[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been shown to be expressed after brain lesions and in particular after demyelination. Here, we addressed the role of this cytokine in the regulation of neural progenitor migration in the adult rodent brain. Using an acute model of demyelination, we show that CNTF is strongly re-expressed after lesion and is involved in the postlesional mobilization of endogenous progenitors that participate in the myelin regenerative process. We show that CNTF controls the migration of subventricular zone (SVZ)-derived neural progenitors toward the demyelinated corpus callosum. Furthermore, an ectopic source of CNTF in adult healthy brains changes SVZ-derived neural progenitors' migratory behavior that migrate toward the source by activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (JAK/STAT3) pathway. Using various in vitro assays (Boyden chambers, explants, and video time-lapse imaging), we demonstrate that CNTF controls the directed migration of SVZ-derived progenitors and oligodendrocyte precursors. Altogether, these results demonstrate that in addition to its neuroprotective activity and its role in progenitor survival and maturation, CNTF acts as a chemoattractant and participates in the recruitment of endogenous progenitors during myelin repair.
Journal of Neuroscience 02/2013; 33(7):3240-50. · 6.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by episodes of immune attack of oligodendrocytes leading to demyelination and progressive functional deficit. One therapeutic strategy to address disease progression could consist in stimulating the spontaneous regenerative process observed in some patients. Myelin regeneration requires endogenous oligodendrocyte progenitor migration and activation of the myelination program at the lesion site. In this study, we have tested the ability of olesoxime, a neuroprotective and neuroregenerative agent, to promote remyelination in the rodent central nervous system in vivo.
The effect of olesoxime on oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation and myelin synthesis was tested directly in organotypic slice cultures and OPC-neuron cocultures. Using naive animals and different mouse models of demyelination, we morphologically and functionally assessed the effect of the compound on myelination in vivo.
Olesoxime accelerated oligodendrocyte maturation and enhanced myelination in vitro and in vivo in naive animals during development and also in the adult brain without affecting oligodendrocyte survival or proliferation. In mouse models of demyelination and remyelination, olesoxime favored the repair process, promoting myelin formation with consequent functional improvement.
Our observations support the strategy of promoting oligodendrocyte maturation and myelin synthesis to enhance myelin repair and functional recovery. We also provide proof of concept that olesoxime could be useful for the treatment of demyelinating diseases.
Annals of Neurology 02/2012; 71(2):213-26. · 11.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding the signals that control migration of neural progenitor cells in the adult brain may provide new therapeutic opportunities. Reelin is best known for its role in regulating cell migration during brain development, but we now demonstrate a novel function for reelin in the injured adult brain. First, we show that Reelin is upregulated around lesions. Second, experimentally increasing Reelin expression levels in healthy mouse brain leads to a change in the migratory behavior of subventricular zone-derived progenitors, triggering them to leave the rostral migratory stream (RMS) to which they are normally restricted during their migration to the olfactory bulb. Third, we reveal that Reelin increases endogenous progenitor cell dispersal in periventricular structures independently of any chemoattraction but via cell detachment and chemokinetic action, and thereby potentiates spontaneous cell recruitment to demyelination lesions in the corpus callosum. Conversely, animals lacking Reelin signaling exhibit reduced endogenous progenitor recruitment at the lesion site. Altogether, these results demonstrate that beyond its known role during brain development, Reelin is a key player in post-lesional cell migration in the adult brain. Finally our findings provide proof of concept that allowing progenitors to escape from the RMS is a potential therapeutic approach to promote myelin repair.
PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(5):e20430. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the adult rodent brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) represents a special niche for neural stem cells; these cells proliferate and generate neural progenitors. Most of these migrate along the rostral migratory stream to the olfactory bulb, where they differentiate into interneurons. SVZ-derived progenitors can also be recruited spontaneously to damaged brain areas to replace lost cells, including oligodendrocytes in demyelinated lesions. In this study, we searched for factors able to enhance this spontaneous recruitment of endogenous progenitors. Previous studies have suggested that epidermal growth factor (EGF) could stimulate proliferation, migration, and glial differentiation of SVZ progenitors. In the present study we examined EGF influence on endogenous SVZ cell participation to brain repair in the context of demyelinated lesions. We induced a focal demyelinated lesion in the corpus callosum by lysolecithin injection and showed that intranasal heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) administration induces a significant increase in SVZ cell proliferation together with a stronger SVZ cell mobilization toward the lesions. Besides, HB-EGF causes a shift of SVZ-derived progenitor cell differentiation toward the astrocytic lineage. However, due to the threefold increase in cell recruitment by EGF treatment, the absolute number of SVZ-derived oligodendrocytes in the lesion of treated mice is higher than in controls. These results suggest that enhancing SVZ cell proliferation could be part of future strategies to promote SVZ progenitor cell mobilization toward brain lesions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pituitary cells, activation of the cAMP pathway by specific G protein-coupled receptors controls differentiative functions and proliferation. Constitutively active forms of the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G(s) protein resulting from mutations at codon 201 or 227 (gsp oncogene) were first identified in 30-40% of human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. This rate of occurrence suggests that the gsp oncogene is not responsible for initiating the majority of these tumors. Moreover, there is a large overlap between the clinical phenotypes observed in patients with tumors bearing the gsp oncogene and those devoid of this oncogene. To explore the role of G(s)alpha in GH-secreting adenomas, we obtained somatolactotroph GH4C1 cell lines by performing doxycycline-dependent conditional overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein and expression of the gsp oncogene. Although the resulting adenylyl cyclase and cAMP levels were 10-fold lower in the wild-type G(s)alpha-overexpressing cell line, a sustained MAPK ERK1/2 activation was observed in both cell lines. Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Since the discovery of adult neural stem cells, mobilization of endogenous stem cells from the subventricular zone (SVZ) emerges as a promising strategy to promote brain repair. Here, we examined the effect of environment enrichment on SVZ cell mobilization in demyelinating pathologies. We showed that enriched housing conditions reduced functional impairment in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, both in a focal demyelination model (lysolecithin injection) and in the inflammatory EAE model, SVZ mitotic activity and the number of SVZ-derived cells in demyelinated areas were significantly increased by environment enrichment. Enriched housing conditions also promoted the oligodendrocyte fate of SVZ-recruited cells in the EAE lesions. Altogether our results show that environment enrichment provides beneficial conditions to promote the mobilization of neural progenitors into demyelinating lesions and to favour functional recovery.
European Journal of Neuroscience 03/2007; 25(3):761-71. · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pituitary cells, prolactin (PRL) synthesis and release are controlled by multiple transduction pathways. In the GH4C1 somatolactotroph cell line, we previously reported that MAPK ERK-1/2 are a point of convergence between the pathways involved in the PRL gene regulation. In the present study, we focused on the involvement of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway in the MAPK ERK-1/2 regulation and PRL secretion in pituitary cells. Either specific pharmacological PI3K and Akt inhibitors (LY294002, Akt I, and phosphoinositide analog-6) or Akt dominant-negative mutant (K179M) enhanced ERK-1/2 phosphorylation in unstimulated GH4C1 cells. Under the same conditions, PI3K and Akt inhibition also both increased Raf-1 kinase activity and the levels of GTP-bound (active form) monomeric G protein Rap1, which suggests that a down-regulation of the ERK-1/2 cascade is induced by the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway in unstimulated cells. On the contrary, ERK-1/2 phosphorylation, Raf-1 activity, and Rap1 activation were almost completely blocked in IGF-I-stimulated cells previously subjected to PI3K or Akt inhibition. Although the PRL promoter was not affected by either PI3K/Akt inhibition or activation, PRL release increased in response to the pharmacological PI3K/Akt inhibitors in unstimulated GH4C1 and rat pituitary primary cells. The IGF-I-stimulated PRL secretion was diminished, on the contrary, by the pharmacological PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Taken together, these findings indicate that the PI3K/Akt pathway exerts dual regulatory effects on both the Rap1/Raf-1/ERK-1/2 cascade and PRL release in pituitary cells, i.e. negative effects in unstimulated cells and positive ones in IGF-I-stimulated cells.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In pituitary cells, transcriptional regulation of the prolactin (PRL) gene and prolactin secretion are controlled by multiple transduction pathways through the activation of G protein coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases. In the somatolactotrope GH4C1 cell line, we have previously identified crosstalk between the MAPKinase cascade ERK1/2 and the cAMP/protein kinase A pathway after the activation of the VPAC2 receptor by vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) or pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38). In the present study, we focus on the involvement of the GTPases Ras and Rap1 as downstream components of signal transmission initiated by activation of the VPAC2 receptor. By using pull-down experiments, we show that VIP and PACAP38 preferentially activate Rap1, whereas thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) mainly activate Ras GTPase. Experiments involving the expression of the dominant-negative mutants of Ras and Rap1 signaling (RasN17 or Rap1N17) indicate that both GTPases Ras and Rap1 are recruited for the ERK activation by VIP and PACAP38, whereas Rap1 is poorly involved in TRH or EGF-induced ERK activation. The use of U0126, a selective inhibitor of MAPKinase kinase, provides evidence that MAPKinase contributes to the regulation of the PRL gene. Moreover, cotransfection of RasN17 or Rap1N17 with the PRL proximal promoter luciferase reporter construct indicates that Rap1 may be responsible for VIP/PACAP-induced activation of the PRL promoter. Interestingly, Ras would be involved as a negative regulator of VIP/PACAP-induced PRL gene activation, in contrast to its stimulatory role in the regulation of the PRL promoter by TRH and EGF.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2004; 278(51):51386-94. · 4.65 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP38) regulate anterior pituitary cell secretion and proliferation. In the somatolactotrope GH4C1 cell line, these effects are mediated through the type-II-like PACAP receptor (VPAC2) coupled to the cAMP pathway. In this study, the control of the extracellularly responsive kinases (ERKs) by VIP and PACAP38 was investigated in GH4C1 cells. VIP and PACAP38 increased ERK1 and ERK2 phosphorylation and were equipotent stimulators of both kinases. ERK activation was mimicked by cholera toxin, forskolin and 8bromo-cAMP. VIP and PACAP38 activation of ERK2 was blocked by the protein kinase A inhibitor H89, whereas the protein kinase C inhibitor GF109203X, or prior PMA-induced depletion of the protein kinases C, failed to inhibit VIP and PACAP38 activation of ERK2. In contrast, thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) elicited ERK activation by a PKC-dependent process. ERK activation by VIP or PACAP38 and TRH were additive and both sensitive to the MEK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126. In parallel, U0126 reduced prolactin (PRL) mRNA levels induced by VIP. These results demonstrate for the first time that VIP and PACAP38 activate ERK in GH4C1 cells. Cyclic AMP increase is sufficient to elicit ERK activation in these cells and thus likely to represent the transduction pathway underlying VIP- and PACAP38-dependent ERK activation. This mechanism seems to be involved in VIP-induced PRL gene regulation.