[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The leaf extracts of many species of genus Passiflora have been extensively investigated for their biological activities on several rat tissues, but mainly in the central nervous system and liver. They posses anxiolytic-like, sedative effects and antioxidant properties. Evidences suggest a key role of C-glycosylflavonoids in the biological activities of Passiflora extracts. Some species (such as P. manicata) of the genus are still poorly investigated for their chemical and biological activity. In this work, we aim to investigate both antioxidant and antiglycation properties of aqueous extract of P. manicata leaves (PMLE) in vitro and ex vivo models. Crude extract showed the C-glycosyl-flavonoid isovitexin as the major compound. Isoorientin and vitexin were also identified. In TRAP/TAR assay, PMLE showed a significant antioxidant activity. PMLE at concentrations of 10 and 100 μg.mL(-1) significantly decreasing LDH leakage in rat liver slices. Antioxidant effect also was observed by decreased in oxidative damage markers in slices hence hydrogen peroxide was added as oxidative stress inductor. PMLE inhibited protein glycation at all concentrations tested. In summary, Passiflora manicata aqueous leaf extract possess protective properties against reactive oxygen species and also protein glycation, and could be considered anew source of natural antioxidants. Abreviations: AAPH, 2∗2-azobis[2-amidinopropane]; ANOVA, analysis of variance; AUC, area under curve; CAT, catalase; CDNB, chloro-dinitro benzene; CNS, central nervous system; DNPH, dinitrophenylhidrazine; DTNB, 5∗5-dithionitrobis 2-nitrobenzoic acid; HPLC-UV DAD, high performance liquid chromatography equipped with Diode Array Detection; PMLE, Passiflora manicata leaf extract; TRAP, total reactive antioxidant potential; TAR, totalantioxidantreactivity; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; TBARS, thiobarbituric reactive species; CAT, catalase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; SOD, superoxido dismutase; BSA, bovine serum albumin.
Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association 07/2013; · 2.99 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plukenetia volubilis Linneo, or Sacha inca, is an oleaginous plant from the Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this work was to perform a chemical and biological analysis of different leaf extracts from P. volubilis such as aqueous extract (AEL), methanol (MEL), ethanol (EEL), chloroform (CEL), and hexane (HEL). Thin layer chromatography analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, steroids, and/or terpenoídes. Furthermore, the antioxidant activities were analyzed by in vitro assays and their effects on cell lineages by in vivo assays. The Total Antioxidant Capacity (TCA) was expressed as equivalent ascorbic acid (EEA/g) and it was observed that the extracts showed values ranging from 59.31 to 97.76 EAA/g. Furthermore, the DPPH assay values ranged from 62.8% to 88.3%. The cell viability assay showed that the extracts were able to reduce viability from cancer cells such as HeLa and A549 cells. The extracts MEL and HEL (250 µg/mL) were able to reduce the proliferation of HeLa cells up to 54.3% and 48.5%, respectively. The flow cytometer results showed that these extracts induce cell death via the apoptosis pathway. On the other hand, the extracts HEL and AEL were able to induce cell proliferation of normal fibroblast 3T3 cells.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 01/2013; 2013:950272. · 1.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The species of Passiflora are widely used in folk medicine as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. P. alata and P. quadrangularis are distributed throughout South America, with widespread occurrence in Brazil and Colombia. Due to the difficulty in making a botanical distinction between these species, especially in the absence of flowers and fruits, the use of chemical markers for these plants offer an alternative method of identification. This work describes the isolation and identification of the major flavonoids and saponins from the leaves of P. alata andP. quadrangularis, as well as rapid and efficient HPLC-DAD methods for comparison of these compounds in both species. Vitexin derivatives are proposed as chemical markers in the identification of P. alata and P. quadrangularis and the detection of adulterations in raw material
Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies 08/2012; · 0.57 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Leaves and fruits of Passiflora species are widely used around the world in popular medicine, mainly as sedatives and tranquilisers. C-glycosyl flavonoids are the main components of these species.
To investigate the constituent patterns and to develop a chromatographic method for the characterisation of the C-glycosyl flavonoids profile of the extracts of the leaves and the pericarp of South American Passiflora species.
The chemical composition of extracts from the leaves and the fruits' pericarp of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa, P. edulis var. edulis, Passiflora alata, Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima, Passiflora quadrangularis, Passiflora manicata and Passiflora ligularis was evaluated for the presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids. Two separate HPLC methods were developed suitable for a diode array detector (DAD) and a MS detector. Separation by HPLC-DAD was achieved on a Luna C-18 column, using solvent A (tetrahydrofuran-isopropanol-acetonitrile) and solvent B (H₃PO₄ 0.5%) in an isocratic elution mode. In the HPLC-MS, the components were separated on a Luna RP-18A column by a gradient elution (water-acetonitrile-formic acid).
The presence of C-glycosyl flavonoids was identified in leaves and pericarp of P. edulis var. flavicarpa, P. alata, P. edulis var. edulis and P. tripartita var. molissima, but only in leaf extracts of P. quadrangularis and P. manicata and not at all in P. ligularis. The different species and varieties showed different major constituents. The C-glycosyl flavonoids identified more frequently were orientin, isoorientin, vitexin and isovitexin.
The methods established are simple and can be used as a tool for the characterisation and quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing these Passiflora extracts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passiflora edulis has been used in traditional medicine as a sedative and to treat or prevent central disorders such as anxiety and insomnia. In this study, the central effects of the aqueous extract (AE), the butanolic fraction (BF), and the aqueous residual fraction (ARF) obtained from the pericarp of P. edulis flavicarpa were investigated in mice and the possible compounds involved in these putative neuropharmacologic effects were determined. AE, BF, and ARF increased the total time spent in the light compartment of the light:dark box, an anxiolytic-like effect, and AE also potentiated the hypnotic effects of ethyl ether, a sedative effect. The thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated the predominance of C-glycosylflavonoids in these extracts and fractions, which were identified as isoorientin, vicenin-2, spinosin, and 6,8-di-C-glycosylchrysin.
Experimental Biology and Medicine 07/2009; 234(8):967-75. · 2.80 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Passiflora edulis, commonly known as "maracujá", is widely cultivated in Brazil for the industrial production of juice. The species of Passiflora are popularly used as a sedative or tranquillizer, and also against intermittent fever and skin inflammation. In this study we evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of four sub-fractions and three isolated compounds from the butanolic fraction of P. edulis var. flavicarpa leaves, using the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan. The butanolic fraction obtained from an aqueous extract of P. edulis (50 and 100 mg/kg, I. P.) showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and neutrophils (p < 0.01). Sub-fraction C showed itself to be more effective than the other sub-fractions (p < 0.01). Isoorientin ( 1), vicenin-2 ( 2) and spinosin ( 3) were isolated from the active sub-fraction C derived from the butanolic fraction. The sub-fraction C (50 mg/kg, I. P.), as well as its major isolated compounds (25 mg/kg, I. P.), inhibited leukocytes and neutrophils (p < 0.05). Additionally, the butanolic fraction and isoorientin also inhibited myeloperoxidase activity (p < 0.05). The present study showed that the C-glucosylflavones isolated from P. edulis leaves can be responsible for the anti-inflammatory effect of P. edulis on the mouse model of pleurisy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes the screening of different South American plant extracts and fractions. Aqueous and organic extracts were prepared and tested for antiherpetic (HSV-1, KOS and 29R strains) and antirabies (PV strain) activities. The evaluation of the potential antiviral activity of these extracts was performed by using an MTT assay for HSV-1, and by a viral cytopathic effect (CPE) inhibitory method for rabies virus (RV). The results were expressed as 50% cytotoxicity (CC(50)) for MTT assay and 50% effective (EC(50)) concentrations for CPE, and with them it was possible to calculate the selectivity indices (SI = CC(50)/EC(50)) of each tested material. From the 18 extracts/fractions tested, six extracts and four fractions showed antiviral action. Ilex paraguariensis, Lafoensia pacari, Passiflora edulis, Rubus imperialis and Slonea guianensis showed values of SI > 7 against HSV-1 KOS and 29-R strains and Alamanda schottii showed a SI of 5.6 against RV, PV strain.
Phytotherapy Research 10/2007; 21(10):970-4. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of the aqueous extract of Passiflora edulis forma flavicarpa Degenerer leaves in the air pouch inflammation model induced by carrageenan, histamine or substance P, in mice. An aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and lyophilized. Part of the extract was fractionated with n-butanol, resulting in the butanolic and aqueous residual fractions. The anti-inflammatory activities of the lyophilized extract and these two derived fractions were evaluated. In the inflammation induced by carrageenan, aqueous extract (100 mg/kg, i.p.), butanolic fraction (50 mg/kg, i.p.), aqueous residual fraction (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and dexamethasone (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) inhibited the leukocyte, neutrophil, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) levels (p < 0.05). The aqueous extract and butanolic and aqueous residual fractions, but not dexamethasone, decreased macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) levels (p < 0.05). Only dexamethasone inhibited mononuclear cells (p < 0.01). In the inflammation induced by histamine, the aqueous extract, butanolic and aqueous residual fractions, and dexamethasone inhibited total and differential leukocytes (p < 0.01). In the inflammation induced by substance P, the aqueous extract, butanolic and aqueous residual fractions, and dexamethasone also inhibited total leukocytes and mononuclears (p < 0.01). Neutrophils were only inhibited by aqueous extract, butanolic fraction, and dexamethasone (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the active principle(s) present in the P. edulis aqueous extract and its two fractions showed pronounced anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting cell migration, proinflammatory cytokines, enzymes and mediators.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The popular medicine Passiflora edulis has been used as a sedative, tranquilizer, against cutaneous inflammatory diseases and intermittent fever. Most of the pharmacological investigations of Passiflora edulis have been addressed to its Central Nervous System activities, such as anxiolytic, anticonvulsant and sedative actions. Otherwise, there are few reports about the anti-inflammatory activity of the Passiflora species. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous lyophilized extract obtained from leaves of Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener (Passifloraceae) in the mouse model of pleurisy induced by carrageenan (Cg), bradykinin, histamine or substance P, observing the effects upon leucocytes migration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO) concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta) levels. RESULTS: Passiflora edulis (250mg/kg) administered by intraperitoneal route (i.p.) inhibited the leukocyte, neutrophils, myeloperoxidase, nitric oxide, TNFalpha and IL-1beta levels (P<0.01) in the pleurisy induced by carrageenan. Passiflora edulis (250-500mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited total and differential leukocytes in the pleurisy induced by bradykinin, histamine or substance P (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Several mechanisms, including the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha, IL-1beta), enzyme (myeloperoxidase) and mediators (bradykinin, histamine, substance P, nitric oxide) release and/or action, appear to account for Passiflora edulis's actions.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 01/2007; 109(2):281-8. · 2.76 Impact Factor