[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acrylonitrile (AN), a widely used industrial chemical also found in tobacco smoke, has been classified as a possible human carcinogen (group 2B) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. AN can be detoxified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) to form glutathione (GSH) conjugates in vivo. It can be metabolically activated by cytochrome P450 2E1 to form 2-cyanoethylene oxide, which can also be detoxified by GST to generate GSH conjugates. The GSH conjugates can be further metabolized to mercapturic acids (MAs), namely, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)cysteine (CEMA), N-acetyl-S-(2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (HEMA), and N-acetyl-S-(1-cyano-2-hydroxyethyl)cysteine (CHEMA). This study developed an ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method to quantitatively profile the major AN urinary metabolites (CEMA, HEMA, and CHEMA) to assess AN exposure, as well as analyze urinary cotinine (COT) as an indicator for tobacco smoke exposure. The limits of quantitation were 0.1, 0.1, 1.0, and 0.05 μg/L for HEMA, CEMA, CHEMA, and COT, respectively. This method was applied to analyze the three AN-derived MAs in 36 volunteers with no prior occupational AN exposure. Data analysis showed significant correlations between the level of COT and the levels of these MAs, suggesting them as biomarkers for exposure to low levels of AN. The results demonstrate that a highly specific and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method has been successfully developed to quantitatively profile the major urinary metabolites of AN in humans to assess low AN exposure.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 02/2012; 402(6):2113-20. · 3.66 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aristolochic acids (AAs), nephrotoxicants and known human carcinogens, are a mixture of structurally related derivatives of nitrophenanthrene carboxylic acids with the major components being aristolochic acid I and aristolochic acid II. People may ingest small amounts of AAs from its natural presence in medicinal plants and herbs of the family Aristolochiaceae, including the genera Aristolochia and Asarum, which have been used worldwide in folk medicine for centuries. In order to assess AA intake, an on-line solid-phase extraction coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS) method was developed to analyze their most abundant corresponding metabolites, aristolactams (ALs), in urine to serve as biomarkers. The limits of quantitation were 0.006 ng for aristolactam I (AL-I), and 0.024 ng for aristolactam II (AL-II) on column. Recovery varied from 98.0% to 99.5%, and matrix effects were within 75.3-75.4%. This method was applied to analyze ALs in the urine samples collected on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 from mice treated with 30 mg/kg or 50mg/kg AAs. Their half lives were estimated to be 3.55 h and 4.00 for AL-I, and 4.04 and 4.83 h for AL-II, depending on AAs doses. These results demonstrated that the first simple on-line SPE-LC/MS/MS method was successfully developed to analyze urinary ALs with excellent sensitivity and specificity to serve as biomarkers to assess current AA intake from AAs-containing Chinese herbs.
Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences 09/2011; 879(25):2494-500. · 2.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We conducted a repeated-measurement study to (1) investigate the correlation between occupational exposure to airborne acrylamide (AA) and the time-dependent behavior of urinary AAMA, GAMA2, and GAMA3 and (2) calculate the estimated biological exposure index at the permissible exposure limit (PEL) level of 30 μg/m(3).
Forty-four workers were recruited--8 were AA-exposed and 36 were controls. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from the exposed group in parallel with personal sampling for 8 consecutive days and only 1 day for the control group and analyzed using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS).
Post-shift urinary AAMA level was significantly associated with personal AA exposure (p < 0.001), indicating that urinary AAMA was a better AA exposure biomarker. The estimated urinary excretion of AAMA was 3.0 mg/g creatinine for nonsmoking workers exposed to the PEL of 30 μg/m(3). The median GAMA (the sum of GAMA2 and GAMA3)/AAMA ratio for exposed workers was 0.03 (range, 0.005-0.14), relatively lower than that of the nonoccupational group.
Although sample size in this study was small, the repeated-measurement data provide useful reference for future studies related to biological monitoring of occupational exposure to AA.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health 03/2011; 84(3):303-13. · 2.10 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethylene oxide (EO), a direct alkylating agent and a carcinogen, can attack the nucleophilic sites of DNA bases to form a variety of DNA adducts. The most abundant adduct, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), can be depurinated spontaneously or enzymatically from DNA backbone to form abasic sites. Molecular dosimetry of the excised N7-HEG in urine can serve as an EO exposure and potential risk-associated biomarker. This study was to analyze N7-HEG in urine collected from 89 EO-exposed and 48 nonexposed hospital workers and 20 exposed and 10 nonexposed factory workers by using our newly developed on-line solid-phase extraction isotope-dilution LC-MS/MS method. Statistical analysis of data shows that the exposed factory workers excreted significantly greater concentrations of N7-HEG than both the nonexposed factory workers and hospital workers. Multiple linear regression analysis reveals that the EO-exposed factory workers had a significantly greater post-shift urinary N7-HEG than their nonexposed coworkers and hospital workers. These results demonstrate that analysis of urinary N7-HEG can serve as a biomarker of EO exposure for future molecular epidemiology studies to better understand the role of the EO-induced DNA adduct formation in EO carcinogenicity and certainly for routine surveillance of occupational EO exposure for the study of potential health impacts on workers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ethylene oxide (EtO) is classified as a known human carcinogen. The formation of EtO-DNA adducts is considered as an important early event in the EtO carcinogenic process. An isotope-dilution on-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was then developed to analyze one of the EtO-DNA adducts, N7-(2-hydroxyethyl)guanine (N7-HEG), in urine of 46 nonsmokers with excellent accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. The merits of this method include small sample volume (only 120 microL urine required), automated sample cleanup, and short total run time (12 minutes per sample). This method demonstrates its high-throughput capacity for future molecular epidemiology studies on the potential health effects resulting from the low-dose EtO exposure.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 02/2008; 22(5):706-10. · 2.51 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Analysis of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-cholroaniline) (MOCA) or its metabolites in urine has been considered as the appropriate method to assess MOCA exposures through inhalation and skin absorption. MOCA and its metabolite, N-acetyl 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (acetyl-MOCA), are analyzed using methods either limited by sensitivity or sample preparation. Therefore, a solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed to simultaneously analyze MOCA and acetyl-MOCA in urine to serve as biomarkers for MOCA exposure. Protein was precipitated by using acetonitrile, and SPE were applied to clean up samples to eliminate the matrix effect and to improve the recovery. The limit of quantitation of this method was at 1.0 ng/mL for MOCA and 0.03 ng/mL for acetyl-MOCA (signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio = 10). Urinary MOCA and acetyl-MOCA levels in MOCA-exposed workers were analyzed and quantitated to be 191.9 +/- 373.2 (mean +/- standard deviation (SD)) and 11.79 +/- 23.8 ng/mL (N = 54) with the median values 38.6 and 1.8 ng/mL, respectively. MOCA concentrations are significantly correlated with their corresponding acetyl-MOCA levels in urine (Spearman correlation coefficient r = 0.916, p < 0.001). These results show that this method has been successfully developed and provides high-throughput potential to analyze MOCA and acetyl-MOCA to serve as exposure biomarkers for future study of the potential health effects associated with MOCA exposures.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 01/2007; 21(24):4073-8. · 2.51 Impact Factor