Andrea Greve

Cardiff University, Cardiff, WLS, United Kingdom

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Publications (8)28.92 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed to investigate the contributions of medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions to encoding operations underpinning recollection and familiarity. Participants first studied word pairs. Words in pairs were either weakly or strongly semantically related. In a subsequent retrieval task, participants distinguished between studied pairs, unstudied pairs, and recombined pairs formed from words taken from different studied pairs. Greater activity at encoding for correct judgments to studied pairs with strong, rather than weak, semantic relationships was assumed to index processes supporting subsequent familiarity-based responding. Greater activity for correct judgments to studied pairs than for recombined pairs identified incorrectly as studied pairs was assumed to index processes contributing to recollection-based responding. Evidence that these assumptions were reasonable was obtained in independent behavioural studies, while the outcomes of these fMRI contrasts indicated links between perirhinal cortex and familiarity, and anterior hippocampus and recollection. This functional separation is consistent with models in which the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex support two separable processes that contribute to memories for verbal associations.
    Neuropsychologia 06/2011; 49(9):2746-54. · 3.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The neural substrates of memory for when events occurred are not well described. One reason for this is that the paradigms used to date have permitted isolation of only some of the relevant memory processes. In this experiment, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify for the first time brain regions that support two distinct bases upon which "when" judgments can be made. Seventeen human participants (6 male) completed a continuous recognition memory task where the interval between presentation and re-presentation of words varied between 5 and 25 intervening words (the lag). The task on each trial was to distinguish repeated words from those presented for the first time, and to indicate the lag for repeated words. The inferior parietal lobe showed greater activation for shorter lag judgments, regardless of judgment accuracy. The lingual gyrus, by contrast, was more active for correct than for incorrect lag judgments, regardless of the interval between first and second item presentations. Both of these regions have been linked in previous work to the process of recollection, and the findings described here represent a novel neural dissociation across regions that deploy mnemonic information in fundamentally different ways to support judgments about when events occurred.
    Journal of Neuroscience 05/2010; 30(20):7099-104. · 6.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: When presented with an item or a face, one might have a sense of recognition without the ability to recall when or where the stimulus has been encountered before. This sense of recognition is called familiarity memory. Following previous computational studies of familiarity memory, we investigate the dynamical properties of familiarity discrimination and contrast two different familiarity discriminators: one based on the energy of the neural network and the other based on the time derivative of the energy. We show how the familiarity signal decays rapidly after stimulus presentation. For both discriminators, we calculate the capacity using mean field analysis. Compared to recall capacity (the classical associative memory in Hopfield nets), both the energy and the slope discriminators have bigger capacity, yet the energy-based discriminator has a higher capacity than one based on its time derivative. Finally, both discriminators are found to have a different noise dependence.
    Neural Computation 10/2009; 22(2):448-66. · 1.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dual-process theories of episodic memory state that retrieval is contingent on two independent processes: familiarity (providing a sense of oldness) and recollection (recovering events and their context). A variety of studies have reported distinct neural signatures for familiarity and recollection, supporting dual-process theory. One outstanding question is whether these signatures reflect the activation of distinct memory traces or the operation of different retrieval mechanisms on a single memory trace. We present a computational model that uses a single neuronal network to store memory traces, but two distinct and independent retrieval processes access the memory. The model is capable of performing familiarity and recollection-based discrimination between old and new patterns, demonstrating that dual-process models need not to rely on multiple independent memory traces, but can use a single trace. Importantly, our putative familiarity and recollection processes exhibit distinct characteristics analogous to those found in empirical data; they diverge in capacity and sensitivity to sparse and correlated patterns, exhibit distinct ROC curves, and account for performance on both item and associative recognition tests. The demonstration that a single-trace, dual-process model can account for a range of empirical findings highlights the importance of distinguishing between neuronal processes and the neuronal representations on which they operate.
    Hippocampus 05/2009; 20(2):235-51. · 5.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It has been suggested that the mammalian memory system has both familiarity and recollection components. Recently, a high-capacity network to store familiarity has been proposed. Here we derive analytically the optimal learning rule for such a familiarity memory using a signal- to-noise ratio analysis. We find that in the limit of large networks the covariance rule, known to be the optimal local, linear learning rule for pattern association, is also the optimal learning rule for familiarity discrimination. In the limit of large networks, the capacity is independent of the sparseness of the patterns and the corresponding information capacity is 0.057 bits per synapse, which is somewhat less than typically found for associative networks.
    Biological Cybernetics 12/2008; 100(1):11-9. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Some aspects of memory performance are impaired during acute hypoglycaemia. The hippocampus is critical to formation of long-term memory, and may be particularly sensitive to hypoglycaemia. This study examined whether moderate hypoglycaemia occurring after learning would disrupt the consolidation process, and used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify accompanying changes in brain activation. Sixteen non-diabetic subjects each underwent two glucose clamp studies. During euglycaemia (4.5 mmol/L), subjects tried to memorize a series of words and a series of pictures of faces. Then, either hypoglycaemia (2.5 mmol/L) was induced for one hour, or euglycaemia was maintained. During subsequent uncontrolled euglycaemia, subjects' recognition of the word and face stimuli was tested, with simultaneous fMRI to measure brain activation during recognition. Face identification scores were 67.2% after euglycaemia and 66.9% after hypoglycaemia (p = 0.895). Word identification scores were 78.0 and 77.1% respectively (p = 0.701). Analysis of the fMRI identified two foci where activation was altered after hypoglycaemia compared with euglycaemia, but these were not in regions associated with memory, and were probably statistical artefacts. One hour of hypoglycaemia at 2.5 mmol/L induced 20-40 min after learning did not disrupt memory consolidation. fMRI did not show evidence of altered brain activation after hypoglycaemia. Consolidation may be relatively resistant to hypoglycaemia, or may have been complete before hypoglycaemia was induced. The study was powered to detect a large effect, and provides some reassurance that moderate hypoglycaemia does not cause major disruption of previously learned memories in people with insulin-treated diabetes.
    Diabetes/Metabolism Research and Reviews 01/2008; 24(3):247-52. · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Throughout our lives we acquire general knowledge about the world (semantic memory) while also retaining memories of specific events (episodic memory). Although these two forms of memory have been dissociated on the basis of neuropsychological data, it is clear that they typically function together during normal cognition. The goal of the present study was to investigate this interaction. One influence of semantic memory on episodic retrieval is 'Levels Of Processing'; recognition is enhanced when stimuli are processed in a semantically meaningful way. Studies examining this semantic processing advantage have largely concluded that semantic memory augments episodic retrieval primarily by enhancing recollection. The present study provides strong evidence for an alternative relationship between semantic and episodic memory. We employed a manipulation of the semantic coherence of to-be-remembered information (semantically related vs. unrelated word pairs) during an associative recognition memory test. Results revealed that associative recognition is significantly enhanced for semantically coherent material, and behavioral estimates (using the process dissociation procedure) demonstrated concomitant changes in the contribution of familiarity to retrieval. Neuroimaging data (event-related potentials recorded at test) also revealed a significant increase in familiarity based retrieval. The electrophysiological correlate of familiarity (the mid-frontal ERP old/new effect) was larger for semantically related compared to unrelated word pairs, but no difference was present in the electrophysiological correlate of recollection (the left parietal old/new effect). We conclude that semantic memory and episodic memory do indeed interact in normal functioning, and not only by modulating recollection, but also by enhancing familiarity.
    NeuroImage 02/2007; 34(2):801-14. · 6.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One process involved in recognition memory is familiarity discrimination. Familiarity distinguishes almost immediately after stimulus presentation whether the item was previously encountered (old) or novel. By using a formalism based on attractor neural networks, we discuss different dynamical processes affecting familiarity discrimination. First, we compare two different familiarity discriminators, the previously proposed energy (FamE) and the temporal derivative of the energy (FamS). This second measure relies on differences in the dynamics of the network when novel or old stimuli are presented. Contrarily to FamE, FamS depends on details of the dynamics of the network. As a result, and counterintuitively, famS is enhanced by random fluctuations in the neural activity. Finally, we present some preliminary results showing how familiarity discrimination is affected by activity dependent mechanisms at synaptic level, such as short-term depression and facilitation. These results allow formulating new models regarding optimal dynamics and familiarity discrimination.
    01/2007;