[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B(2) (FB(2)) and B(4) when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g(-1)) of FB(2) were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB(4). This is the first record of freshly isolated A. niger strains producing fumonisins and the first report on the natural occurrence of FB(2) and FB(4) in coffee.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment 02/2009; 26(1):94-100.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In 2006 and 2007, 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites of Chiang Mai Province, and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora var. robusta) from two growing sites of Chumphon Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for the distribution of fungi with the potential to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). The overall percentage of fungal contamination in coffee was 98% and reduced to 60% after surface disinfection. There were remarkable ecological differences in the composition of ochratoxigenic species present in these two regions. Arabica coffee bean samples from the North had an average of 78% incidence of colonization with Aspergillus of section Circumdati with Aspergillus westerdijkiae and A. melleus as the predominant species. Aspergillus spp. of section Nigri were found in 75% of the samples whereas A. ochraceus was not detected. Robusta coffee beans from the South were 98-100% contaminated with predominantly A. carbonarius and A. niger. A. westerdijkiae was only found in one sample. The diversity of the fungal population was probably correlated with the geographical origin of the coffee, coffee cultivar, and processing method. Representative isolates of section Circumdati (52) and Nigri (82) were examined for their OTA production using HPLC with fluorescence detection. Aspergillus westerdijkiae (42 isolates out of 42), A. steynii (13/13), and A. carbonarius (35/35) in general produced large amounts of OTA, while one isolate of A. sclerotiorum produced intermediate amounts of OTA. 13% of the A. niger isolates produced OTA in intermediate amounts. OTA levels in coffee bean samples were analyzed using the Ridascreen OTA ELISA kits. Of the 64 coffee bean samples analyzed, 98% were contaminated with OTA in levels of <0.6-5.5 microg/kg (Arabica) and 1-27 microg/kg (Robusta). Presence of OTA in representative coffee samples was also confirmed by LC-MS/MS after ion-exchange purification.
International Journal of Food Microbiology 09/2008; 128(2):197-202. · 3.43 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin, internal transcribed spacer and calmodulin gene sequences) characteristics. A. aculeatinus sp. nov. is a uniseriate species with a similar morphology to Aspergillus aculeatus and Aspergillus japonicus, but producing smaller conidia (2-5 microm). A. aculeatinus sp. nov. produced neoxaline, secalonic acid D and F, and aculeacins. A. sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. is a biseriate species similar to Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ibericus, but produces abundant sclerotia and some unique indol-alkaloids. The type strain of Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. is CBS 121057(T) (=IBT 28362(T)) and the type strain of Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. is CBS 121060(T) (=IBT 29077(T)).
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 08/2008; 58(Pt 7):1727-34. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Aspergillus is one of the most important filamentous fungal genera. Aspergillus species are used in the fermentation industry, but they are also responsible of various plant and food secondary rot, with the consequence of possible accumulation of mycotoxins. The aflatoxin producing A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and ochratoxinogenic A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius species are frequently encountered in agricultural products. Studies on the biodiversity of toxigenic Aspergillus species is useful to clarify molecular, ecological and biochemical characteristics of the different species in relation to their different adaptation to environmental and geographical conditions, and to their potential toxigenicity. Here we analyzed the biodiversity of ochratoxin producing species occurring on two important crops: grapes and coffee, and the genetic diversity of A. flavus populations occurring in agricultural fields. Altogether nine different black Aspergillus species can be found on grapes which are often difficult to identify with classical methods. The polyphasic approach used in our studies led to the identification of three new species occurring on grapes: A. brasiliensis, A. ibericus, and A. uvarum. Similar studies on the Aspergillus species occurring on coffee beans have evidenced in the last five years that A. carbonarius is an important source of ochratoxin A in coffee. Four new species within the black aspergilli were also identified in coffee beans: A. sclerotioniger, A. lacticoffeatus, A. sclerotiicarbonarius, and A. aculeatinus. The genetic diversity within A. flavus populations has been widely studied in relation to their potential aflatoxigenicity and morphological variants L- and S-strains. Within A. flavus and other Aspergillus species capable of aflatoxin production, considerable diversity is found. We summarise the main recent achievements in the diversity of the aflatoxin gene cluster in A. flavus populations, A. parasiticus and the non-toxigenic A. oryzae. Studies are needed in order to characterise the aflatoxin biosynthetic genes in the new related taxa A. minisclerotigenes and A. arachidicola.
Studies in Mycology 02/2007; 59:53-66. · 6.23 Impact Factor