front in the efforts to understand the missing satellite problem. Because they are the least luminous, most dark matter dominated, and least chemically evolved galaxies known, the ultra-faint dwarfs are the best candidate fossils from the early universe. The primary goal of the survey is to measure the star-formation histories of these galaxies and discern any synchronization due to the reionization of the universe. We find that the six galaxies of our survey have very similar star-formation histories, and that each is dominated by stars older than 12 Gyr.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a homogeneous study of blue straggler stars across ten outer halo globular clusters, three classical dwarf spheroidal and nine ultra-faint galaxies based on deep and wide-field photometric data taken with MegaCam on the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We find blue straggler stars to be ubiquitous among these Milky Way satellites. Based on these data, we can test the importance of primordial binaries or multiple systems on blue straggler star formation in low density environments. For the outer halo globular clusters we find an anti-correlation between the specific frequency of blue straggler and absolute magnitude, similar to that previously observed for inner halo clusters. When plotted against density and encounter rate, the frequency of blue stragglers are well fitted by single trends with smooth transitions between dwarf galaxies and globular clusters, which points to a common origin for their blue stragglers. The fraction of blue stragglers stays constant and high in the low encounter rate regime spanned by our dwarf galaxies, and decreases with density and encounter rate in the range spanned by our globular clusters. We find that young stars can mimic blue stragglers in dwarf galaxies only if their ages are 2.5+/-0.5 Gyr and they represent ~1-7% of the total number of stars, which we deem highly unlikely. These results point to mass-transfer or mergers of primordial binaries or multiple systems as the dominant blue straggler formation mechanism in low density systems.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2013; 774(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present kinematical profiles and metallicity for the M31 dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellite galaxy Andromeda II (And II) based on Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy of 531 red giant branch stars. Our kinematical sample is among the largest for any M31 satellite and extends out to two effective radii (r {sub eff} = 5.'3 = 1.1 kpc). We find a mean systemic velocity of -192.4 {+-} 0.5 km s{sup -1} and an average velocity dispersion of {sigma} {sub v} = 7.8 {+-} 1.1 km s{sup -1}. While the rotation velocity along the major axis of And II is nearly zero (<1 km s{sup -1}), the rotation along the minor axis is significant with a maximum rotational velocity of v {sub max} = 8.6 {+-} 1.8 km s{sup -1}. We find a kinematical major axis, with a maximum rotational velocity of v {sub max} = 10.9 {+-} 2.4 km s{sup -1}, misaligned by 67 Degree-Sign to the isophotal major axis. And II is thus the first dwarf galaxy with evidence for nearly prolate rotation with a v {sub max}/{sigma} {sub v} = 1.1, although given its ellipticity of {epsilon} = 0.10, this object may be triaxial. We measured metallicities for a subsample of our data, finding a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.39 {+-} 0.03 dex and an internal metallicity dispersion of 0.72 {+-} 0.03 dex. We find a radial metallicity gradient with metal-rich stars more centrally concentrated, but do not observe a significant difference in the dynamics of the two metallicity populations. And II is the only known dwarf galaxy to show minor axis rotation, making it a unique system whose existence offers important clues on the processes responsible for the formation of dSphs.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; 758(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a method for identifying localized secondary populations in stellar velocity data using Bayesian statistical techniques. We apply this method to the dwarf spheroidal galaxy Ursa Minor and find two secondary objects in this satellite of the Milky Way. One object is kinematically cold with a velocity dispersion of $4.25 \pm 0.75\ \kms$ and centered at $(9.1\arcmin \pm 1.5, 7.2\arcmin \pm 1.2)$ in relative RA and DEC with respect to the center of Ursa Minor. The second object has a large velocity offset of $-12.8^{+1.75}_{-1.5}\ \kms$ compared to Ursa Minor and centered at $(-14.0\arcmin^{+2.4}_{-5.8}, -2.5\arcmin^{+0.4}_{-1.0})$. The kinematically cold object has been found before using a smaller data set but the prediction that this cold object has a velocity dispersion larger than $2.0\ \kms$ at 95% C.L. differs from previous work. We use two and three component models along with the information criteria and Bayesian evidence model selection methods to argue that Ursa Minor has one or two localized secondary populations. The significant probability for a large velocity dispersion in each secondary object raises the intriguing possibility that each has its own dark matter halo, that is, it is a satellite of a satellite of the Milky Way.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2012; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied blue straggler stars (BSS) in a variety of Milky Way satellites: outer halo globular clusters, classical dwarf galaxies and the newly found ultra-faint dwarf galaxies and found BSS to be ubiquitous among all of them. Moreover, we study the likelihood that our BSS candidates correspond to young stars by analysing correlations between BSS frequencies and satellite parameters (such as absolute magnitude and collision time), and BSS distributions compared to those of simulated young stars. We find that the observed BSS seem to be genuine and likely formed by mass transfer in close binaries.
    08/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We have assembled a large-area spectroscopic survey of giant stars in the Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy core. Using medium resolution (R ~15,000), multifiber spectroscopy we have measured velocities of these stars, which extend up to 12 degrees from the galaxy's center (3.7 core radii or 0.4 times the King limiting radius). From these high quality spectra we identify 1310 Sgr members out of 2296 stars surveyed distributed across 24 different fields across the Sgr core. Additional slit spectra were obtained of stars bridging from the Sgr core to its trailing tail. Our systematic, large area sample shows no evidence for significant rotation, a result at odds with the ~20 km/s rotation required as an explanation for the bifurcation seen in the Sgr tidal stream; the observed small (<= 4 km/s) velocity trend along primarily the major axis is consistent with models of the projected motion of an extended body on the sky with no need for intrinsic rotation. The Sgr core is found to have a flat velocity dispersion (except for a kinematically colder center point) across its surveyed extent and into its tidal tails, a property that matches the velocity dispersion profiles measured for other Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies. We comment on the possible significance of this observed kinematical similarity for the dynamical state of the other classical Milky Way dSphs in light of the fact that Sgr is clearly a strongly tidally disrupted system.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2012; 756(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present new constraints on the star formation histories of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies, using deep photometry obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). A galaxy class recently discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the UFDs appear to be an extension of the classical dwarf spheroidals to low luminosities, offering a new front in efforts to understand the missing satellite problem. They are the least luminous, most dark-matter dominated, and least chemically-evolved galaxies known. Our HST survey of six UFDs seeks to determine if these galaxies are true fossils from the early universe. We present here the preliminary analysis of three UFD galaxies: Hercules, Leo IV, and Ursa Major I. Classical dwarf spheroidals of the Local Group exhibit extended star formation histories, but these three Milky Way satellites are at least as old as the ancient globular cluster M92, with no evidence for intermediate-age populations. Their ages also appear to be synchronized to within ~1 Gyr of each other, as might be expected if their star formation was truncated by a global event, such as reionization.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 06/2012; 753(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the discovery of a new ultra-faint globular cluster in the constellation of Ursa Minor, based on stellar photometry from the MegaCam imager at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We find that this cluster, Munoz 1, is located at a distance of 45 +/- 5 kpc and at a projected distance of only 45 arcmin from the center of the Ursa Minor dSph galaxy. Using a Maximum Likelihood technique we measure a half-light radius of 0.5 arcmin, or equivalently 7 pc and an ellipticity consistent with being zero. We estimate its absolute magnitude to be M_V=-0.4 +/- 0.9, which corresponds to L_V=120 (+160, -65) L_sun and we measure a heliocentric radial velocity of -137 +/- 4 km/s based on Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy. This new satellite is separate from Ursa Minor by ~30 kpc and 110 km/s suggesting the cluster is not obviously associated with the dSph, despite the very close angular separation. Based on its photometric properties and structural parameters we conclude that Munoz 1 is a new ultra-faint stellar cluster. Along with Segue 3 this is one of the faintest stellar clusters known to date.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2012; 753(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    R. R. Munoz, N. Padmanabhan, M. Geha
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    ABSTRACT: The discovery of Ultra-Faint Dwarf (UFD) galaxies in the halo of the Milky Way extends the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function to a few hundred solar luminosities. This extremely low luminosity regime poses a significant challenge for the photometric characterization of these systems. We present a suite of simulations aimed at understanding how different observational choices related to the properties of a low luminosity system impact our ability to determine its true structural parameters such as half-light radius and central surface brightness. We focus on estimating half-light radii (on which mass estimates depend linearly) and find that these numbers can have up to 100% uncertainties when relatively shallow photometric surveys, such as SDSS, are used. Our simulations suggest that to recover structural parameters within 10% or better of their true values: (a) the ratio of the field-of-view to the half-light radius of the satellite must be greater than three, (b) the total number of stars, including background objects should be larger than 1000, and (c) the central to background stellar density ratio must be higher than 20. If one or more of these criteria are not met, the accuracy of the resulting structural parameters can be significantly compromised. In the context of future surveys such as LSST, the latter condition will be closely tied to our ability to remove unresolved background galaxies. Assessing the reliability of measured structural parameters will become increasingly critical as the next generation of deep wide-field surveys detects UFDs beyond the reach of current spectroscopic limits.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2011; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and CFHT/MegaCam photometry for the Milky Way globular cluster Palomar 13. We triple the number of spectroscopically confirmed members, including many repeat velocity measurements. Palomar 13 is the only known globular cluster with possible evidence for dark matter, based on a Keck/HIRES 21 star velocity dispersion of sigma=2.2+/-0.4 km/s. We reproduce this measurement, but demonstrate that it is inflated by unresolved binary stars. For our sample of 61 stars, the velocity dispersion is sigma=0.7(+0.6/-0.5) km/s. Combining our DEIMOS data with literature values, our final velocity dispersion is sigma=0.4(+0.4/-0.3) km/s. We determine a spectroscopic metallicity of [Fe/H]=-1.6+/-0.1 dex, placing a 1-sigma upper limit of sigma_[Fe/H]~0.2 dex on any internal metallicity spread. We determine Palomar 13's total luminosity to be M_V=-2.8+/-0.4, making it among the least luminous known globular clusters. The photometric isophotes are regular out to the half-light radius and mildly irregular outside this radius. The outer surface brightness profile slope is shallower than typical globular clusters (eta=-2.8+/-0.3). Thus at large radius, tidal debris is likely affecting the appearance of Palomar 13. Combining our luminosity with the intrinsic velocity dispersion, we find a dynamical mass of of M_1/2=1.3(+2.7/-1.3)x10^3 M_sun and a mass-to-light ratio of M/L_V=2.4(+5.0/-2.4) M_sun/L_sun. Within our measurement errors, the mass-to-light ratio agrees with the theoretical predictions for a single stellar population. We conclude that, while there is some evidence for tidal stripping at large radius, the dynamical mass of Palomar 13 is consistent with its stellar mass and neither significant dark matter, nor extreme tidal heating, is required to explain the cluster dynamics.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2011; 743(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigate the kinematic and photometric properties of the Segue 3 Milky Way companion using Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy and Magellan/IMACS g- and r-band imaging. Using maximum likelihood methods to analyze the photometry, we study the structure and stellar population of Segue 3. We find that the half-light radius of Segue 3 is 26'' ± 5'' (2.1 ± 0.4 pc, for a distance of 17 kpc) and the absolute magnitude is a mere MV = 0.0 ± 0.8 mag, making Segue 3 the least luminous old stellar system known. We find Segue 3 to be consistent with a single stellar population, with an age of 12.0+1.5 – 0.4 Gyr and an [Fe/H] of –1.7+0.07 – 0.27. Line-of-sight velocities from the spectra are combined with the photometry to determine a sample of 32 stars which are likely associated with Segue 3. The member stars within three half-light radii have a velocity dispersion of 1.2 ± 2.6 km s–1. Photometry of the members indicates that the stellar population has a spread in [Fe/H] of 0.3 dex. These facts, together with the small physical size of Segue 3, imply the object is likely an old, faint stellar cluster which contains no significant dark matter. We find tentative evidence for stellar mass loss in Segue 3 through the 11 candidate member stars outside of three half-light radii, as expected from dynamical arguments. Interpretation of the data outside of three half-light radii is complicated by the object's spatial coincidence with a previously known halo substructure, which may enhance contamination of our member sample.
    The Astronomical Journal 08/2011; 142(3):88. · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Magellanic Clouds are a local laboratory for understanding the evolution and properties of dwarf irregular galaxies. To reveal the extended structure and interaction history of the Magellanic Clouds we have undertaken a large-scale photometric and spectroscopic study of their stellar periphery (the MAgellanic Periphery Survey, MAPS). We present first MAPS results for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC): Washington M, T2 + DDO51 photometry reveals metal-poor red giant branch stars in the SMC that extend to large radii (~11 kpc), are distributed nearly azimuthally symmetrically (ellipticity=0.1), and are well-fitted by an exponential profile (out to R~7.5 deg). An ~6 Gyr old, [Fe/H] -1.3 main-sequence turnoff is also evident to at least R=7.3 deg, and as far as 8.4 deg in some directions. We find evidence for a "break" population beyond ~8 radial scalelengths having a very shallow radial density profile that could be either a bound stellar halo or a population of extratidal stars. The distribution of the intermediate stellar component (3<R<7.5 deg) contrasts with that of the inner stellar component (R<3 deg), which is both more elliptical (ellipticity~0.3) and offset from the center of the intermediate component by 0.59 deg, although both components share a similar radial exponential scale length. This offset is likely due to a perspective effect because stars on the eastern side of the SMC are closer on average than stars on the western side. This mapping of its outer stellar structures indicates that the SMC is more complex than previously thought.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 04/2011; 733(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquity of substructure in the stellar halo has already been demonstrated by the SDSS and 2MASS and future surveys promise to explore the halo in ever more detail. This paper examines what can be learnt from current and future photometric-databases using group-finding techniques. We compare groups recovered from a sample of M-giants from 2MASS with those found in synthetic surveys of simulated $\Lambda$CDM stellar halos and demonstrate broad consistency. We also find that these recovered groups are likely to represent the majority of high-luminosity ($\log(L/L_{Sun})>6.67$) satellites accreted within the last 10 Gyr and on orbits with apocenters within 100 kpc. However the sensitivity of the M-giant survey to accretion events that were either ancient, from low-luminosity objects or those on radial orbits is limited because of the low number of stars, bias towards high-metallicity stars and the shallow depth. We examine the extent to which these limitations are addressed by current and future surveys, in particular catalogues of main-sequence turn-off (MSTO) stars from SDSS and LSST, and of RR-Lyrae stars from LSST or PanSTARRS. The MSTO surveys are more sensitive to low-luminosity events ($\log(L/L_{Sun}~5$ or less) than the 2MASS M-giant sample, while the RR-Lyrae surveys, with superior depth, are good at detecting events on highly eccentric orbits. When combined we expect these photometric surveys to provide a comprehensive picture of the last 10 Gyr of Galactic accretion. Events older than this are too phase mixed to be discovered and would require additional information such as velocity and chemical abundance. Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2010; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A density-based hierarchical group-finding algorithm is used to identify stellar halo structures in a catalog of M-giants from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). The intrinsic brightness of M-giant stars means that this catalog probes deep into the halo where substructures are expected to be abundant and easy to detect. Our analysis reveals 16 structures at high Galactic latitude (greater than 15°), of which 10 have been previously identified. Among the six new structures, two could plausibly be due to masks applied to the data, one is associated with a strong extinction region, and one is probably a part of the Monoceros Ring. Another one originates at low latitudes, suggesting some contamination from disk stars, but also shows protrusions extending to high latitudes, implying that it could be a real feature in the stellar halo. The last remaining structure is free from the defects discussed above and hence is very likely a satellite remnant. Although the extinction in the direction of the structure is very low, the structure does match a low-temperature feature in the dust maps. While this casts some doubt on its origin, the low-temperature feature could plausibly be due to real dust in the structure itself. The angular position and distance of this structure encompass the Pisces overdensity traced by RR Lyraes in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). However, the 2MASS M-giants indicate that the structure is much more extended than what is visible with the SDSS, with the point of peak density lying just outside Stripe 82. The morphology of the structure is more like a cloud than a stream and reminiscent of that seen in simulations of satellites disrupting along highly eccentric orbits. This finding is consistent with expectations of structure formation within the currently favored cosmological model: assuming the cosmologically predicted satellite orbit distributions are correct, prior work indicates that such clouds should be the dominant debris structures at large Galactocentric radii (~100 kpc and beyond).
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2010; 722(1):750. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A density based hierarchical group-finding algorithm is used to identify stellar halo structures in a catalog of M-giants from the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). The intrinsic brightness of M-giant stars means that this catalog probes deep into the halo where substructures are expected to be abundant and easy to detect. Our analysis reveals 16 structures at high Galactic latitude (greater than 15 degree), of which 10 have been previously identified. Among the six new structures two could plausibly be due to masks applied to the data, one is associated with a strong extinction region and one is probably a part of the Monoceros ring. Another one originates at low latitudes, suggesting some contamination from disk stars, but also shows protrusions extending to high latitudes, implying that it could be a real feature in the stellar halo. The last remaining structure is free from the defects discussed above and hence is very likely a satellite remnant. Although the extinction in the direction of the structure is very low, the structure does match a low temperature feature in the dust maps. While this casts some doubt on its origin, the low temperature feature could plausibly be due to real dust in the structure itself. The angular position and distance of this structure encompass the Pisces overdensity traced by RR Lyraes in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). However, the 2MASS M-giants indicate that the structure is much more extended than what is visible with the SDSS, with the point of peak density lying just outside Stripe 82. The morphology of the structure is more like a cloud than a stream and reminiscent of that seen in simulations of satellites disrupting along highly eccentric orbits. Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ
    09/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: The orbital shapes of Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies provide specific constraints on CDM models of hierarchical structure formation on small scales and for late infalling subhalos. Furthermore, many physical properties of these dSph systems are shaped by tidal impulses, the magnitude of which depends on the orbit of the dSph. Unfortunately, the tangential (i.e., proper) motions of distant Milky Way dSphs are extremely difficult to measure, and thus remain poorly constrained (or in most cases unknown). We propose to remedy this for the Carina dSph, for which we have used a large, unique set of photographic plates spanning a 14 year baseline and covering large enough area to allow for a precise proper motion measurement. We have digitized these plates and derived precise (1-2 mas/yr per star) relative proper motions for 565 confirmed Carina members, and >1000 more likely members; these lead to a bulk relative proper motion for the system defined to 0.04 mas/yr. Despite this extreme precision, the absolute (relative to the ``fixed'' extragalactic background) proper motion of Carina is still poorly constrained, due to the paucity of identified QSOs (only 7) in the field of view to fix the reference frame. With our proposed search for QSOs among the ~2000 objects in our proper-motion catalog, we expect to discover ~50 QSOs, which will improve the accuracy of our proper motion zero point by a factor of 3 in each dimension, and likely more. This will allow for a precise determination of the orbit of the Carina dwarf galaxy, with an expected accuracy 2× better than the recent proper motion for this object, which disagrees with the proper motion expected from the direction of Carina's tidal tails. This is a resubmission of a proposal that was granted time in 2010A; the observing run in Feb. 2010 was beset by poor weather conditions and instrument trouble, yielding very little usable data.
    NOAO Proposal. 08/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: Discovered in 2005, the enigmatic Willman 1 object is an ultra-faint Galactic satellite (L < 1000 Lsun), debated to be either a globular cluster or a dark-matter-dominated dwarf galaxy. Here we present new photometric measurements of its structure, analyzing the spatial distribution of the object and searching for signs of tidal disturbance. We use a maximum-likelihood technique to estimate Willman 1's physical properties and present its star formation history, derived using StarFISH.
    01/2010;

Publication Stats

685 Citations
164.40 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2013
    • University of Santiago, Chile
      • Departamento de Economía
      CiudadSantiago, Santiago, Chile
  • 2009–2013
    • Yale University
      • Department of Astronomy
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
  • 2012
    • University of Victoria
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
  • 2010
    • University of California, Irvine
      • Department of Physiology & Biophysics
      Irvine, California, United States
  • 2000–2008
    • University of Virginia
      • Department of Astronomy
      Charlottesville, VA, United States