[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An appropriate trigger for BCR-ABL1 mutation analysis has not yet been established in unselected cohorts of chronic-phase chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. We examined 92 patients after 12 months of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. Univariate analysis revealed that significant factors associated with not attaining a major molecular response (MMR) were the presence of the minor BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, a low daily dose of TKI, and the emergence of BCR-ABL1 kinase domain mutations conferring resistance to imatinib. Factors associated with the loss of sustained MMR were a low daily dose of TKI and the emergence of alternatively spliced BCR-ABL1 mRNA with a 35-nucleotide insertion. Taken together, our results suggest that the search for BCR-ABL1 mutations should be initiated if patients have not achieved MMR following 12 months of TKI treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is usually resistant to conventional chemotherapies, and there are few other treatment options. Because CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) is expressed on tumor cells from most patients with ATL, KW-0761, a humanized anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody, which markedly enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, was evaluated in the treatment of patients with relapsed ATL.
A multicenter phase II study of KW-0761 for patients with relapsed, aggressive CCR4-positive ATL was conducted to evaluate efficacy, pharmacokinetic profile, and safety. The primary end point was overall response rate, and secondary end points included progression-free and overall survival from the first dose of KW-0761. Patients received intravenous infusions of KW-0761 once per week for 8 weeks at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg.
Of 28 patients enrolled onto the study, 27 received at least one infusion of KW-0761. Objective responses were noted in 13 of 26 evaluable patients, including eight complete responses, with an overall response rate of 50% (95% CI, 30% to 70%). Median progression-free and overall survival were 5.2 and 13.7 months, respectively. The mean half-life period after the eighth infusion was 422 ± 147 hours (± standard deviation). The most common adverse events were infusion reactions (89%) and skin rashes (63%), which were manageable and reversible in all cases.
KW-0761 demonstrated clinically meaningful antitumor activity in patients with relapsed ATL, with an acceptable toxicity profile. Further investigation of KW-0761 for treatment of ATL and other T-cell neoplasms is warranted.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2012; 30(8):837-42. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 68-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of involuntary movements, similar to those associated with chorea, of the right side of the body and for further evaluation of thrombocythemia. She had no family history of chorea. Neurological findings did not show any abnormality except for chorea of the right side. Laboratory studies showed increased number of white blood cells (14,000/microl) and platelets (188.3 x 10(4)/ microl). Lupus anticoagulant, anti-cardiolipin antibody, and ceruloplasmin levels were within the normal range. Her NAP score was 240, and result for bcr-abl gene expression was negative. Bone marrow puncture showed hypercellularity and increased number of megakaryocytes (550/microl), but there was no atypism. On the basis of these laboratory findings, she was diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a hyperintense lesion extending from the region around the left globus pallidum to putamen. The MRI findings of our study were similar to those related to diabetic hemichorea; however, the results of some tests did not indicate diabetes mellitus. An MRI scan showing high T1 signal intensity in the basal ganglia might not be specific for diabetic hemichorea. In this case, MRI revealed the cause of hemichorea to be micocirculatory failure or small cerebral hemorrhages.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been fully investigated among people exposed to ionizing radiation. We investigate MDS risk and radiation dose-response in Japanese atomic bomb survivors.
We conducted a retrospective cohort study by using two databases of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: 64,026 people with known exposure distance in the database of Nagasaki University Atomic-Bomb Disease Institute (ABDI) and 22,245 people with estimated radiation dose in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS). Patients with MDS diagnosed from 1985 to 2004 were identified by record linkage between the cohorts and the Nagasaki Prefecture Cancer Registry. Cox and Poisson regression models were used to estimate relationships between exposure distance or dose and MDS risk.
There were 151 patients with MDS in the ABDI cohort and 47 patients with MDS in the LSS cohort. MDS rate increased inversely with exposure distance, with an excess relative risk (ERR) decay per km of 1.2 (95% CI, 0.4 to 3.0; P < .001) for ABDI. MDS risk also showed a significant linear response to exposure dose level (P < .001) with an ERR per Gy of 4.3 (95% CI, 1.6 to 9.5; P < .001). After adjustment for sex, attained age, and birth year, the MDS risk was significantly greater in those exposed when young.
A significant linear radiation dose-response for MDS exists in atomic bomb survivors 40 to 60 years after radiation exposure. Clinicians should perform careful long-term follow-up of irradiated people to detect MDS as early as possible.
Journal of Clinical Oncology 02/2011; 29(4):428-34. · 18.04 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The long-term prognosis of indolent adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is not clearly elucidated. From 1974 to 2003, newly diagnosed indolent ATL in 90 patients (65 chronic type and 25 smoldering type) was analyzed. The median survival time was 4.1 years; 12 patients remained alive for more than 10 years, 44 progressed to acute ATL, and 63 patients died. The estimated 5-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 47.2%, 25.4%, and 14.1%, respectively, with no plateau in the survival curve. Although most patients were treated with watchful waiting, 12 patients were treated with chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that advanced performance status (PS), neutrophilia, high concentration of lactate dehydrogenase, more than 3 extranodal lesions, more than 4 total involved lesions, and receiving chemotherapy were unfavorable prognostic factors for survival. Multivariate Cox analysis showed that advanced PS was a borderline significant independent factor in poor survival (hazard ratio, 2.1, 95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.6; P = .06), but it was not a factor when analysis was limited to patients who had not received chemotherapy. The prognosis of indolent ATL in this study was poorer than expected. These findings suggest that even patients with indolent ATL should be carefully observed in clinical practice. Further studies are required to develop treatments for indolent ATL.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Imatinib has dramatically improved long-term survival of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients. To analyze its efficacy in a practical setting, we registered most of CML patients in Nagasaki Prefecture of Japan. Of these, 73 patients received imatinib as an initial therapy. The overall survival rate of these patients was 88.7% at 6 years, and the cumulative complete cytogenetic response rate was 82.5% at 18 months. These results are comparable with the data of other reports including the IRIS study; however, the administered imatinib dose was smaller in our study than that in other reports. To address these discrepancies, we measured the trough concentration of imatinib among 35 patients. Although 39% of the patients were administered less than 400 mg/day, the trough level was comparable to those of previous reports. The trough level of imatinib showed a significant relationship with its efficacy, and was clearly related to dose of imatinib administrated and dose of imatinib divided by body surface area (BSA). Considering the smaller BSA of Japanese patients as compared to those of foreign origin, the results suggest that a lower dose of imatinib could maintain enough trough level and provided excellent results for the treatment of CML in our registry.
International journal of hematology 05/2009; 89(3):319-25. · 1.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Multiple myeloma (MM) remains a largely incurable disease in the long term despite positive responses to first-line chemotherapy. Herein we report the case of a 68-year-old woman who died following treatment with bortezomib plus dexamethasone for refractory MM. The combination was associated with significant antitumor activity, but bacterial pneumonia/sepsis was followed by bilateral cytomegalovirus pneumonia with herpes simplex co-infection, and this was almost certainly the cause of death. Physicians need to pay careful attention when treating patients with refractory MM with bortezomib plus dexamethasone, and to be mindful that antiviral therapy may be needed in some cases.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present here a case of dorsal column degeneration in a female patient with multiple myeloma following exposure to bortezomib. Two days after intravenous administration of a first course of bortezomib 1 mg/m(2), the patient developed rapidly-progressive numbness, pain and muscle weakness in the bilateral upper and lower limbs. Following gancyclovir treatment of subsequent cytomegalovirus viremia, the patient went on to receive a course of EPOCH (etoposide 50 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-4, vincristine 0.4 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-4, doxorubicin 10 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-4, cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m(2)/day on day 6, and prednisolone 60 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-6). Shortly thereafter, the patient developed bilateral Aspergillus pneumonia. Despite treatment with appropriate antifungal agents, the patient died from respiratory failure due to bilateral diffuse alveolar damage of the lungs and without recovery of severe sensory and motor neuropathy prior to her death. Post mortem examination revealed spongy degeneration of the dorsal column from the medulla oblongata to the cervical spinal cord. Bortezomib-associated peripheral neuropathy in patients with multiple myeloma has been commonly reported but appears to resolve in a majority of these patients after dose reduction or discontinuation. We believe this to be the first report of spinal cord abnormalities in a patient with multiple myeloma treated with bortezomib. Further investigation is required to ascertain the exact mechanism of this central neurotoxic effect and to identify appropriate neuroprotective strategies.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the efficacy of imatinib in a practical setting, we registered 43 patients with newly diagnosed chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) (group I) and 56 patients with previously diagnosed CML (group II) at 11 hematology centers in Nagasaki prefecture, Japan, from December 2001 to July 2005 and analyzed the molecular responses. Cytopenia, fluid retention, and skin rash were major adverse events, along with elevation in creatine phosphokinase levels. With a follow-up of approximately 3.5 years, imatinib treatment led to 88.7% overall survival (OS) and 85.2% progression-free survival (PFS) rates for group I, and 79.8% OS and 76.6% PFS rates for group II; the rates were not significantly different despite a lower average imatinib dose in group II. The rates of complete cytogenetic response at 30 months and major molecular response at 24 months were 86.1% and 62.5%, respectively, in group I, and 77.9% and 58.3% in group II; the rates were not significantly different. As has been reported by other groups, these results demonstrate that imatinib treatment can provide excellent clinical and molecular effects for not only newly diagnosed but also previously treated CML patients in practical settings that cover a wider variety of patients than clinical trials.
International Journal of Hematology 03/2007; 85(2):132-9. · 1.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogenous hematological group characterized by an ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in a variety of cytopenias, morphological abnormalities of blood cells, chromosomal aberrations, and an increases risk of transformation into acute myeloid leukemia. Despite of its nature of close relation to leukemia, MDS has been not well investigated in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study with over 80,000 A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki to assess the incidence of MDS and its relation with A-bomb exposure status. In a preliminary analysis, we confirmed 162 MDS cases during 1980 to 2004. The median age at diagnosis was 71 years old. The incidence rate was higher in men than women, and an inverse relationship was observed between incidence of MDS and the distance from the hypocenter. We suggest that A-bomb radiation may affect the occurrence of MDS in A-bomb survivors even more than 50 years passed after the explosion. Further detail analyses are necessary to confirm these results