Wei-Chung Shih

National Taiwan University, T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan

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Publications (8)29.35 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Acrylamide (AA), a rodent carcinogen, is widely used in industry and present in cigarette smoke as well as in foods processed at high temperatures. The metabolic activation of AA to glycidamide (GA) could be critical for AA carcinogenicity since GA causes DNA adduct formation in vivo. N7-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl) guanine (N7-GAG), the most abundant DNA adduct of AA, is subjected to spontaneous and enzymatic depurination and excreted through urine. Urinary N7-GAG analysis can confirm AA genotoxicity and identify active species of AA metabolites in humans, thereby serving as a risk-associated biomarker for molecular epidemiology studies. This study aimed to develop an isotope-dilution solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method to comparatively analyze urinary N7-GAG levels in nonsmokers and smokers. Urinary N-acetyl-S-(propionamide)-cysteine (AAMA), a metabolite of AA, was also analyzed as a biomarker for current AA exposure. Urinary N7-GAG was quantified by monitoring m/z 239 → 152 for N7-GAG and m/z 242 → 152 for (13)C3-labeled N7-GAG under positive electron spray ionization and multiple reaction mode. The median urinary N7-GAG level was 0.93 μg/g creatinine in nonsmokers (n = 33) and 1.41 μg/g creatinine in smokers (n = 30). Multiple linear regression analysis of data revealed that N7-GAG levels were only significantly associated with AAMA levels. These results demonstrate that urinary N7-GAG of nonsmokers and smokers is significantly associated with a very low level of dietary AA intake, assessed by analyzing urinary AAMA.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 11/2014; DOI:10.1021/tx500265p · 4.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Acrylonitrile (AN), a widely used industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AN can be detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form glutathione (GSH) conjugates in vivo. It can be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 2E1 to form 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which can also be detoxified by GST to generate GSH conjugates. The GSH conjugates can be further metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs), namely, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (CEMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (HEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (CHEMA). This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantitatively profile the major AN urinary metabolites (CEMA, HEMA, and CHEMA) to assess AN exposure, as well as analyze urinary cotinine (COT) as an indicator for tobacco smoke exposure. The limits of quantitation were 0.1, 0.1, 1.0, and 0.05 μg/L for HEMA, CEMA, CHEMA, and COT, respectively. This method was applied to analyze the three AN-derived MAs in 36 volunteers with no prior occupational AN exposure. Data analysis showed significant correlations between the level of COT and the levels of these MAs, suggesting them as biomarkers for exposure to low levels of AN. The results demonstrate that a highly specific and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully developed to quantitatively profile the major urinary metabolites of AN in humans to assess low AN exposure.
    Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2012; 402(6):2113-20. DOI:10.1007/s00216-011-5661-4 · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mass spectrometry plays an increasingly important role in the search for and quantification of novel chemically specific biomarkers. The revolutionary advances in mass spectrometry instrumentation and technology empower scientists to specifically analyze DNA and protein adducts, considered as molecular dosimeters, derived from reactions of a carcinogen or its active metabolites with DNA or protein. Analysis of the adducted DNA bases and proteins can elucidate the chemically reactive species of carcinogens in humans and can serve as risk-associated biomarkers for early prediction of cancer risk. In this article, we review and compare the specificity, sensitivity, resolution, and ease-of-use of mass spectrometry methods developed to analyze ethylene oxide (EO)-induced DNA and protein adducts, particularly N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine (HEV), in human samples and in animal tissues. GC/ECNCI-MS analysis after HPLC cleanup is the most sensitive method for quantification of N7-HEG, but limited by the tedious sample preparation procedures. Excellent sensitivity and specificity in analysis of N7-HEG can be achieved by LC/MS/MS analysis if the mobile phase, the inlet (split or splitless), and the collision energy are properly optimized. GC/ECNCI-HRMS and GC/ECNCI-MS/MS analysis of HEV achieves the best performance as compared with GC/ECNCI-MS and GC/EI-MS. In conclusion, future improvements in high-throughput capabilities, detection sensitivity, and resolution of mass spectrometry will attract more scientists to identify and/or quantify novel molecular dosimeters or profiles of these biomarkers in toxicological and/or epidemiological studies. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev.
    Mass Spectrometry Reviews 09/2011; 30(5). DOI:10.1002/mas.20299 · 8.05 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aristolochic acids (AAs), nephrotoxicants and known human carcinogens, are a mixture of structurally related derivatives of nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids with the major components being aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II. People may ingest small amounts of AAs from its natural presence in medicinal plants and herbs of the family Aristolochiaceae, including the genera Aristolochia and Asarum, which have been used worldwide in folk medicine for centuries. In order to assess AA intake, an on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS) method was developed to analyze their most abundant corresponding metabolites, aristolactams (ALs), in urine to serve as biomarkers. The limits of quantitation were 0.006 ng for aristolactam I (AL-I), and 0.024 ng for aristolactam II (AL-II) on column. Recovery varied from 98.0% to 99.5%, and matrix effects were within 75.3-75.4%. This method was applied to analyze ALs in the urine samples collected on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 from mice treated with 30 mg/kg or 50mg/kg AAs. Their half lives were estimated to be 3.55 h and 4.00 for AL-I, and 4.04 and 4.83 h for AL-II, depending on AAs doses. These results demonstrated that the first simple on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method was successfully developed to analyze urinary ALs with excellent sensitivity and specificity to serve as biomarkers to assess current AA intake from AAs-containing Chinese herbs.
    Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2011; 879(25):2494-500. DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.06.045 · 2.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We conducted a repeated-measurement study to (1) investigate the correlation between occupational exposure to airborne acrylamide (AA) and the time-dependent behavior of urinary AAMA, GAMA2, and GAMA3 and (2) calculate the estimated biological exposure index at the permissible exposure limit (PEL) level of 30 μg/m(3). Forty-four workers were recruited--8 were AA-exposed and 36 were controls. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from the exposed group in parallel with personal sampling for 8 consecutive days and only 1 day for the control group and analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Post-shift urinary AAMA level was significantly associated with personal AA exposure (p < 0.001), indicating that urinary AAMA was a better AA exposure biomarker. The estimated urinary excretion of AAMA was 3.0 mg/g creatinine for nonsmoking workers exposed to the PEL of 30 μg/m(3). The median GAMA (the sum of GAMA2 and GAMA3)/AAMA ratio for exposed workers was 0.03 (range, 0.005-0.14), relatively lower than that of the nonoccupational group. Although sample size in this study was small, the repeated-measurement data provide useful reference for future studies related to biological monitoring of occupational exposure to AA.
    International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 03/2011; 84(3):303-13. DOI:10.1007/s00420-010-0558-7 · 2.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethylene oxide (EO), a direct alkylating agent and a carcinogen, can attack the nucleophilic sites of DNA bases to form a variety of DNA adducts. The most abundant adduct, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), can be depurinated spontaneously or enzymatically from DNA backbone to form abasic sites. Molecular dosimetry of the excised N7-HEG in urine can serve as an EO exposure and potential risk-associated biomarker. This study was to analyze N7-HEG in urine collected from 89 EO-exposed and 48 nonexposed hospital workers and 20 exposed and 10 nonexposed factory workers by using our newly developed on-line solid-phase extraction isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method. Statistical analysis of data shows that the exposed factory workers excreted significantly greater concentrations of N7-HEG than both the nonexposed factory workers and hospital workers. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the EO-exposed factory workers had a significantly greater post-shift urinary N7-HEG than their nonexposed coworkers and hospital workers. These results demonstrate that analysis of urinary N7-HEG can serve as a biomarker of EO exposure for future molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the role of the EO-induced DNA adduct formation in EO carcinogenicity and certainly for routine surveillance of occupational EO exposure for the study of potential health impacts on workers.
    Toxicology Letters 02/2011; 202(3):237-43. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.02.009 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ethylene oxide (EtO) is classified as a known human carcinogen. The formation of EtO-DNA adducts is considered as an important early event in the EtO carcinogenic process. An isotope-dilution on-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was then developed to analyze one of the EtO-DNA adducts, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), in urine of 46 nonsmokers with excellent accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The merits of this method include small sample volume (only 120 microL urine required), automated sample cleanup, and short total run time (12 minutes per sample). This method demonstrates its high-throughput capacity for future molecular epidemiology studies on the potential health effects resulting from the low-dose EtO exposure.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 03/2008; 22(5):706-10. DOI:10.1002/rcm.3414 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-cholroaniline) (MOCA) or its metabolites in urine has been considered as the appropriate method to assess MOCA exposures through inhalation and skin absorption. MOCA and its metabolite, N-acetyl 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (acetyl-MOCA), are analyzed using methods either limited by sensitivity or sample preparation. Therefore, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously analyze MOCA and acetyl-MOCA in urine to serve as biomarkers for MOCA exposure. Protein was precipitated by using acetonitrile, and SPE were applied to clean up samples to eliminate the matrix effect and to improve the recovery. The limit of quantitation of this method was at 1.0 ng/mL for MOCA and 0.03 ng/mL for acetyl-MOCA (signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio = 10). Urinary MOCA and acetyl-MOCA levels in MOCA-exposed workers were analyzed and quantitated to be 191.9 +/- 373.2 (mean +/- standard deviation (SD)) and 11.79 +/- 23.8 ng/mL (N = 54) with the median values 38.6 and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. MOCA concentrations are significantly correlated with their corresponding acetyl-MOCA levels in urine (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.916, p < 0.001). These results show that this method has been successfully developed and provides high-throughput potential to analyze MOCA and acetyl-MOCA to serve as exposure biomarkers for future study of the potential health effects associated with MOCA exposures.
    Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 12/2007; 21(24):4073-8. DOI:10.1002/rcm.3314 · 2.64 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

42 Citations
29.35 Total Impact Points


  • 2011–2014
    • National Taiwan University
      • • Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene
      • • Department of Public Health
      T’ai-pei, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 2007–2008
    • National Health Research Institutes
      Miao-li-chieh, Taiwan, Taiwan