[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cyclodextrin (CD) is a well known drug carrier and excipient for enhancing aqueous solubility. CDs themselves are anticipated to have low membrane permeability because of relatively high hydrophilicity and molecular weight. CD derivatization with 17-beta estradiol (E(2)) was explored extensively using a number of different click chemistries and the cell membrane permeability of synthetic CD-E(2) conjugate was explored by cell reporter assays and confocal fluorescence microscopy. In simile with reported dendrimer-E(2) conjugates, CD-E(2) was found to be a stable, extranuclear receptor selective estrogen that penetrated into the cytoplasm.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent studies revealed that norcarane (bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane) is oxidized to 2-norcarene (bicyclo[4.1.0]-hept-2-ene) and 3-norcarene (bicyclo[4.1.0]hept-3-ene) by iron-containing enzymes and that secondary oxidation products from the norcarenes complicate mechanistic probe studies employing norcarane as the substrate (Newcomb, M.; Chandrasena, R. E. P.; Lansakara-P., D. S. P.; Kim, H.-Y.; Lippard, S. J.; Beauvais, L. G.; Murray, L. J.; Izzo, V.; Hollenberg, P. F.; Coon, M. J. J. Org. Chem. 2007, 72, 1121-1127). In the present work, the product profiles from the oxidations of 2-norcarene and 3-norcarene by several enzymes were determined. Most of the products were identified by GC and GC-mass spectral comparison to authentic samples produced independently; in some cases, stereochemical assignments were made or confirmed by 2D NMR analysis of the products. The enzymes studied in this work were four cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2B1, CYPDelta2E1, CYPDelta2E1 T303A, and CYPDelta2B4, and three diiron-containing enzymes, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), toluene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, and phenol hydroxylase (PH) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. The oxidation products from the norcarenes identified in this work are 2-norcaranone, 3-norcaranone, syn- and anti-2-norcarene oxide, syn- and anti-3-norcarene oxide, syn- and anti-4-hydroxy-2-norcarene, syn- and anti-2-hydroxy-3-norcarene, 2-oxo-3-norcarene, 4-oxo-2-norcarene, and cyclohepta-3,5-dienol. Two additional, unidentified oxidation products were observed in low yields in the oxidations. In matched oxidations, 3-norcarene was a better substrate than 2-norcarene in terms of turnover by factors of 1.5-15 for the enzymes studied here. The oxidation products found in enzyme-catalyzed oxidations of the norcarenes are useful for understanding the complex product mixtures obtained in norcarane oxidations.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 03/2007; 72(4):1128-33. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Norcarane, bicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, has been widely used as a mechanistic probe in studies of oxidations catalyzed by several iron-containing enzymes. We report here that, in addition to oxygenated products, norcarane is also oxidized by iron-containing enzymes in desaturase reactions that give 2-norcarene and 3-norcarene. Furthermore, secondary products from further oxidation reactions of the norcarenes are produced in yields that are comparable to those of the minor products from oxidation of the norcarane. We studied oxidations catalyzed by a representative spectrum of iron-containing enzymes including four cytochrome P450 enzymes, CYP2B1, CYPDelta2B4, CYPDelta2E1, and CYPDelta2E1 T303A, and three diiron enzymes, soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO) from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath), toluene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, and phenol hydroxylase (PH) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1. 2-Norcarene and 3-norcarene and their oxidation products were found in all reaction mixtures, accounting for up to half of the oxidation products in some cases. In total, more than 20 oxidation products were identified from the enzyme-catalyzed reactions of norcarane. The putative radical-derived product from the oxidation of norcarane, 3-hydroxymethylcyclohexene (21), and the putative cation-derived product from the oxidation of norcarane, cyclohept-3-enol (22), coelute with other oxidation products on low-polarity GC columns. The yields of product 21 found in this study are smaller than those previously reported for the same or similar enzymes in studies where the products from norcarene oxidations were ignored, and therefore, the limiting values for lifetimes of radical intermediates produced in the enzyme-catalyzed oxidation reactions are shorter than those previously reported.
The Journal of Organic Chemistry 03/2007; 72(4):1121-7. · 4.56 Impact Factor