[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although there is in vivo evidence suggesting a role for glutathione in the metabolism and tissue distribution of vitamin C, no connection with the vitamin C transport systems has been reported. We show here that disruption of glutathione metabolism with buthionine-(S,R)-sulfoximine (BSO) produced a sustained blockade of ascorbic acid transport in rat hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells. Rat hepatocytes expressed the Na(+)-coupled ascorbic acid transporter-1 (SVCT1), while hepatoma cells expressed the transporters SVCT1 and SVCT2. BSO-treated rat hepatoma cells showed a two order of magnitude decrease in SVCT1 and SVCT2 mRNA levels, undetectable SVCT1 and SVCT2 protein expression, and lacked the capacity to transport ascorbic acid, effects that were fully reversible on glutathione repletion. Interestingly, although SVCT1 mRNA levels remained unchanged in rat hepatocytes made glutathione deficient by in vivo BSO treatment, SVCT1 protein was absent from the plasma membrane and the cells lacked the capacity to transport ascorbic acid. The specificity of the BSO treatment was indicated by the finding that transport of oxidized vitamin C (dehydroascorbic acid) and glucose transporter expression were unaffected by BSO treatment. Moreover, glutathione depletion failed to affect ascorbic acid transport, and SVCT1 and SVCT2 expression in human hepatoma cells. Therefore, our data indicate an essential role for glutathione in controlling vitamin C metabolism in rat hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells, two cell types capable of synthesizing ascorbic acid, by regulating the expression and subcellular localization of the transporters involved in the acquisition of ascorbic acid from extracellular sources, an effect not observed in human cells incapable of synthesizing ascorbic acid.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine 02/2012; 52(9):1874-87. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.02.017 · 5.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We studied the acquisition of dehydroascorbic acid by rat hepatocytes, H4IIE rat hepatoma cells and Xenopus laevis oocytes. Transport kinetics and competition and inhibition studies revealed that rat hepatocytes transport oxidized dehydroascorbic acid through a single functional component possessing the functional and kinetic properties expected for the glucose transporter GLUT2. On the other hand, rat hepatoma cells showed expression of at least two dehydroascorbic acid transporters with the expected functional and kinetic properties expected for GLUT1 and GLUT2. Expression studies of GLUT2 in X. laevis oocytes followed by transport kinetics and competition and inhibition studies revealed that GLUT2 is a low affinity dehydroascorbic transporter whose kinetic and functional properties match those observed for the endogenous GLUT2 transporter in rat hepatocytes and rat hepatoma cells. Therefore, GLUT2, a transporter known as a low affinity transporter of glucose and fructose and a high affinity transporter of glucosamine is also a low affinity dehydroascorbic acid transporter.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 06/2011; 410(1):7-12. DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2011.05.070 · 2.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vitamin C is a wide spectrum antioxidant essential for humans, which are unable to synthesize the vitamin and must obtain it from dietary sources. There are two biologically important forms of vitamin C, the reduced form, ascorbic acid, and the oxidized form, dehydroascorbic acid. Vitamin C exerts most of its biological functions intracellularly and is acquired by cells with the participation of specific membrane transporters. This is a central issue because even in those species capable of synthesizing vitamin C, synthesis is restricted to the liver (and pancreas) from which is distributed to the organism. Most cells express two different transporter systems for vitamin C; a transporter system with absolute specificity for ascorbic acid and a second system that shows absolute specificity for dehydroascorbic acid. The dehydroascorbic acid transporters are members of the GLUT family of facilitative glucose transporters, of which at least three isoforms, GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4, are dehydroascorbic acid transporters. Ascorbic acid is transported by the SVCT family of sodium-coupled transporters, with two isoforms molecularly cloned, the transporters SVCT1 y SVCT2, that show different functional properties and differential cell and tissue expression. In humans, the maintenance of a low daily requirement of vitamin C is attained through an efficient system for the recycling of the vitamin involving the two families of vitamin C transporters.
Journal of physiology and biochemistry 01/2009; 64(4):357-75. DOI:10.1007/BF03174092 · 2.50 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cellular glutathione levels may exceed vitamin C levels by 10-fold, generating the question about the real antioxidant role that low intracellular concentrations of vitamin C can play in the presence of a vast molar excess of glutathione. We characterized the metabolism of vitamin C and its relationship with glutathione in primary cultures of human endothelial cells oxidatively challenged by treatment with hydrogen peroxide or with activated cells undergoing the respiratory burst, and analyzed the manner in which vitamin C interacts with glutathione to increase the antioxidant capacity of cells. Our data indicate that: (i) endothelial cells express transporters for reduced and oxidized vitamin C and accumulate ascorbic acid with participation of glutathione-dependent dehydroascorbic acid reductases, (ii) although increased intracellular levels of vitamin C or glutathione caused augmented resistance to oxidative stress, 10-times more glutathione than vitamin C was required, (iii) full antioxidant protection required the simultaneous presence of intracellular and extracellular vitamin C at concentrations normally found in vivo, and (iv) intracellular vitamin C cooperated in enhancing glutathione recovery after oxidative challenge thus providing cells with enhanced survival potential, while extracellular vitamin C was recycled through a mechanism involving the simultaneous neutralization of oxidant species. Therefore, in endothelial cells under oxidative challenge, vitamin C functions as an essential cellular antioxidant even in the presence of a vast molar excess of glutathione.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We characterized the human Na(+)-ascorbic acid transporter SVCT2 and developed a basic model for the transport cycle that challenges the current view that it functions as a Na(+)-dependent transporter. The properties of SVCT2 are modulated by Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) and a reciprocal functional interaction between Na(+) and ascorbic acid that defines the substrate binding order and the transport stoichiometry. Na(+) increased the ascorbic acid transport rate in a cooperative manner, decreasing the transport K(m) without affecting the V(max), thus converting a low affinity form of the transporter into a high affinity transporter. Inversely, ascorbic acid affected in a bimodal and concentration-dependent manner the Na(+) cooperativity, with absence of cooperativity at low and high ascorbic acid concentrations. Our data are consistent with a transport cycle characterized by a Na(+):ascorbic acid stoichiometry of 2:1 and a substrate binding order of the type Na(+):ascorbic acid:Na(+). However, SVCT2 is not electrogenic. SVCT2 showed an absolute requirement for Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) for function, with both cations switching the transporter from an inactive into an active conformation by increasing the transport V(max) without affecting the transport K(m) or the Na(+) cooperativity. Our data indicate that SVCT2 may switch between a number of states with characteristic properties, including an inactive conformation in the absence of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+). At least three active states can be envisioned, including a low affinity conformation at Na(+) concentrations below 20 mM and two high affinity conformations at elevated Na(+) concentrations whose Na(+) cooperativity is modulated by ascorbic acid. Thus, SVCT2 is a Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-dependent transporter.