Jonathan E Friedman

University of Pretoria, Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa

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Publications (6)18.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Zinc plays a key pathophysiological role in major neurological disorders as well as diabetes, while being essential for the activity of numerous zinc binding proteins. A major challenge in chelation based therapy must take into consideration these apparently conflicting effects of zinc. One approach is to limit the activity of the chelator to regions and levels of zinc pathology, making normal zinc-dependent processes invisible to the chelator. Combining fluorescent zinc imaging with cytotoxicity assays we studied the zinc chelation efficacy and neuroprotective effect of the lipophilic divalent transition metal chelator DP-b99 (1,2-Bis(2-amino-phenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-N-N'-di[2-(octyloxy)ethyl ester],-N,N'-disodium salt). The affinity of DP-b99 to Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) ions is moderate in water and enhanced significantly in the lipid milieu. Application of DP-b99 to MIN6 beta-cells that were preloaded with zinc was followed by a decrease in fluorescence of the intracellular Zn(2+) sensitive dye, ZnAF-2DA, to resting levels. Preloading of MIN6 cells with DP-b99 was also effective in attenuating subsequent cellular zinc rise. Concentration-dependence analysis of zinc accumulation indicated that DP-b99 acts as a zinc chelator with moderate affinity. DP-b99 preapplication attenuated both Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) rise in neuronal cultures and also Zn(2+) rise in brain slices. Finally, DP-b99 attenuated Zn(2+)-induced neuronal death. Our results indicate that DP-b99 is effective in attenuating Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) surges and protecting neurons against a toxic Zn(2+)-rise. This may underlie the efficacy of DP-b99 in stroke treatment.
    European journal of pharmacology 08/2009; 618(1-3):15-21. · 2.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: DP-155 is a lipid prodrug of indomethacin that comprises the latter conjugated to lecithin at position sn-2 via a 5-carbon length linker. It is cleaved by phospholipase A2 (PLA)(2) to a greater extent than similar compounds with linkers of 2, 3, and 4 carbons. Indomethacin is the principal metabolite of DP-155 in rat serum and, after DP-155 oral administration, the half-life of the metabolite was 22 and 93 h in serum and brain, respectively, compared to 10 and 24 h following indomethacin administration. The brain to serum ratio was 3.5 times higher for DP-155 than for indomethacin. In vitro studies demonstrated that DP-155 is a selective cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor. After it is cleaved, its indomethacin derivative nonselectively inhibits both COX-1 and -2. DP-155 showed a better toxicity profile probably due to the sustained, low serum levels and reduced maximal concentration of its indomethacin metabolite. DP-155 did not produce gastric toxicity at the highest acute dose tested (0.28 mmol/kg), while indomethacin caused gastric ulcers at a dose 33-fold lower. Furthermore, after repeated oral dosing, gastrointestinal and renal toxicity was lower (10- and 5-fold, respectively) and delayed with DP-155 compared to indomethacin. In addition to reduced toxicity, DP-155 had similar ameliorative effects to indomethacin in antipyretic and analgesia models. Moreover, DP-155 and indomethacin were equally efficacious in reducing levels of amyloid ss (Ass)42 in transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse (Tg2576) brains as well as reducing Ass42 intracellular uptake, neurodegeneration, and inflammation in an in vitro AD model. The relatively high brain levels of indomethacin after DP-155 administration explain the equal efficacy of DP-155 despite its low systemic blood concentrations. Compared to indomethacin, the favored safety profile and equal efficacy of DP-155 establish the compound as a potential candidate for chronic use to treat AD-related pathology and for analgesia.
    CNS Drug Reviews 02/2007; 13(2):260-77. · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Indomethacin has been suggested for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its use is limited by gastrointestinal and renal toxicity. To overcome this limitation, D-Pharm Ltd. (Rehovot, Israel) developed DP-155 (mixture of 1-steroyl and 1-palmitoyl-2-{6-[1-(p-chlorobenzoyl)-5-methoxy-2-methyl-3-indolyl acetamido] hexanoyl}-Sn-glycero-3-phosophatidyl [corrected] choline), a lecithin derivative of indomethacin. Safety was tested by daily oral administration of DP-155 or indomethacin to rats in a dose range of 0.007 to 0.28 mmol/kg. The prevalence of gastrointestinal ulceration was significantly lower (10-fold) for DP-155 than for indomethacin, and the ulcerations were delayed. Signs of renal toxicity, namely reduced urine output and increased urine N-acetyl glycosaminidase to creatinine ratio, were 5-fold lower for DP-155. Indomethacin, but not an equimolar dose of DP-155, reduced urine bicyclo-prostaglandin E(2). An equimolar oral dose of DP-155 or indomethacin, administered every 4 h for 3 days, was equally efficacious in reducing the levels of Abeta42 in the brains of Tg2576 mice. Indomethacin was the principal metabolite of DP-155 in the serum. After DP-155 oral administration, indomethacin's half-life in the serum and the brain was 22 and 93 h, respectively, compared with 10 and 24 h following indomethacin oral administration. The brain to serum ratio was 3.5 times higher for DP-155 than indomethacin. This finding explains the efficacy of DP-155 in reducing Abeta42 brain levels, despite the low systemic blood concentrations of indomethacin derived from DP-155. In conclusion, compared with indomethacin, DP-155 has significantly lower toxicity in the gut and kidney while maintaining similar efficacy to indomethacin in lowering Abeta42 in the brains of Tg2576 mice. This superior safety profile highlights DP-155's potential as an improved indomethacin-based therapy for AD.
    Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 10/2006; 318(3):1248-56. · 3.89 Impact Factor
  • Article: DP-VPA
    G. Rosenberg, J. E. Friedman, I. Shapiro, A. Kozak
    Drugs of The Future - DRUG FUTURE. 01/2005; 30(12).
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    ABSTRACT: Metals such as zinc, copper and iron contribute to aggregation of amyloid-beta (Abeta) protein and deposition of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined whether the lipophilic metal chelator DP-109 inhibited these events in aged female hAbetaPP-transgenic Tg2576 mice. Daily gavage administration of DP-109 for 3 months markedly reduced the burden of amyloid plaques and the degree of cerebral amyloid angiopathy in brains, compared to animals receiving vehicle treatment. Moreover, DP-109 treatment appeared to facilitate the transition of Abeta from insoluble to soluble forms in the cerebrum. These results further support the hypothesis that endogenous metals are involved in the deposition of aggregated Abeta in brains of AD patients, and that metal chelators may be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of AD.
    Neurobiology of Aging 01/2004; 25(10):1315-21. · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disturbance in metallochemical reactions and metal-protein association are associated with chronic neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, as well as with neurodegeneration triggered by acute cerebral ischaemia. Many neurological diseases have been linked directly or indirectly to perturbed homeostasis of Ca, Fe, Zn, or Cu ions. Consequently, acute or chronic neurodegenerative disorders represent excellent targets for exploiting metal ion chelator approaches. Drug Dev. Res. 56: 300–309, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Drug Development Research 06/2002; 56(3):300 - 309. · 0.87 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

143 Citations
18.43 Total Impact Points


  • 2007
    • University of Pretoria
      Πρετόρια/Πόλη του Ακρωτηρίου, Gauteng, South Africa