[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Russian Federation and the Ukraine are among the Eastern European countries with the fastest growing number of cases of HIV. According to data from the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS, nearly 90% of newly reported HIV diagnoses in Eastern Europe in 2006 were from the Russian Federation (66%) and the Ukraine (21%). A growing number of women are infected with HIV. The impact of gender on HIV/AIDS is an important factor in understanding the development and evolution of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Eastern Europe.
The aim of this study was to assess the importance of integrating gender consideration into the creation of HIV programs and to examine the effect of gender on HIV/AIDS.
Reported HIV/AIDS cases from the official epidemiological register of the Ukrainian Centre for AIDS Prevention alongside data from the Russian Federal AIDS Center were analyzed. Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS country fact sheets were reviewed and analyzed, and this information was supplemented with published HIV prevalence and sexually transmitted disease case reporting information, unpublished reports, and expert evaluations.
Of the newly registered cases of HIV, the proportion of women rose from 13.0% in 1995 to 44.0% in 2006 in the Russian Federation, and from 37.2% in 1995 to 41.9% in 2006 in the Ukraine. There has also been a considerable increase in mother-to-child transmission of HIV since 1995. Between 1987 and 1994, the proportion of children among the people newly infected with HIV in the Ukraine was 2.2%; in 2006 it was 17.6%. In 2006, 16,078 new HIV cases were registered in the Ukraine and 39,652 new HIV cases in the Russian Federation. Large increases in the number of HIV-infected women were reported from both countries.
The data examined in this study suggest subregional differences in the magnitude of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the Russian Federation and the Ukraine and the importance of the impact of gender on the rapid spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among women and women of child-bearing age. To protect women from HIV infection, it is important to find ways to empower them by implementing policies and specific prevention measures that increase their access to knowledge about HIV/AIDS; the empowerment of women is vital to reversing the HIV/AIDS epidemic.
Gender Medicine 05/2009; 6(1):277-89. DOI:10.1016/j.genm.2009.04.009 · 1.55 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Public health and health care science take on an important role in the further development of palliative care. This study
examines to what degree palliative care is represented in the pertinent academic journals of public health and health care
science and what the major subjects are. We analysed the European journals that were listed in the Journal Citation Reports in the categories health care science and services, public, environmental and occupational health, as well as health policy and services. The literature search was conducted in the journals identified for the years 1996 through 2005, using the terms palliative care*, palliative medicine*, terminal care* and hospice care*. The analyses were based on the quantity of publications in the journals, the publication years, the impact factors and the
subjects focused on. There were 82 journals included. Altogether, 57,737 publications appeared during the analysis period;
166 papers were on palliative care (0.3% of all papers). The majority of palliative care articles (55%, n = 91) were concentrated in a very small circle of journals (4%, n = 3). The absolute quantity of palliative publications and their percentage among all publications have continuously increased
from 0.1% in 1996/1997 to 0.4% in 2004/2005. The largest group of papers on the subject (42%, n = 70) appeared in journals with impact factors less than 1, whereas the largest group of all papers was found in journals
with impact factors of 1–1.999 (51%, n = 15,732). Most papers focus on patient orientation and health professionals’ perspective and education; subjects such as
health care utilization and barriers are less frequently covered. There is need for more research on palliative care relevant
for public health and health care science in terms of reach and top-level impact. For example, the research questions should
deal with health care utilization and potential social and cultural barriers. The interdisciplinary community of public health
sets the stage for the required collaborative research activities.
Journal of Public Health 03/2007; 15(2):87-91. DOI:10.1007/s10389-006-0085-x · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Ukraine is one of the European countries with the fastest growing number of cases of HIV. In the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (EuroHIV) year-end report 2005, the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections in the Ukraine was the second highest in the WHO European Region. Women are increasingly contributing to the spread of HIV/AIDS. HIV infection by sexual contact is the most common way of HIV transmission among women. Reported HIV/AIDS cases from the official epidemiological register of the Ukrainian Centre for AIDS Prevention between 1995 and 2005, alongside data from seroepidemiological monitoring since 2002 were analysed. During 1987, 6 individuals (5 women) were registered with HIV. In 1995, the reported number of HIV infections increased to 1,490 (554 women), a 34-fold increase in comparison with 1994. In the newly infected HIV cases, the proportion of women rose from 37.2% in 1995 to 41.6% in 2005. There has also been a considerable increase in mother-to-child transmission of HIV since 1995. Between 1987 and 1994, the proportion of children among the newly HIV infected people was 2.2%. In 2005, it was 18.2%. In 2005, 13,770 new cases (8,044 men and 5,726 women) were registered, corresponding to about 28 cases per 100,000 population. HIV posed no significant problem in the Ukraine before 1995. Since 1995, there has been a considerable increase in the number of registered cases, especially among women. The significant increase in HIV infection among newborn children shows that women are contributing ever more to the propagation of HIV/AIDS too. Unless effective preventive measures are taken, and unless there is more investment in development projects, an HIV/AIDS epidemic may become a threat not only in the Ukraine, but also in neighboring European countries. The promotion of gender equality as well as investment in the education of girls and women should be improved to effectively prevent AIDS.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the end-year report 2004 of the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (EuroHIV), the number of newly diagnosed HIV infections in Ukraine ranks second in the WHO European Region after the Russian Federation.
An analysis of the HIV/AIDS reports from the official epidemiological register of the Ukrainian Centre for AIDS Prevention between 1987 and 2005 was undertaken. In addition, reports from the seroepidemiological monitoring were utilised.
According to the Ukrainian Ministry of Health, the cumulative number of reported HIV infections by the end of 2005 amounts to more than 88,900 cases with 13,786 new reports in 2005. The number of newly-registered AIDS cases rose from 45 in 1995 to 4220 in 2005. However, because of many unreported HIV diagnoses, the actual numbers are presumed to exceed the official reports considerably. Most of the infections are associated with injection drug abuse. The second most important route of transmission is sexual contact, also due to an increase in commercial sex. Vertical transmissions from infected mothers to their children rank third.
HIV was not a significant problem in the Ukraine before 1995. Since 1995 there has been a considerable increase in the number of newly registered HIV cases. At the beginning of the epidemic, HIV was mainly transmitted through sexual contacts in the Ukraine. Since 1995 infected drug users have been the main source of infection in the spread of the epidemic. Unless effective preventive measures are taken, and unless there is more investment in development projects, the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Ukraine could also affect the health system in neighbouring European countries.
Das Gesundheitswesen 01/2006; 68(8-9):571-4. DOI:10.1055/s-2006-927071 · 0.62 Impact Factor