[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured in malaria patients and nonmalarial fever patients. The results were compared with normal healthy control subjects. ACP was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in all the malaria patients. ACP was significantly higher in Plasmodium falcifarum malaria and mixed malaria when compared to Plasmodium vivax malaria. Hb levels were significantly decreased in all the malaria patients which indicates that malaria parasite uses host erythrocyte Hb as a major nutrient source. There is negative correlation(r = -0.478) between ACP and Hb in malaria patients, which is highly significant. These results suggest that the measurement of ACP could be used as a marker for malaria. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12291-011-0137-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 10/2011; 26(4):396-9.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to find out the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in ischemic stroke patients (ISPs) with and without diabetes. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was studied as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH), uric acid and ceruloplasmin were estimated to study the antioxidant potential of ISPs. Significantly higher levels of MDA were found in both the groups of ISPs and the increase in MDA was more in ISPs without diabetes. GSH levels were decreased significantly in both the groups of ISPs and maximum decline was found in ISPs with diabetes. Uric acid levels were significantly increased in both the groups of ISPs. Ceruloplasmin levels were increased significantly in ISPs without diabetes, whereas its levels were slightly decreased in ISPs with diabetes. A negative correlation was found between MDA and the antioxidants GSH, uric acid and ceruloplasmin in ISPs with diabetes. This study suggests that there is an association between ischemic stroke and increased oxidative stress and the antioxidant potential is impaired in both the groups of ISPs with and without diabetes.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 07/2008; 23(3):218-22.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead is a major health hazard, especially in children. Impact of lead poisoning on our society is not known. Effectiveness of environmental interventions in reducing blood lead levels is not exactly known, though the Center for Disease Control and Prevention strongly advocates use of such means.
We aimed at screening school children for blood lead levels (BLLs) and reducing the BLLs of children with preliminary BLL> 20 microg/dL by environmental intervention and intensive education.
To assess the extent of lead poisoning, a screening of 106 children was done, which showed that children belonging to a particular government primary school had higher BLLs. A second screening program of 87 children conducted in that school showed that only 19% had BLL < 10 microg/dL; whereas 44% had BLL between 10 and 20 microg/dL, and 37% had BLL> 20 microg/dL. Thirty-eight children having BLL> 20 microg/dL were selected from the two screening programs. After removing all potential sources of lead from their environment and educating them about the ways to prevent exposure to lead, follow-up of their BLLs was carried out at an interval of 6 months for a period of 1 year.
Values of the different follow-up studies were compared using repeated-measure ANOVA.
Our results showed that there was a significant (P < 0.0001) reduction in the BLLs in the first and second follow-up studies.
The study is a proof of the concept that a decline in the BLLs can be achieved by intense education and avoiding the potential environmental sources of lead.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 05/2008; 62(5):185-92. · 1.67 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age is associated with an accumulation of free radical damage, which leads to physiological and clinical modifications. Age related changes resulting from free radical reactions include increasing levels of lipid peroxides, alterations in enzyme activities and greater osmotic fragility. The present study was conducted to estimate the level of lipid peroxidation product-Malondialdehyde and antioxidants Catalase and Glutathione in elderly people. An increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidants was observed in normal elderly people. Highly significant increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants was observed in elderly people when complicated with diabetes and hypertension. Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent further oxidative injury in elderly people.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 03/2007; 22(1):131-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can now be performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The former entails global ischemia followed by reperfusion after declamping, whereas the latter does not. In view of growing evidence that reperfusion is associated with oxidative stress, we studied the extent of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump CABG to determine whether the latter significantly reduces oxidative stress.
Thirty patients were initially enrolled for the study. The inclusion criteria included patients with atherosclerotic triple vessel disease, undergoing elective CABG, with good LV function, no major risk factors for surgery, with all biochemical investigations within normal limits, having stable angina and no history of previous infarct. Patients with valvular heart disease, ventricular aneurysm, heart failure and poor left ventricular function were excluded. These were alternately posted for on-pump and off-pump CABG. Eight patients were excluded as they developed unforeseen complications during the surgery. Out of the remaining 22 patients, 13 underwent off-pump CABG and 9 underwent on-pump CABG. Five blood samples were collected; baseline, 5, 15, 60 min and 24 h after reperfusion. Samples were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (G-SH) and catalase (CAT). The results were compared with their preanaesthetic levels in both the groups and also with 20 age- and sex-matched normal healthy individuals.
Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased after reperfusion in patients undergoing on-pump CABG, maximum increase (p<0.0001) was seen 1 h after reperfusion, whereas off-pump CABG reduces oxidative stress. The G-SH levels were significantly decreased after reperfusion in on-pump and off-pump CABG patients, maximum decrease (p<0.0001) was seen 5 min after reperfusion in on-pump CABG. The catalase activity was significantly increased after reperfusion in on-pump and off-pump CABG patients, maximum increase (p<0.0001) was seen 1 h after reperfusion in on-pump CABG.
Significant increase in oxidative stress was seen in patients undergoing on-pump CABG, whereas oxidative stress was less in off-pump CABG patients. The G-SH levels were decreased and Catalase activity was increased significantly in both on-pump and off-pump CABG patients.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of Malaria. To assess the extent of oxidative stress, a study was conducted in patients withPlasmodium falciparum malaria andPlasmodium Vivax malaria. Plasma Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured to assess the degree of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant status was measured by estimating the levels of Vitamins E and C. Results were compared with age and sex matched control subjects. This study suggests that plasma TBARS levels were significantly increased in malaria patients. The patients withP. falciparum infection showed significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides when compared toP. vivax malaria. The antioxidant Vitamins E and C were decreased significantly in malaria patients in both the groups. Maximum decline in Vitamin C was observed inP. vivax malaria. Therefore it is been hypothesized that antioxidant Vitamins E and C could provide protection against the oxidative stress induced by malaria.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 09/2006; 21(2):103-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free radical mediated pathological processes may have a role in schizophrenia. Free radicals (oxy radicals, such as superoxide, hydroxyl ions and nitric oxide) cause cell injury, when they are generated in excess or when the antioxidant defense is impaired. Both these processes seem to be affected in schizophrenia. In this study we investigated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) as a sign of lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde were greater in patients compared with the control group which may reflect increased oxidative stress in the brain tissue of schizophrenics. In the patient group erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities were weakly negative correlated with MDA concentration. These data reveal that antioxidant defense mechanisms might be impaired in schizophrenic patients. These findings also provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, such as antioxidant supplementation.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 07/2004; 19(2):114-8.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility of Schizophrenic patients to lipid peroxidation relative to healthy control subjects was investigated by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plasma. The main finding was that Schizophrenic patients were more susceptible than control subjects to oxidative damage as evident from increased MDA levels in plasma. Antioxidant levels are also depleted in Schizophrenic patients when compared to normal subjects as evident from decreased levels of vitamins E and C in the plasma. Impaired antioxidant defense and increased lipid peroxidation suggests that treatment with antioxidants (Vitamin E, Vitamin C, beta carotene) at the initial stages of illness may prevent further oxidative injury and deterioration of associated neurological deficits in Schizophrenia.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 01/2003; 18(1):87-90.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Urbanization, rapid industrialization, increased vehicular traffic, and consequent increase in the use of petroleum fuels in India are constantly emitting lead along with other pollutants into the environment. Apart from atmospheric lead, this element is the most widely used in everyday life. Although infants and children are the most susceptible to the effects of lead, adults are also affected to varying degrees and it had ranked as one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. Hence, we must understand the benefits of preventing lead exposure as it reduces treatment costs, increases productivity in industry, and also reduces infant mortality. These are good enough reasons for a nation wide program to prevent lead poisoning. Objectives: In the view of elevated blood lead levels (BLL) in majority of the school children in the city of Mangalore, we aimed to identify the potential sources of lead in the environment which would have probably caused the elevated BLL. Materials and Methods: More than 600 readings were taken throughout the city of Mangalore using X-ray fluorimeter. Results: Our results showed that there were elevated levels of lead in the environment surrounding the battery repair shops, battery recyclers, automotive workshops, and tyre retreaders, but interestingly, the soil around the petrol bunks did not show elevated levels of lead. Among the paints, the yellow paint showed high levels of lead. Conclusion: Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries in order to identify the potential sources of lead and to prevent lead poisoning.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 66(11 & 12):260-266.