[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
Suppressive doses of levothyroxine therapy are reported to reduce bone mineral density (BMD) in women. Data on bone changes in premenopausal hypothyroid women with replacement therapy are limited. Hence, this study was undertaken to evaluate bone changes in this group using bone markers and BMD.
Materials and methods:
A hospital-based case-control study including 75 premenopausal women aged 30-45 years was conducted. The subjects were categorized based on their thyroid function and history into three groups of 25 euthyroid, 25 newly diagnosed hypothyroid, and 25 hypothyroid women on 100-200 μg of levothyroxine for a minimum of 5 years. The bone changes were evaluated and compared among the groups biochemically by estimating their plasma osteocalcin and serum calcium and phosphorus and radiologically by measuring their BMD by quantitative ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was conducted by using analysis of variance, Tukey's test, and Pearson's correlation using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.
Levels of plasma osteocalcin, serum calcium, and serum phosphorus in patients on long-term levothyroxine therapy were significantly higher than those in newly diagnosed hypothyroid women and in the euthyroid group. BMD showed definite features of osteopenia (T-score: -2.26 ± 0.5) among the women in the treatment group, while it was well within the normal range in the newly diagnosed and euthyroid women. A significant correlation was found between the osteocalcin levels and T-score.
Hypothyroid women on long-term levothyroxine therapy showed signs of increased bone turnover and increased resorptive changes, though not frank osteoporosis. Hence, it may be important to evaluate the bone status of patients on levothyroxine for >5 years.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dyslipidemia triggers a sequel of metabolic derangements such as insulin resistance, hyperglycemia and oxidative stress via vicious cycle. Dyslipidemia is characterised by elevation of plasma cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs), or both, or a low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) which in turn can progress to atherosclerosis a forerunner for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Dyslipidemia is seen even in subclinical hypothyroid patients.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research 09/2014; 8(9):CC08-10. DOI:10.7860/JCDR/2014/10363.4905 · 0.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Levothyroxine (LT4) therapy has shown to have effects on bone metabolism though its deleterious effect on bone remodeling is debatable. This study was aimed at assessing the diagnostic utility of the bone remodeling marker C-terminal telopeptide (CTx) in detecting early bone loss.
In this case-control study, 84 premenopausal women of 30-45 years of age were selected. Out of them, 28 were recently diagnosed of hypothyroidism (not on LT4), 28 were on LT4 replacement therapy (100-200 μg/day) for more than five years, and 28 had euthyroid. Plasma CTx levels were estimated. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured by quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method. Pearson's coefficient of correlation and ANOVA were used for statistical analysis.
CTx was most elevated in LT4-treated group (0.497 ± 0.209 ng/mL). It showed a significant negative correlation with T-score and Z-score of BMD values. In the treatment group of more than 150 μg/day, CTx showed significantly negative correlation with TSH (r = -0.462, P = 0.047).
LT4 therapy induces bone loss in hypothyroid patients. CTx levels can measure such bone loss along with BMD. Regular monitoring of CTx with adjustment in LT4 doses may help delay osteoporosis induced by prolonged LT4 replacement therapy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives:
The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a standardized hydroalcoholic root extract of Sala¬cia oblonga (SOE) on the Random Blood Glucose (RBG) levels, serum insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and the serum lipid profile in long standing, experimentally induced Diabetes Mellitus (DM) with glibenclamide (Glb) as the standard.
Materials and methods:
Streptozotocin (STZ) induced, dia-betic, Wistar rats of either sex were treated with two oral doses of SOE, 100 and 50mg/kg body wt /day, for a period of 16 weeks. The RBG was estimated at day-1 and at the end of the 16 weeks by using a glucometer. The fasting serum insulin was determined by an ELISA technique. The plasma HbA1c was evaluated by a Turbidimetric Inhibition Immunoassay (TINIA) and the lipid profile was estimated enzymatically.
Results and analysis:
A 45% decrease in the RBG was seen after the treatment with the higher dose of SOE, whereas a 44% decrease was observed with the lower dose as com¬pared to the diabetic control. Serum insulin was significantly increased (P<0.05) in all the treated groups as compared to the diabetic control. Plasma HbA1c was significantly decreased (P<0.05). The serum Triacyl Glycerol (TG) levels were signifi¬cantly decreased (P<0.05) in the treated rats as compared to the diabetic control. A significant increase in HDL-cholesterol (P<0.05) in the diabetic rats as a result of the 100mg/kg SOE treatment was a remarkable finding.
SOE improves the glycaemic parameters in diabetic rats after a prolonged treatment. The serum TG levels were normalized on treatment. A higher dose of the extract could not alter the parameters significantly, except for HDL-C.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: Urbanization, rapid industrialization, increased vehicular traffic, and consequent increase in the use of petroleum fuels in India are constantly emitting lead along with other pollutants into the environment. Apart from atmospheric lead, this element is the most widely used in everyday life. Although infants and children are the most susceptible to the effects of lead, adults are also affected to varying degrees and it had ranked as one of the most serious environmental threats to human health. Hence, we must understand the benefits of preventing lead exposure as it reduces treatment costs, increases productivity in industry, and also reduces infant mortality. These are good enough reasons for a nation wide program to prevent lead poisoning. Objectives: In the view of elevated blood lead levels (BLL) in majority of the school children in the city of Mangalore, we aimed to identify the potential sources of lead in the environment which would have probably caused the elevated BLL. Materials and Methods: More than 600 readings were taken throughout the city of Mangalore using X-ray fluorimeter. Results: Our results showed that there were elevated levels of lead in the environment surrounding the battery repair shops, battery recyclers, automotive workshops, and tyre retreaders, but interestingly, the soil around the petrol bunks did not show elevated levels of lead. Among the paints, the yellow paint showed high levels of lead. Conclusion: Similar surveys would be useful elsewhere in India and in other developing countries in order to identify the potential sources of lead and to prevent lead poisoning.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 01/2012; 66(11 & 12):260-266. DOI:10.4103/0019-5359.115737
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled:
The serum acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were measured in malaria patients and nonmalarial fever patients. The results were compared with normal healthy control subjects. ACP was significantly increased (P < 0.001) in all the malaria patients. ACP was significantly higher in Plasmodium falcifarum malaria and mixed malaria when compared to Plasmodium vivax malaria. Hb levels were significantly decreased in all the malaria patients which indicates that malaria parasite uses host erythrocyte Hb as a major nutrient source. There is negative correlation(r = -0.478) between ACP and Hb in malaria patients, which is highly significant. These results suggest that the measurement of ACP could be used as a marker for malaria.
Electronic supplementary material:
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12291-011-0137-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 10/2011; 26(4):396-9. DOI:10.1007/s12291-011-0137-z
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tonsilolith is unusual presentation of stone in tonsillar crypt. Etiology of tonsilolith is multifactorial and not usually diagnosed. Here a patient presented with bad smell from her breath and difficulty in swallowing. Radiological and biochemical investigation helped us to diagnose tonsilolith.
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 01/2011; 2(1):213-215.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The study was conducted to find out the extent of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in ischemic stroke patients (ISPs) with and without diabetes. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was studied as a marker of lipid peroxidation. Glutathione (GSH), uric acid and ceruloplasmin were estimated to study the antioxidant potential of ISPs. Significantly higher levels of MDA were found in both the groups of ISPs and the increase in MDA was more in ISPs without diabetes. GSH levels were decreased significantly in both the groups of ISPs and maximum decline was found in ISPs with diabetes. Uric acid levels were significantly increased in both the groups of ISPs. Ceruloplasmin levels were increased significantly in ISPs without diabetes, whereas its levels were slightly decreased in ISPs with diabetes. A negative correlation was found between MDA and the antioxidants GSH, uric acid and ceruloplasmin in ISPs with diabetes. This study suggests that there is an association between ischemic stroke and increased oxidative stress and the antioxidant potential is impaired in both the groups of ISPs with and without diabetes.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 07/2008; 23(3):218-22. DOI:10.1007/s12291-008-0049-8
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lead is a major health hazard, especially in children. Impact of lead poisoning on our society is not known. Effectiveness of environmental interventions in reducing blood lead levels is not exactly known, though the Center for Disease Control and Prevention strongly advocates use of such means.
We aimed at screening school children for blood lead levels (BLLs) and reducing the BLLs of children with preliminary BLL> 20 microg/dL by environmental intervention and intensive education.
To assess the extent of lead poisoning, a screening of 106 children was done, which showed that children belonging to a particular government primary school had higher BLLs. A second screening program of 87 children conducted in that school showed that only 19% had BLL < 10 microg/dL; whereas 44% had BLL between 10 and 20 microg/dL, and 37% had BLL> 20 microg/dL. Thirty-eight children having BLL> 20 microg/dL were selected from the two screening programs. After removing all potential sources of lead from their environment and educating them about the ways to prevent exposure to lead, follow-up of their BLLs was carried out at an interval of 6 months for a period of 1 year.
Values of the different follow-up studies were compared using repeated-measure ANOVA.
Our results showed that there was a significant (P < 0.0001) reduction in the BLLs in the first and second follow-up studies.
The study is a proof of the concept that a decline in the BLLs can be achieved by intense education and avoiding the potential environmental sources of lead.
Indian Journal of Medical Sciences 05/2008; 62(5):185-92. DOI:10.4103/0019-5359.40983 · 1.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A cytokine-mediated acute phase response is observed to be closely involved in the pathogene- sis of type 2 diabetes. The role of inflammation in type 1 diabetes is contradictory. Since Indi- ans are at high risk of developing diabetes, we tested this hypothesis by estimating circulating acute phase proteins in both type 1 (T-1) and type 2 (T-2) diabetic patients. The acute phase proteins, α1- antitrypsin, α1- acid glycoprotein, ceruloplasmin and fibrino- gen were estimated in the plasma in newly diagnosed 12 T-1 and 25 T-2 cases. Thirty normal controls to match the age and sex of the test groups were also studied. The levels of these pro- teins were correlated with their BMI and random plasma glucose values. In comparison with the controls, T-1 cases showed significantly higher levels of the acute phase proteins (except α1- acid glycoprotein). The values of all the four proteins studied were significantly elevated in the T-2 patients (p
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Advanced age is associated with an accumulation of free radical damage, which leads to physiological and clinical modifications. Age related changes resulting from free radical reactions include increasing levels of lipid peroxides, alterations in enzyme activities and greater osmotic fragility. The present study was conducted to estimate the level of lipid peroxidation product-Malondialdehyde and antioxidants Catalase and Glutathione in elderly people. An increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidants was observed in normal elderly people. Highly significant increase in MDA and decrease in antioxidants was observed in elderly people when complicated with diabetes and hypertension. Supplementation of antioxidants may prevent further oxidative injury in elderly people.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 03/2007; 22(1):131-4. DOI:10.1007/BF02912896
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can now be performed with or without cardiopulmonary bypass. The former entails global ischemia followed by reperfusion after declamping, whereas the latter does not. In view of growing evidence that reperfusion is associated with oxidative stress, we studied the extent of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump CABG to determine whether the latter significantly reduces oxidative stress.
Thirty patients were initially enrolled for the study. The inclusion criteria included patients with atherosclerotic triple vessel disease, undergoing elective CABG, with good LV function, no major risk factors for surgery, with all biochemical investigations within normal limits, having stable angina and no history of previous infarct. Patients with valvular heart disease, ventricular aneurysm, heart failure and poor left ventricular function were excluded. These were alternately posted for on-pump and off-pump CABG. Eight patients were excluded as they developed unforeseen complications during the surgery. Out of the remaining 22 patients, 13 underwent off-pump CABG and 9 underwent on-pump CABG. Five blood samples were collected; baseline, 5, 15, 60 min and 24 h after reperfusion. Samples were analyzed for thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), glutathione (G-SH) and catalase (CAT). The results were compared with their preanaesthetic levels in both the groups and also with 20 age- and sex-matched normal healthy individuals.
Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased after reperfusion in patients undergoing on-pump CABG, maximum increase (p<0.0001) was seen 1 h after reperfusion, whereas off-pump CABG reduces oxidative stress. The G-SH levels were significantly decreased after reperfusion in on-pump and off-pump CABG patients, maximum decrease (p<0.0001) was seen 5 min after reperfusion in on-pump CABG. The catalase activity was significantly increased after reperfusion in on-pump and off-pump CABG patients, maximum increase (p<0.0001) was seen 1 h after reperfusion in on-pump CABG.
Significant increase in oxidative stress was seen in patients undergoing on-pump CABG, whereas oxidative stress was less in off-pump CABG patients. The G-SH levels were decreased and Catalase activity was increased significantly in both on-pump and off-pump CABG patients.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species are thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of Malaria. To assess the extent of oxidative stress, a study was conducted in patients withPlasmodium falciparum malaria andPlasmodium Vivax malaria. Plasma Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured to assess the degree of lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant status was measured by estimating the levels of Vitamins E and C. Results were compared with age and sex matched control subjects. This study suggests that plasma TBARS levels were significantly increased in malaria patients. The patients withP. falciparum infection showed significantly increased levels of lipid peroxides when compared toP. vivax malaria. The antioxidant Vitamins E and C were decreased significantly in malaria patients in both the groups. Maximum decline in Vitamin C was observed inP. vivax malaria. Therefore it is been hypothesized that antioxidant Vitamins E and C could provide protection against the oxidative stress induced by malaria.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 09/2006; 21(2):103-6. DOI:10.1007/BF02912922
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Free radical mediated pathological processes may have a role in schizophrenia. Free radicals (oxy radicals, such as superoxide, hydroxyl ions and nitric oxide) cause cell injury, when they are generated in excess or when the antioxidant defense is impaired. Both these processes seem to be affected in schizophrenia. In this study we investigated erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) as a sign of lipid peroxidation in schizophrenic patients. Activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde were greater in patients compared with the control group which may reflect increased oxidative stress in the brain tissue of schizophrenics. In the patient group erythrocyte SOD and CAT activities were weakly negative correlated with MDA concentration. These data reveal that antioxidant defense mechanisms might be impaired in schizophrenic patients. These findings also provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, such as antioxidant supplementation.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 07/2004; 19(2):114-8. DOI:10.1007/BF02894268
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Susceptibility of Schizophrenic patients to lipid peroxidation relative to healthy control subjects was investigated by measuring the malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in plasma. The main finding was that Schizophrenic patients were more susceptible than control subjects to oxidative damage as evident from increased MDA levels in plasma. Antioxidant levels are also depleted in Schizophrenic patients when compared to normal subjects as evident from decreased levels of vitamins E and C in the plasma. Impaired antioxidant defense and increased lipid peroxidation suggests that treatment with antioxidants (Vitamin E, Vitamin C, beta carotene) at the initial stages of illness may prevent further oxidative injury and deterioration of associated neurological deficits in Schizophrenia.
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry 01/2003; 18(1):87-90. DOI:10.1007/BF02867671