[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Receptor Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are involved in many cellular processes and play a major role in the control of cell fate. For these reasons, RTK activation is maintained under tight control. Met is an essential RTK that induces proliferation, differentiation, migration, survival and branching morphogenesis. Deregulation of Met by overexpression, amplification or lack of effective degradation leads to cancer and metastasis. We have shown that Met relies on CD44v6 for its activation and for signaling in several cancer cell lines and also in primary cells. In this paper, we show that internalization of Met is dependent on CD44v6 and the binding of Ezrin to the CD44v6 cytoplasmic domain. Both CD44v6 and Met are co-internalized upon Hepatocyte Growth Factor induction suggesting that Met-induced signaling from the endosomes relies on its collaboration with CD44v6 and the link to the cytoskeleton provided by ERM proteins.
PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62357. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: CD44 isoforms act as coreceptors for the receptor tyrosine kinases c-Met and VEGFR-2. However, Cd44 knockout mice do not show overt phenotypes, in contrast to Met and Vegfr-2 knockout mice. We hypothesized that CD44 is being compensated for by another factor in Cd44 null mice. Using RNAi technology and blocking experiments with antibodies, peptides, and purified ectodomains, as well as overexpression studies, we identified intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as a new coreceptor for c-Met in CD44-negative tumor cells and in primary hepatocytes obtained from Cd44 null mice. Most strikingly, after partial hepatectomy, CD44v6-specific antibodies inhibited liver cell proliferation and c-Met activation in wild-type mice, whereas ICAM-1-specific antibodies interfered with liver cell proliferation and c-Met activation in Cd44 knockout mice. These data show that ICAM-1 compensates for CD44v6 as a coreceptor for c-Met in Cd44 null mice. Compensation of proteins by members of the same family has been widely proposed to explain the lack of phenotype of several knockout mice. Our experiments demonstrate the functional substitution of a protein by a heterologous one in a knockout mouse.
Molecular biology of the cell 06/2011; 22(15):2777-86. · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has shown that the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases is not only dependent on binding of their ligands but in addition requires adhesion molecules as coreceptors. We have identified CD44v6 as a coreceptor for c-Met in several tumor and primary cells. The CD44v6 ectodomain is required for c-Met activation, whereas the cytoplasmic tail recruits ERM proteins and the cytoskeleton into a signalosome complex. Here we demonstrate that c-Met (and hepatocyte growth factor and Gab1) is haploinsufficient in a cd44-/- background, as the cd44-/-; met+/- (and cd44-/-; hgf+/- and cd44-/-; gab1+/-) mice die at birth. They have impaired synaptic transmission in the respiratory rhythm-generating network and alterations in the phrenic nerve. These results are the first genetic data showing that CD44 and c-Met collaborate in vivo and that they are involved in synaptogenesis and axon myelination in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Molecular and Cellular Biology 01/2008; 27(24):8797-806. · 5.04 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In several types of cells, the activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase c-Met by its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) requires the coreceptor CD44v6. The CD44 extracellular domain is necessary for c-Met autophosphorylation, whereas the intracellular domain is required for signal transduction. We have already shown that the CD44 cytoplasmic tail recruits ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) proteins to the complex of CD44v6, c-Met, and HGF. We have now defined the function of the ERM proteins and the step they promote in the signaling cascade. The association of ERM proteins to the coreceptor is absolutely required to mediate the HGF-dependent activation of Ras by the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Sos. The ERM proteins need, in addition, to be linked to the actin cytoskeleton to catalyze the activation of Ras. Thus, we describe here a new function of the cytoskeleton. It is part of a "signalosome" complex that organizes the activation of Ras by Sos. So far the cytoskeleton has mainly been identified as a "responder" to signal transduction. Here, we show now that F-actin acts as an "inducer" that actively organizes the signaling cascade.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 02/2007; 18(1):76-83. · 4.55 Impact Factor