Emanuele Di Angelantonio

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (112)1102.61 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Randomized control trials from the developed world report that clinical decision support systems (DSS) could provide an effective means to improve the management of hypertension (HTN). However, evidence from developing countries in this regard is rather limited, and there is a need to assess the impact of a clinical DSS on managing HTN in primary health care center (PHC) settings. We performed a cluster randomized trial to test the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a clinical DSS among Indian adult hypertensive patients (between 35 and 64 years of age), wherein 16 PHC clusters from a district of Telangana state, India, were randomized to receive either a DSS or a chart-based support (CBS) system. Each intervention arm had 8 PHC clusters, with a mean of 102 hypertensive patients per cluster (n=845 in DSS and 783 in CBS groups). Mean change in systolic blood pressure (SBP) from baseline to 12 months was the primary endpoint. The mean difference in SBP change from baseline between the DSS and CBS at the 12th month of follow-up, adjusted for age, sex, height, waist, body mass index, alcohol consumption, vegetable intake, pickle intake, and baseline differences in blood pressure, was -6.59 mm Hg (95% confidence interval: -12.18 to -1.42; P=0.021). The cost-effective ratio for CBS and DSS groups was $96.01 and $36.57 per mm of SBP reduction, respectively. Clinical DSS are effective and cost-effective in the management of HTN in resource-constrained PHC settings. http://www.ctri.nic.in. Unique identifier: CTRI/2012/03/002476. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 01/2015; 4(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Left ventricular (LV) mass ascertained using echocardiography may enhance risk stratification for sudden cardiac death. The objective of this study was to assess the association between left ventricular mass and the risk of sudden cardiac death in a population-based cohort and determine its incremental value beyond conventional risk predictors.
    Journal of the American Heart Association. 10/2014; 3(6).
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    ABSTRACT: We examined the influence of clinical, radiologic, and echocardiographic characteristics on antithrombotic choice in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and patent foramen ovale (PFO), hypothesizing that features suggestive of paradoxical embolism might lead to greater use of anticoagulation.
    Neurology 10/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Autologous pericardium annuloplasty (APA) is an alternative to prosthetic ring implantation for mitral valve (MV) repair, avoiding the use of foreign material and preserving the mitral annulus' physiological motion. However, data on durability are questionable. Therefore, we analyzed long-term outcomes of treating degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) with APA.
    The Journal of cardiovascular surgery. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background Ageing populations may demand more blood transfusions, but the blood supply could be limited by difficulties in attracting and retaining a decreasing pool of younger donors. One approach to increase blood supply is to collect blood more frequently from existing donors. If more donations could be safely collected in this manner at marginal cost, then it would be of considerable benefit to blood services. National Health Service (NHS) Blood and Transplant in England currently allows men to donate up to every 12 weeks and women to donate up to every 16 weeks. In contrast, some other European countries allow donations as frequently as every 8 weeks for men and every 10 weeks for women. The primary aim of the INTERVAL trial is to determine whether donation intervals can be safely and acceptably decreased to optimise blood supply whilst maintaining the health of donors. Methods INTERVAL is a randomised trial of whole blood donors enrolled from all 25 static centres of NHS Blood and Transplant. Recruitment of about 50,000 male and female donors started in June 2012 and was completed in June 2014. Men have been randomly assigned to standard 12-week versus 10-week versus 8-week inter-donation intervals, while women have been assigned to standard 16-week versus 14-week versus 12-week inter-donation intervals. Sex-specific comparisons will be made by intention-to-treat analysis of outcomes assessed after two years of intervention. The primary outcome is the number of blood donations made. A key secondary outcome is donor quality of life, assessed using the Short Form Health Survey. Additional secondary endpoints include the number of 'deferrals' due to low haemoglobin (and other factors), iron status, cognitive function, physical activity, and donor attitudes. A comprehensive health economic analysis will be undertaken. Discussion The INTERVAL trial should yield novel information about the effect of inter-donation intervals on blood supply, acceptability, and donors' physical and mental well-being. The study will generate scientific evidence to help formulate blood collection policies in England and elsewhere.
    Trials 09/2014; 15:363. · 2.12 Impact Factor
  • Emanuele Di Angelantonio, Rajiv Chowdhury, Nita G Forouhi, John Danesh
    Annals of internal medicine 09/2014; 161(6):458-459. · 16.10 Impact Factor
  • The Lancet 06/2014; 383(9934):2042–2043. · 39.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To examine predictors of stroke recurrence in patients with a high vs a low likelihood of having an incidental patent foramen ovale (PFO) as defined by the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE) score.METHODS: Patients in the RoPE database with cryptogenic stroke (CS) and PFO were classified as having a probable PFO-related stroke (RoPE score of >6, n = 647) and others (RoPE score of ≤6 points, n = 677). We tested 15 clinical, 5 radiologic, and 3 echocardiographic variables for associations with stroke recurrence using Cox survival models with component database as a stratification factor. An interaction with RoPE score was checked for the variables that were significant.RESULTS: Follow-up was available for 92%, 79%, and 57% at 1, 2, and 3 years. Overall, a higher recurrence risk was associated with an index TIA. For all other predictors, effects were significantly different in the 2 RoPE score categories. For the low RoPE score group, but not the high RoPE score group, older age and antiplatelet (vs warfarin) treatment predicted recurrence. Conversely, echocardiographic features (septal hypermobility and a small shunt) and a prior (clinical) stroke/TIA were significant predictors in the high but not low RoPE score group.CONCLUSION: Predictors of recurrence differ when PFO relatedness is classified by the RoPE score, suggesting that patients with CS and PFO form a heterogeneous group with different stroke mechanisms. Echocardiographic features were only associated with recurrence in the high RoPE score group.
    Neurology 06/2014; · 8.30 Impact Factor
  • Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 05/2014; 7(3):573. · 6.99 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain. To determine whether adding information on HbA1c values to conventional cardiovascular risk factors is associated with improvement in prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Analysis of individual-participant data available from 73 prospective studies involving 294,998 participants without a known history of diabetes mellitus or CVD at the baseline assessment. Measures of risk discrimination for CVD outcomes (eg, C-index) and reclassification (eg, net reclassification improvement) of participants across predicted 10-year risk categories of low (<5%), intermediate (5% to <7.5%), and high (≥7.5%) risk. During a median follow-up of 9.9 (interquartile range, 7.6-13.2) years, 20,840 incident fatal and nonfatal CVD outcomes (13,237 coronary heart disease and 7603 stroke outcomes) were recorded. In analyses adjusted for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors, there was an approximately J-shaped association between HbA1c values and CVD risk. The association between HbA1c values and CVD risk changed only slightly after adjustment for total cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations or estimated glomerular filtration rate, but this association attenuated somewhat after adjustment for concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein. The C-index for a CVD risk prediction model containing conventional cardiovascular risk factors alone was 0.7434 (95% CI, 0.7350 to 0.7517). The addition of information on HbA1c was associated with a C-index change of 0.0018 (0.0003 to 0.0033) and a net reclassification improvement of 0.42 (-0.63 to 1.48) for the categories of predicted 10-year CVD risk. The improvement provided by HbA1c assessment in prediction of CVD risk was equal to or better than estimated improvements for measurement of fasting, random, or postload plasma glucose levels. In a study of individuals without known CVD or diabetes, additional assessment of HbA1c values in the context of CVD risk assessment provided little incremental benefit for prediction of CVD risk.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 03/2014; 311(12):1225-33. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Guidelines advocate changes in fatty acid consumption to promote cardiovascular health. To summarize evidence about associations between fatty acids and coronary disease. MEDLINE, Science Citation Index, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through July 2013. Prospective, observational studies and randomized, controlled trials. Investigators extracted data about study characteristics and assessed study biases. There were 32 observational studies (530 525 participants) of fatty acids from dietary intake; 17 observational studies (25 721 participants) of fatty acid biomarkers; and 27 randomized, controlled trials (103 052 participants) of fatty acid supplementation. In observational studies, relative risks for coronary disease were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.97 to 1.07) for saturated, 0.99 (CI, 0.89 to 1.09) for monounsaturated, 0.93 (CI, 0.84 to 1.02) for long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated, 1.01 (CI, 0.96 to 1.07) for ω-6 polyunsaturated, and 1.16 (CI, 1.06 to 1.27) for trans fatty acids when the top and bottom thirds of baseline dietary fatty acid intake were compared. Corresponding estimates for circulating fatty acids were 1.06 (CI, 0.86 to 1.30), 1.06 (CI, 0.97 to 1.17), 0.84 (CI, 0.63 to 1.11), 0.94 (CI, 0.84 to 1.06), and 1.05 (CI, 0.76 to 1.44), respectively. There was heterogeneity of the associations among individual circulating fatty acids and coronary disease. In randomized, controlled trials, relative risks for coronary disease were 0.97 (CI, 0.69 to 1.36) for α-linolenic, 0.94 (CI, 0.86 to 1.03) for long-chain ω-3 polyunsaturated, and 0.89 (CI, 0.71 to 1.12) for ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementations. Potential biases from preferential publication and selective reporting. Current evidence does not clearly support cardiovascular guidelines that encourage high consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids and low consumption of total saturated fats. British Heart Foundation, Medical Research Council, Cambridge National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, and Gates Cambridge.
    Annals of internal medicine 03/2014; 160(6). · 16.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A region-specific (urban and rural parts of north, east, west, and south India) systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among Indian patients have not been done before. Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus databases from 1950 to 30 April 2013 were searched for 'prevalence, burden, awareness, and control of blood pressure (BP) or hypertension (≥140 SBP and or ≥90 DBP) among Indian adults' (≥18 years). Of the total 3047 articles, 142 were included. Overall prevalence for hypertension in India was 29.8% (95% confidence interval: 26.7-33.0). Significant differences in hypertension prevalence were noted between rural and urban parts [27.6% (23.2-32.0) and 33.8% (29.7-37.8); P = 0.05]. Regional estimates for the prevalence of hypertension were as follows: 14.5% (13.3-15.7), 31.7% (30.2-33.3), 18.1% (16.9-19.2), and 21.1% (20.1-22.0) for rural north, east, west, and south India; and 28.8% (26.9-30.8), 34.5% (32.6-36.5), 35.8% (35.2-36.5), and 31.8% (30.4-33.1) for urban north, east, west, and south India, respectively. Overall estimates for the prevalence of awareness, treatment, and control of BP were 25.3% (21.4-29.3), 25.1% (17.0-33.1), and 10.7% (6.5-15.0) for rural Indians; and 42.0% (35.2-48.9), 37.6% (24.0-51.2), and 20.2% (11.6-28.7) for urban Indians. About 33% urban and 25% rural Indians are hypertensive. Of these, 25% rural and 42% urban Indians are aware of their hypertensive status. Only 25% rural and 38% of urban Indians are being treated for hypertension. One-tenth of rural and one-fifth of urban Indian hypertensive population have their BP under control.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivitives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0.
    Journal of Hypertension 03/2014; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic utility of isolated T-wave inversion (TWI), QRS duration, and QRS/T angle on electrocardiogram at rest as predictors for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and death from all causes. The assessment of electrocardiographic findings was based on a population-based cohort of 1,951 men (age 42 to 61 years) with a follow-up period of 20 years. Isolated TWI in the absence of ST depression, bundle branch block or major arrhythmias, prolonged QRS duration from 110 to 119 ms, and a wide QRS/T angle of >67° were identified from the 12-lead electrocardiograms. SCD was observed in 171 men (8.3%) during the follow-up. As a single electrocardiographic parameter, TWI (prevalence 2.4%) was associated with an increased risk of SCD (hazard ratio [HR] 3.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.91 to 5.71, p <0.001) after adjustment for age and clinical factors. Similarly, prolonged QRS duration and wide QRS/T angle were significantly related to the risk of SCD, with HR 1.50 (95% CI 1.08 to 2.19, p = 0.017) for QRS duration and HR 3.03 (95% CI 2.23 to 4.14, p <0.001) for QRS/T angle. The integrated discrimination improvement was significant when TWI (0.014, p = 0.036) or QRS/T angle (0.015, p = 0.002) was added to the model with age and clinical factors. In conclusion, TWI, QRS duration, and QRS/T angle are significantly associated with the risk of SCD and death from all causes beyond conventional cardiovascular risk predictors in the general population.
    The American journal of cardiology 01/2014; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: -Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is associated with cryptogenic stroke (CS), though the pathogenicity of a discovered PFO in the setting of CS is typically unclear. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) features such as PFO size, an associated hypermobile septum, and presence of a right-to-left shunt at rest have all been proposed as markers of risk. The association of these TEE features with other markers of pathogenicity has not been examined. -We used a recently derived score based on clinical and neuroimaging features to stratify patients with PFO and CS by the probability that their stroke is PFO-attributable. We examined whether high risk TEE features are seen more frequently in patients more likely to have had a PFO-attributable stroke (n = 637) compared to those less likely to have a PFO attributable stroke (n = 657). Large physiologic shunt size was not more frequently seen among those with probable PFO-attributable strokes (OR=0.92; p = 0.53). Neither the presence of a hypermobile septum nor a right-to-left shunt at rest were detected more often in those with a probable PFO-attributable stroke (OR=0.80; p = 0.45 and OR=1.15; 0.11 respectively). -We found no evidence that the proposed TEE risk markers of large PFO size, hypermobile septum, and presence of right-to-left shunt at rest are associated with clinical features suggesting that a CS is PFO-attributable. Additional tools to describe PFOs may be useful in helping to determine whether an observed PFO is incidental or pathogenically related to CS.
    Circulation Cardiovascular Imaging 11/2013; · 5.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypertension remains the top global cause of disease burden. Decision support systems (DSS) could provide an adequate and cost-effective means to improve the management of hypertension at a primary health care (PHC) level in a developing country, nevertheless evidence on this regard is rather limited. Development of DSS software was based on an algorithmic approach for (a) evaluation of a hypertensive patient, (b) risk stratification (c) drug management and (d) lifestyle interventions, based on Indian guidelines for hypertension II (2007). The beta testing of DSS software involved a feedback from the end users of the system on the contents of the user interface. Software validation and piloting was done in field, wherein the virtual recommendations and advice given by the DSS were compared with two independent experts (government doctors from the non-participating PHC centers). The overall percent agreement between the DSS and independent experts among 60 hypertensives on drug management was 85% (95% CI: 83.61 - 85.25). The kappa statistic for overall agreement for drug management was 0.659 (95% CI: 0.457 - 0.862) indicating a substantial degree of agreement beyond chance at an alpha fixed at 0.05 with 80% power. Receiver operator curve (ROC) showed a good accuracy for the DSS, wherein, the area under curve (AUC) was 0.848 (95% CI: 0.741 - 0.948). Sensitivity and specificity of the DSS were 83.33 and 85.71% respectively when compared with independent experts. A point of care, pilot tested and validated DSS for management of hypertension has been developed in a resource constrained low and middle income setting and could contribute to improved management of hypertension at a primary health care level.
    PLoS ONE 11/2013; 8(11):e79638. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Risk profiles for stroke recurrence are poorly characterized. We determined the variation in the risk and type of recurrent stroke among index ischemic stroke subtypes, and whether index stroke subtype and conventional stroke risk factors were predictors of stroke recurrence. Patients enrolled in the Prevention Regimen for Effectively Avoiding Second Strokes trial were included in this study. In 1794 patients' recurrent stroke subtypes were the same as the index stroke in: 48·3% of patients with large artery atherothrombosis stroke; 50% of patients with cardioembolic stroke; 48·7% of patients with small artery occlusion stroke; 8·1% of patients with stroke of other etiology, and 45·3% of patients with undetermined etiology stroke. Patients with cardioembolic stroke, who were unwilling or unable to take oral anticoagulants, had the greatest risk of stroke recurrence. Predictors of stroke recurrence in multivariable analysis were: older age and previous stroke among large artery atherothrombosis strokes; older age, male sex, previous stroke, previous transient ischemic attack, hypertension, diabetes, and tobacco use among small artery occlusion strokes; older age among cardioembolic strokes; atrial fibrillation and anti-diabetic medications among other etiology strokes; older age, previous stroke and atrial fibrillation among undetermined etiology strokes. Predictors of brain hemorrhage as recurrent stroke were index small artery occlusion stroke, older age, previous stroke, and antiplatelet treatment with aspirin plus extended-release dipyridamole. Risk predictors for stroke recurrence and for brain hemorrhage differ by index ischemic stroke subtype, information that is important when initiating secondary prevention therapy.
    International Journal of Stroke 10/2013; · 4.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Because low-grade inflammation may play a role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD), and pro-inflammatory cytokines govern inflammatory cascades, this study aimed to assess the associations of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and CHD risk in a new prospective study, including meta-analysis of prospective studies. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured at baseline in a case-cohort study of 1514 participants and 833 incident CHD events within population-based prospective cohorts at the Danish Research Centre for Prevention and Health. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CHD per 1-SD higher log-transformed baseline levels were: 1.37 (95% CI: 1.21-1.54) for IL-6, 1.26 (1.11-1.44) for IL-18, 1.30 (1.16-1.46) for MMP-9, 1.01 (0.89-1.15) for sCD40L, and 1.13 (1.01-1.27) for TNF-α. Multivariable adjustment for conventional vascular risk factors attenuated the HRs to: 1.26 (1.08-1.46) for IL-6, 1.12 (0.95-1.31) for IL-18, 1.21 (1.05-1.39) for MMP-9, 0.93 (0.78-1.11) for sCD40L, and 1.14 (1.00-1.31) for TNF-α. In meta-analysis of up to 29 population-based prospective studies, adjusted relative risks for non-fatal MI or CHD death per 1-SD higher levels were: 1.25 (1.19-1.32) for IL-6; 1.13 (1.05-1.20) for IL-18; 1.07 (0.97-1.19) for MMP-9; 1.07 (0.95-1.21) for sCD40L; and 1.17 (1.09-1.25) for TNF-α. Several different pro-inflammatory cytokines are each associated with CHD risk independent of conventional risk factors and in an approximately log-linear manner. The findings lend support to the inflammation hypothesis in vascular disease, but further studies are needed to assess causality.
    European Heart Journal 09/2013; · 14.72 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
1,102.61 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Cardiovascular Epidemiology Unit
      • • Department of Public Health and Primary Care
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2012–2013
    • Tufts Medical Center
      • Department of Neurology
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2010
    • Center for Non-Communicable Diseases
      Kurrachee, Sindh, Pakistan
    • Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris
      • Department of Cardiology
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 2007–2010
    • Pierre and Marie Curie University - Paris 6
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2009
    • University of Aberdeen
      Aberdeen, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2006
    • Sapienza University of Rome
      • Department of Medicine
      Roma, Latium, Italy
    • IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo Neuromed
      Poczilli, Molise, Italy
    • Università degli Studi di Sassari
      Sassari, Sardinia, Italy