S. D. Ryder

Australian Astronomical Observatory, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia

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Publications (193)474.04 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Core-collapse SNe (CCSNe): Systematic searches of radio emission from CCSNe are still lacking, and only targeted searches of radio emission from just some of the optically discovered CCSNe in the local universe have been carried out. Optical searches miss a significant fraction of CCSNe due to dust obscuration; therefore, CCSN radio searches are much more promising for yielding the complete, unobscured star-formation rates in the local universe. The forthcoming SKA yields the possibility to piggyback for free in this area of research by carrying out commensal, wide-field, blind transient survey observations. SKA1-sur should be able to discover several hundreds of CCSNe in just one year, compared to about a dozen CCSNe that the VLASS would be able to detect in one year, at most. SKA, with an expected sensitivity ten times that of SKA1, is expected to detect CCSNe in the local Universe by the thousands. Therefore, commensal SKA observations could easily result in an essentially complete census of all CCSNe in the local universe, thus yielding an accurate determination of the volumetric CCSN rate. Type Ia SNe: We advocate for the use of the SKA to search for the putative prompt (~first few days after the explosion) radio emission of any nearby type Ia SN, via target-of-opportunity observations. The huge improvement in sensitivity of the SKA with respect to its predecessors will allow to unambiguously discern which progenitor scenario (single-degenerate vs. double-degenerate) applies to them.
    09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a photometric and spectroscopic study of a reddened type Ic supernova (SN) 2005at. We report our results based on the available data of SN 2005at, including late-time observations from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Hubble Space Telescope. In particular, late-time mid-infrared observations are something rare for type Ib/c SNe. In our study we find SN 2005at to be very similar photometrically and spectroscopically to another nearby type Ic SN 2007gr, underlining the prototypical nature of this well-followed type Ic event. The spectroscopy of both events shows similar narrow spectral line features. The radio observations of SN 2005at are consistent with fast evolution and low luminosity at radio wavelengths. The late-time Spitzer data suggest the presence of an unresolved light echo from interstellar dust and dust formation in the ejecta, both of which are unique observations for a type Ic SN. The late-time Hubble observations reveal a faint point source coincident with SN 2005at, which is very likely either a declining light echo of the SN or a compact cluster. For completeness we study ground-based pre-explosion archival images of the explosion site of SN 2005at, however this only yielded very shallow upper limits for the SN progenitor star. We derive a host galaxy extinction of $A_{V} \approx 1.9$ mag for SN 2005at, which is relatively high for a SN in a normal spiral galaxy not viewed edge-on.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 09/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using the latest generation of adaptive optics imaging systems together with laser guide stars on 8m-class telescopes, we are finally revealing the previously-hidden population of supernovae in starburst galaxies. Finding these supernovae and measuring the amount of absorption due to dust is crucial to being able to accurately trace the star formation history of our Universe. Our images of the host galaxies are amongst the sharpest ever obtained from the ground, and reveal much about how and why these galaxies are forming massive stars (that become supernovae) at such a prodigious rate.
    08/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We report deep EVN and eMERLIN observations of the Type Ia SN 2014J in the nearby galaxy M82. Our observations represent, together with those on SN 2011fe, the most sensitive radio study of a Type Ia SN ever. By combining data and a proper modelling of the radio emission, we constrain the mass-loss rate from the progenitor system of SN 2014J to dM/dt <= 7.0x10^(-10) Msol/yr (for a wind speed of 100 km/s). If the medium around the supernova is uniform, n_CSM <= 1.0 cm^-3, which is the most stringent limit for the (uniform) density around a Type Ia SN. Our deep upper limits favor a double-degenerate (DD) scenario--involving two WD stars--for the progenitor system of SN 2014J, as such systems have less circumstellar gas than our upper limits. As opposed to this, most single-degenerate (SD) scenarios, i.e., the wide family of progenitor systems where a red giant, main-sequence, or sub-giant star, donates mass to a exploding WD, are ruled out by our observations. We also re-evaluated the radio limits on the density of circumstellar gas around SN 2011fe, and find agreement with the results of Chomiuk et al. Although we discuss possibilities for a SD scenario to pass observational tests, the evidence from SNe 2011fe and 2014J strongly points in the direction of a DD scenario for both.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2014; 792(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report radio observations of two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe), 2010O and 2010P, which exploded within a few days of each other in the luminous infrared galaxy Arp 299. Whilst SN 2010O remains undetected at radio frequencies, SN 2010P was detected (with an astrometric accuracy better than 1 milli arcsec in position) in its optically thin phase in epochs ranging from ~1 to ~3yr after its explosion date, indicating a very slow radio evolution and a strong interaction of the SN ejecta with the circumstellar medium. Our late-time radio observations toward SN 2010P probe the dense circumstellar envelope of this SN, and imply a mass-loss rate (Msun/yr) to wind velocity (in units of 10 km/s) ratio of (3.0-5.1)E-05, with a 5 GHz peak luminosity of ~1.2E+27 erg/s/Hz on day ~464 after explosion. This is consistent with a Type IIb classification for SN 2010P, making it the most distant and most slowly evolving Type IIb radio SN detected to date.
    03/2014; 440(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We present recent results from an adaptive optics imaging survey of 40 Luminous IR Galaxies (LIRGs) searching for obscured core collapse supernovae and studying the galaxies themselves. Here, in particular, we discuss the Super Star Clusters (SSC) populations in the LIRGs. We have constructed the first statistically significant samples of Luminosity Functions (LF) of SSCs in the near-IR, and find evidence that the LF slopes in LIRGs are shallower than in more quiescent spiral galaxies. Distance and blending effects were investigated in detail paving the way for SSC studies further out than done previously. We have also correlated the luminosities of the brightest clusters with the star formation rates (SFR) of the hosts. The relation is similar, though somewhat steeper than that found in the optical and at lower SFR levels, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. We find that the characteristics of the relation suggest an underlying physical driver rather than solely a size-of-sample effect. In particular, a truncated luminosity/mass function would naturally explain the small scatter we find. Finally, we are modelling the ages and masses of our near-IR detected clusters in conjunction with HST optical data and present early results of using SSC properties to trace the histories of the target LIRG systems.
    02/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Observations spanning a large wavelength range, from X-ray to radio, of the Type IIb supernova 2011hs are presented, covering its evolution during the first year after explosion. The optical light curve presents a narrower shape and a fainter luminosity at peak than previously observed for Type IIb SNe. High expansion velocities are measured from the broad absorption H I and He I lines. From the comparison of the bolometric light curve and the time evolution of the photospheric velocities with hydrodynamical models, we found that SN 2011hs is consistent with the explosion of a 3-4 Msun He-core progenitor star, corresponding to a main sequence mass of 12-15 Msun, that ejected a mass of 56Ni of about 0.04 Msun, with an energy of E= 8.5 x 10^50 erg. Such a low-mass progenitor scenario is in full agreement with the modelling of the nebular spectrum taken at $\sim$215 days from maximum. From the modelling of the adiabatic cooling phase, we infer a progenitor radius of $\approx$500-600 Rsun, clearly pointing to an extended progenitor star. The radio light curve of SN 2011hs yields a peak luminosity similar to that of SN 1993J, but with a higher mass loss rate and a wind density possibly more similar to that of SN 2001ig. Although no significant deviations from a smooth decline have been found in the radio light curves, we cannot rule out the presence of a binary companion star.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Nova Sco 2008 was recently shown to have resulted from the merger of the two stars in the contact binary V1309 Sco. This is the first stellar merger ever observed between two convective stars. We present archival data, new infrared photometry, and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 imaging of V1309 Sco. Spitzer observations show that it had a large infrared excess in the 3.6 μm to 8 μm range more than a year before the merger. Standard color diagnostics of the pre-merger infrared colors place V1309 Sco in the same region where evolved stars with chemically complex mass loss are located. Since the nova outburst subsided in optical bandpasses in 2008, the merger remnant's brightness in optical bandpasses, near-IR bandpasses, and the Spitzer 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels has varied by several magnitudes and in complex ways. A temporary, strong increase in the reddening during 2010 suggests the occurrence of a dust formation event. We point out several peculiarities in the relative fluxes and time behavior of the optical and near-IR magnitudes, which could be explained if some of the photometric bandpasses in the 1-5 μm range are strongly affected by emission lines.
    The Astronomical Journal 01/2014; 147(11). · 4.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nova Sco 2008 was recently shown to have resulted from the merger of the two stars in the contact binary V1309 Sco. This is the first stellar merger ever observed between two convective stars. We present archival data, new infrared photometry, and Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 imaging of V1309 Sco. Spitzer observations show that it had a large infrared excess in the 3.6 μm to 8 μm range more than a year before the merger. Standard color diagnostics of the pre-merger infrared colors place V1309 Sco in the same region where evolved stars with chemically complex mass loss are located. Since the nova outburst subsided in optical bandpasses in 2008, the merger remnant's brightness in optical bandpasses, near-IR bandpasses, and the Spitzer 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm channels has varied by several magnitudes and in complex ways. A temporary, strong increase in the reddening during 2010 suggests the occurrence of a dust formation event. We point out several peculiarities in the relative fluxes and time behavior of the optical and near-IR magnitudes, which could be explained if some of the photometric bandpasses in the 1-5 μm range are strongly affected by emission lines.
    12/2013; 147(1).
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    ABSTRACT: SN 2001ja was observed twice in three months using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The X-ray flux could be due to interaction with the circumstellar medium, perhaps dominated by the reverse shock heated thermal plasma, or from inverse Compton scattering at the forward shock. In both cases, for a steady wind-like circumstellar density profile, the X-ray flux is expected to fall off as a power law or faster. But the flux from the position of SN 2011ja, increased by a factor of three between these observations. In this presentation, we investigated possible reasons, including contamination from other astrophysical sources such as a X-Ray Binary, within the Chandra's resolution, in the host galaxy using our observations, modelling and pre-explosion Chandra/XMM data.
    12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We report MERLIN radio observations of the Type Ia supernova 2013dy, which was discovered on 10.45 July 2013, shortly after its explosion, in the nearby (D=13.5 Mpc) galaxy NGC 7250 (cf. CBET #3588). Our observations were carried out during 4 - 6 August 2013, one week after the SN reached its B-band maximum (Zheng et al. 2013). The radio telescopes that participated in the observations included five eMERLIN antennas (Jodrell Mk2, Pickmere, Darnhall, Knockin, and Defford).
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared and optical photometry, plus optical spectroscopy of two stripped-envelope supernovae (SNe) 2010O and 2010P that exploded in two different components of an interacting luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) Arp 299 within only a few days of one another. SN 2010O is found to be photometrically and spectroscopically similar to many normal Type Ib SNe and our multiwavelength observations of SN 2010P suggest it to be a Type IIb SN. No signs of clear hydrogen features or interaction with the circumstellar medium are evident in the optical spectrum of SN 2010P. We derive estimates for the host galaxy line-of-sight extinctions for both SNe, based on both light-curve and spectroscopic comparison finding consistent results. These methods are also found to provide much more robust estimates of the SN host galaxy reddening than the commonly used empirical relations between extinction and equivalent width of Na I D absorption features. The SN observations also suggest that different extinction laws are present in different components of Arp 299. For completeness, we study high-resolution pre-explosion images of Arp 299 and find both SNe to be close to, but not coincident with, extended sources that are likely massive clusters. A very simple model applied to the bolometric light curve of SN 2010O implies a rough estimate for the explosion parameters of $E_{\mathrm{k}} \approx 3 \times 10^{51}$ erg, $M_{\mathrm{ej}} \approx 2.9$ M$_{\odot}$ and $M_{\mathrm{Ni}} \approx 0.16$ M$_{\odot}$.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present near-infrared ($H$- and $K$-band) integral-field observations of the inner $\sim$700pc of the active spiral galaxy NGC613, obtained with SINFONI on the Very Large Telescope. We use emission-line ratios to determine the dominant excitation mechanisms in different regions within our field-of-view, in particular the active nucleus and the star-forming circum-nuclear ring. Diagnostic diagrams involving [FeII] and H$_2$ fluxes indicate that the gas is not only photoionized by the AGN in the nucleus of NGC613, but also shock-heated. On the other hand, the emission line ratios measured in the ``hot spots'' along the ring are fully consistent with them being young star forming regions. We find no sign of radial gas transport from the ring into the core region dominated by the AGN. The ring morphology appears disturbed by a radial outflow of material from the AGN, which is confirmed by the existence of a weak jet in archival radio maps. However, this jet does not seem to have any significant effect on the morphology of the large ($\sim$8$\times$10$^7$ solar masses) reservoir of molecular gas that has accumulated inside the central $\sim$100pc. Such a concentration of molecular gas around an AGN is unusual, and supports a scenario in which star formation is recurrent and episodic in spiral galaxies. In this context, NGC613 appears to be in final stages of the gas accumulation phase, and is likely to undergo a nuclear starburst in the near future.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 11/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Only a handful of supernovae (SNe) have been studied in multiwavelengths from the radio to X-rays, starting a few days after the explosion. The early detection and classification of the nearby Type IIb SN 2011dh/PTF 11eon in M51 provides a unique opportunity to conduct such observations. We present detailed data obtained at one of the youngest phase ever of a core-collapse SN (days 3-12 after the explosion) in the radio, millimetre and X-rays; when combined with optical data, this allows us to explore the early evolution of the SN blast wave and its surroundings. Our analysis shows that the expanding SN shock wave does not exhibit equipartition (ɛe/ɛB ˜ 1000), and is expanding into circumstellar material that is consistent with a density profile falling like R-2. Within modelling uncertainties we find an average velocity of the fast parts of the ejecta of 15 000 ± 1800 km s-1, contrary to previous analysis. This velocity places SN 2011dh in an intermediate blast wave regime between the previously defined compact and extended SN Type IIb subtypes. Our results highlight the importance of early (˜1 d) high-frequency observations of future events. Moreover, we show the importance of combined radio/X-ray observations for determining the microphysics ratio ɛe/ɛB.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 09/2013; · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We have established a relation between the brightest super star cluster magnitude in a galaxy and the host star formation rate (SFR) for the first time in the near infrared (NIR). The data come from a statistical sample of ~ 40 luminous IR galaxies (LIRGs) and starbursts utilizing K-band adaptive optics imaging. While expanding the observed relation to longer wavelengths, less affected by extinction effects, it also pushes to higher SFRs. The relation we find, M_K ~ - 2.6 log SFR, is similar to that derived previously in the optical and at lower SFRs. It does not, however, fit the optical relation with a single optical to NIR color conversion, suggesting systematic extinction and/or age effects. While the relation is broadly consistent with a size-of-sample explanation, we argue physical reasons for the relation are likely as well. In particular, the scatter in the relation is smaller than expected from pure random sampling strongly suggesting physical constraints. We also derive a quantifiable relation tying together cluster-internal effects and host SFR properties to possibly explain the observed brightest SSC magnitude vs. SFR dependency.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 08/2013; 775(2). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report new near-infrared and mm-wave observational data on a selection of massive Galactic molecular clumps (part of the CHaMP sample) and their associated young star clusters. The clumps show, for the first time in a "dense gas tracer", a significant correlation between HCO+ line emission from cold molecular gas and Br{\gamma} line emission of associated nebulae. This correlation arises in the HCO+ line's brightness, not its linewidth. In contrast, the correlation between the N2H+ line emission and Br{\gamma} is weak or absent. The HCO+/N2H+ line ratio also varies widely from clump to clump: bright HCO+ emission tends to be more closely associated with Br{\gamma} nebulosity, while bright N2H+ emission tends to avoid areas that are bright in Br{\gamma}. Both molecular species show correlations of weak significance with infrared H2 v=1-0 and v=2-1 line emission, in or near the clumps. The H2 emission line ratio is consistent with fluorescent excitation in most of the clumps, although thermal excitation is seen in a few clumps. We interpret these trends as evidence for evolution in the gas conditions due to the effects of ongoing star formation in the clumps, in particular, the importance of UV radiation from massive YSOs as the driving agent that heats the molecular gas and alters its chemistry. This suggests that some traditional dense gas tracers of molecular clouds do not sample a homogeneous population of clumps, i.e., that the HCO+ brightness in particular is directly related to the heating and disruption of cold gas by massive young stars, whereas the N2H+ better samples gas not yet affected by this process. We therefore suggest that the HCO+-N2H+-Br{\gamma} relationship is a useful diagnostic of a molecular clump's progress in forming massive stars.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 05/2013; 432(3). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Massive stars, possibly red supergiants, which retain extended hydrogen envelopes until core collapse, produce Type II Plateau (IIP) supernovae. The ejecta from these explosions shock the circumstellar matter originating from the mass loss of the progenitor during the final phases of its life. This interaction accelerates particles to relativistic energies which then lose energy via synchrotron radiation in the shock-amplified magnetic fields and inverse Compton scattering against optical photons from the supernova. These processes produce different signatures in the radio and X-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum. Observed together, they allow us to break the degeneracy between shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification. In this work we use X-rays observations from the Chandra and radio observations from the ATCA to study the relative importance of processes which accelerate particles and those which amplify magnetic fields in producing the non-thermal radiation from SN 2011ja. We use radio observations to constrain the explosion date. Multiple Chandra observations allow us to probe the history of variable mass loss from the progenitor. The ejecta expands into a low density bubble followed by interaction with a higher density wind from a red supergiant consistent with ZAMS mass greater than 16 solar masses. Our results suggest that a fraction of type IIP supernovae may interact with circumstellar media set up by non-steady winds.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2013; 774(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Super star clusters (SSCs) are typically found in interacting galaxies and trace an extreme form of star-formation. We present a K-band study of SSC candidates in a sample of local luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs) using two adaptive optics instruments (VLT/NACO and Gemini/ALTAIR/NIRI). In addition to facilitating SSC detections in obscured environments, this work introduces SSC studies in hosts with higher star-formation rates (SFRs) than most previous studies. We find that the luminosity functions (LFs) of the clusters are reasonably well-fitted by a single power-law with the values of the index \alpha ranging between 1.5 to 2.4 with an average value of \alpha ~ 1.9. This value appears to be less steep than the average \alpha ~ 2.2 in normal spiral galaxies. Due to the host galaxy distances involved (median $D_L$ ~ 70 Mpc) blending effects have to be taken into account, and are investigated using Monte Carlo simulations of blending effects for LFs and a photometric SSC analysis of the well-studied Antennae system which is artificially redshifted to distances of our sample. While blending tends to flatten LFs our analyses show that \Delta \alpha is less than ~ 0.1 in our sample. The simulations also show that in the luminosity range, $M_K < -13$, considered in this work the extracted SSC luminosities are generally dominated by a single dominant star cluster rather than several knots of SF. We present resolution- and distance-dependent SSC surface density confusion limits and show how blending rates and aperture sizes affect the LFs. The smallest possible apertures should be used in crowded regions.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2013; 431(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report results of our continuing infrared photometric and spectroscopic monitoring of the object V1309 Sco, which underwent a bright, nova-like outburst in 2008. The outburst was later shown to have resulted from the merger of a contact binary. This object represents a unique opportunity to obtain physical information about a stellar merger remnant relatively soon after the merger. Our monitoring, along with archival data, shows broadband IR flux and SED changes over time scales of months to years. Our near-infrared spectroscopy shows a non-photospheric spectrum with many emission lines which are mostly collisional lines indicative of shocks.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The young Type II Supernova 2012hs (CBET #3347) in the galaxy ESO 213-2 has been observed with the ATCA + CABB 2 GHz backend system on 2012 Dec 20.6 at a frequency of 18 GHz. No radio emission was detected at the supernova location, to a 3-sigma upper limit of 0.08 mJy. Adopting a host galaxy distance of 24 Mpc from NED, this implies an upper limit on the luminosity at 18 GHz of 5.5E25 erg/s/Hz. We would like to extend our thanks to the ATCA staff and to V.
    The Astronomer's Telegram. 12/2012;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
474.04 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2004–2014
    • Australian Astronomical Observatory
      Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Institute for Theory and Computation
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • University of Turku
      • Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO
      Turku, Province of Western Finland, Finland
  • 1997–2009
    • Joint Astronomy Centre
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
  • 1995–2008
    • University of New South Wales
      • School of Physics
      Kensington, New South Wales, Australia
  • 2007
    • South African Astronomical Observatory
      Kaapstad, Western Cape, South Africa
  • 2006
    • University of Tasmania
      • School of Mathematics & Physics
      Newnham, Tasmania, Australia
  • 1993–1995
    • University of Alabama
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Tuscaloosa, Alabama, United States
  • 1994
    • Australian National University
      • Research School of Astronomy & Astrophysics
      Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia