[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, energy efficiency and data gathering is a major concern in many applications of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). One of the important issues in WSNs is how to save the energy consumption for prolonging the network lifetime. For this purpose, many novel innovative techniques are required to improve the energy efficiency and lifetime of the network. In this paper, we propose a novel Energy Efficient Clustering and Data Aggregation (EECDA) protocol for the heterogeneous WSNs which combines the ideas of energy efficient cluster based routing and data aggregation to achieve a better performance in terms of lifetime and stability. EECDA protocol includes a novel cluster head election technique and a path would be selected with max-imum sum of energy residues for data transmission instead of the path with minimum energy consumption. Simulation results show that EECDA balances the energy consumption and prolongs the network lifetime by a factor of 51%, 35% and 10% when compared with Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH), Energy Efficient Hierarchical Clustering Algorithm (EEHCA) and Effective Data Gathering Algorithm (EDGA), respectively.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) are receiving lot of attention in recent years due to the unique features such as low cost and easy deployment. The optimal routing in these networks depends on the link capacities determined by link scheduling. To increase the throughput and network capacity, use of multiple channels and interfaces has been introduced in these networks. But the presence of interference limits the use of link and channel assignment in these types of networks. In this paper, we present a novel approach for link scheduling and channel assignment (CA) to improve the overall capacity and throughput of WMNs. The problem of link scheduling and CA is formulated as a Linear Programming (LP) problem with associated constraints. Links are sorted and placed in a particular group based upon link cost metric (LCM). The LCM value is used to group the links together and placed in appropriate group for CA. As the links are sorted and placed in appropriate groups the corresponding entries are made in Link Assignment Matrix (LAM). Once the links are grouped using LCM, then CA for these links is done and corresponding entries are made in Channel Assignment Matrix (CAM). Two algorithms, one for link scheduling and other for CA, are proposed. Simulation results show that proposed scheme outperforms the earlier approaches with respect to packet delivery fraction, end-to-end delay, aggregate throughput, fairness index and packet loss rate.
Journal of Network and Computer Applications. 01/2011;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents a Markov model for reliability using different types of Sensors and spares that replace sensors in case failure occurs. The primary idea in this paper is to address and analyze the reliability issues to device a reliable and fault tolerance model for a sensor network system. We analyzed the model in terms of reliability and MTTF (Mean-Time-To-Failure). Our research work focus on the mechanism for providing an alternative of a redundant network by replacing the faulty sensor with the available spares.
International Journal of Engineering and Technology. 01/2011; 3:74-79.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, continued advances in wireless communication technologies have enabled the deployment of large-scale wireless sensor networks (WSNs). A key concern in the design and development of such WSNs is energy consumption. The hierarchical clustering algorithm is a kind of a technique which is used to reduce energy consumption. It can also increase the scalability, stability, and network lifetime. In some clustering schemes, the communication between a sensor node and its designated cluster head (CH) is assumed to be single-hop. However, multihop communication is often required when the communication range of the sensor nodes is limited or the number of sensor nodes is very large in a network. In this paper, we propose a distributed, randomized, multi-hop clustering algorithm to organize the sensor nodes in a WSN into clusters. The data collected by each sensor node communicate with their respective CHs by using multi-hop communication. The selected CHs collect data from member nodes in their respective clusters, aggregate the data, and send it to a base using multi-hop communication. Simulation results show that proposed algorithm efficiently mitigates the hot spot problem in heterogeneous WSN and achieves much improvement in network lifetime and load balance compared to the existing algorithms.
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 01/2011; 2011. · 0.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper discusses the link stability estimation for Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). In this approach the total time for which the link remains connected with the neighboring nodes is estimated. This helps to predict the stability of the route which is required to forward the packets to the destination. This method does not use the selection of the next hop on the basis of shortest distance, but is based on the time period for which the next hop link remains connected. The parameters we use, are the distance and frequency and signal quality. These provide the way for a node to decide the best next hop neighbor and hence a perfect Quality of Service (QoS) is also obtained.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent research on heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) has been studied and employed in many new applications viz., medical monitoring, automotive safety, agriculture precision and many more. In this paper, a novel energy efficient multihop communication protocol (EEMCP) for clustered heterogeneous WSNs has proposed to analyze the network lifetime and stability. EEMCP consider heterogeneous nodes with different initial energy levels and adopt multihop communication approach for data communication from cluster heads to the base station. Simulation results show that EEMCP extends the network lifetime and stability by balancing energy consumption of the network.
Journal of Global Research in Computer Science. 01/2010;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There are many challenges when designing and deploying wireless sensor
networks (WSNs). One of the key challenges is how to make full use of
the limited energy to prolong the lifetime of the network, because
energy is a valuable resource in WSNs. The status of energy consumption
should be continuously monitored after network deployment. In this
paper, we propose coverage and connectivity aware neural network based
energy efficient routing in WSN with the objective of maximizing the
network lifetime. In the proposed scheme, the problem is formulated as
linear programming (LP) with coverage and connectivity aware
constraints. Cluster head selection is proposed using adaptive learning
in neural networks followed by coverage and connectivity aware routing
with data transmission. The proposed scheme is compared with existing
schemes with respect to the parameters such as number of alive nodes,
packet delivery fraction, and node residual energy. The simulation
results show that the proposed scheme can be used in wide area of
applications in WSNs.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of autonomous devices equipped with sensors to cooperatively monitor certain physical or environmental phenomena, such as temperature, vibration, pressure, or pollutants, at different locations. These devices called sensor nodes (SNs) have sensing, computation and wireless communication capabilities. One of the significant features of SNs is their limited battery power and it is sometimes not feasible to recharge or replace the batteries. Thus, efforts must be employed at all layers to minimize the power consumption so that the network lifetime is increased. In this paper we present, design and implementation of a Group aware network management (GANM) protocol for WSNs. GANM optimally utilizes the closeness of nodes falling within a predefined diameter, called the grouping diameter (g<sub>D</sub>). The set of nodes which mutually fall within this diameter with respect to each other can be allowed to form a group. The members of a group can be made to go to a low energy sleep mode, while one of the members remaining awake to represent its group. This protocol also enables a fault tolerant scheduling scheme among the group members such that there is always one member awake to listen to the surrounding, i.e., to sense and to transmit. This group is a "black box" for rest of the network and can be treated as a single node for any routing protocol applied at the abstract level.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Key establishment is a fundamental prerequisite for secure communication in wireless sensor networks (WSN). In this regard, symmetric key cryptography is very attractive in WSN. In this paper, we have proposed Mobile Agent (MA) Based Secure Location aware Key Establishment (MASLKE). In MASLKE, MAs find the location of sensor nodes and this information is used for key generation and distribution. MASLKE provides secure key exchange in intra and inter domain of the network and achieves high connectivity in WSN. Simulation results show that MASLKE is quite effective in achieving the goal of secure key distribution in large scale WSN.
Networks, 2008. ICON 2008. 16th IEEE International Conference on; 01/2009
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, there has been a growing interest in wireless sensor networks. One of the major issues in wireless sensor network is developing an energy-efficient clustering protocol. Hierarchical clustering algorithms are very important in increasing the network’s life time. Each clustering algorithm is composed of two phases, the setup phase and steady state phase. The hot point in these algorithms is the cluster head selection. In this paper, we study the impact of heterogeneity of nodes in terms of their energy in wireless sensor networks that are hierarchically clustered. We assume that a percentage of the population of sensor nodes is equipped with the additional energy resources. We also assume that the sensor nodes are randomly distributed and are not mobile, the coordinates of the sink and the dimensions of the sensor field are known. Homogeneous clustering protocols assume that all the sensor nodes are equipped with the same amount of energy and as a result, they cannot take the advantage of the presence of node heterogeneity. Adapting this approach, we introduce an energy efficient heterogeneous clustered scheme for wireless sensor networks based on weighted election probabilities of each node to become a cluster head according to the residual energy in each node. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that our proposed heterogeneous clustering approach is more effective in prolonging the network lifetime compared with LEACH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article present a mobile agent (MA) middleware, i.e., Multiagent System for distributed sensor networks (MASDSN) that generates an intelligent framework for deploying applications in distributed sensor network (DSNs). It provides high level middleware services such as object tracking, security, fault-tolerance, power management, and so on. It uses group aware conditions by varying either from service-to-service or according to system conditions (e.g., power level, connectivity, and bandwidth).
Advances in Computing, Control, and Telecommunication Technologies, International Conference on. 01/2009;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A wireless sensor network is an autonomous system of sensor connected by wireless devices without anyfixed infrastructure support. One of the major issues in wireless sensor network is developing a costeffective routing protocol which has a significant impact on the overall network performance in thesensor network. In this paper, we have considered three types of nodes with different battery energy. Thekey role of the proposed protocol is to maximize the network performance without increasing the networkdeployment cost. We have compared the quantitative analysis of different protocols in terms of theirnetwork deployment cost. Our analysis and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed scheme canachieve higher network performance and lower network deployment cost as compared to the existingprotocols.
International Journal of Computer Science & Information Technology. 01/2009;
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), a source node must rely on other nodes to forward its packets on multi-hop routes to the destination. Secure and reliable handling of packets by the intermediate nodes is difficult to ensure in an ad hoc network. This is particularly challenging when malicious nodes collude with one another to disrupt the network operation. So we propose a trust establishment scheme for MANETs which aims to improve the reliability of packet forwarding over multi-hop routes in the presence of potentially malicious nodes using mobile agent (MA). We evaluate two key metric for trust establishment namely trust and confidence which are used by corresponding MA for route discovery and topology maintenance. We have extended the solution to secure the network against colluding malicious nodes. Proposed scheme is evaluated using PMADE (platform for mobile agent distribution and execution) along with Glomosim. Simulation results shows that proposed scheme is quite effective for trust establishment in ad hoc networks.
Advanced Computing and Communications, 2007. ADCOM 2007. International Conference on; 01/2008
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic load balancing (DLB) plays a critical role in developing high performance cluster. It is an important system function to distribute workload among available processors to improve throughput. Existing load balancing techniques are mainly concerned about the use of two main resources namely CPU and Memory. But there are certain I/O data Intensive applications where load balancing becomes important issue. Due to the ignorance of I/O resources, the previous CPU or memory based load balancing techniques suffer a major performance drop. Hence in this paper we propose Mobile Agent Based Load Balancing (MALB) algorithm for these types of applications. In order to distribute the incoming load on participating nodes, we use mobile agent (MA). A value function which is sum of all three types of resources including CPU, Memory and I/O is considered. The MA choose this value function as a trademark for load transfer. Different metrics are used to compare load balancing mechanism with the existing technology. The experiment is carried out on cluster of PC's divided into multiple LAN's using PMADE (Platform for Mobile agent distribution and execution).
Conference on Computational Intelligence and Multimedia Applications, 2007. International Conference on; 01/2008
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An ad hoc wireless mobile network is an infrastructure-less network that has no fixed routes; instead, all nodes are capable of movement and can be connected dynamically in an arbitrary manner. In order to facilitate communication of mobile nodes that may not be within the wireless range of each other, an efficient routing protocol is needed to discover routes between nodes so that messages may be delivered in a timely manner. Therefore in this paper, we propose routing with load balancing using mobile agent (RLBMA). We use the concept of mobile agent (MA) for route discovery and balance the traffic load on the route. This MA selects the disjoint (alternate) path called active path set (APS) for reliable transmission to avoid congestion. RLBMA provides topology updation and path maintenance also. A comprehensive simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme. Performance results shows that MA approach outperforms existing ad hoc routing protocols in terms of packet delivery fraction, average end-to-end delay and normalized routing load.
Computer and Information Science, 2007. ICIS 2007. 6th IEEE/ACIS International Conference on; 08/2007
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamic load balancing (DLB) is an important system function destined to distribute workload among participating nodes to improve throughput and/or execution times of parallel computers. Instead of balancing the load in cluster by process migration, or by moving an entire process to a less loaded computer, we make an attempt to balance load by splitting processes into separate jobs and then balance them among nodes. In order to get target, we use mobile agent (MA) to distribute load among nodes in a cluster. In this paper, distributed dynamic load balancing using MA (DDLBMA) technique is presented. We introduce types of agents needed to meet the requirements of the proposed load balancing. Different metrics are used to compare load balancing mechanism with the existing technology. The experiment is carried out on cluster of PC's divided into multiple local area network (LAN) using mobile agent system PMADE (Platform for Mobile agent distribution and execution). Preliminary experimental results demonstrated that the proposed technique is effective.
Advanced Computing and Communications, 2006. ADCOM 2006. International Conference on; 01/2007
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In grid computing, load balancing with optimal resource utilization and fault tolerance are important issues. The availability of the selected resources for job execution is a primary factor that determines the computing performance. Typically, the probability of a failure is higher in the grid computing than in a traditional parallel computing and the failure of resources affects job execution fatally. Therefore, a fault tolerance service is essential in grid. Also grid services are often expected to meet some minimum levels of Quality of Service (QoS) for a desirable operation. To address this issue, we propose load balancing with optimal resource utilization and fault tolerance service that satisfies QoS requirements. A fault tolerance service deals with various types of resource failures, which include process failures, processor failures and network failures. We design and implement a fault detector and a fault manager. Approach is effective in the sense that the fault detector detects the occurrence of resource failures and the fault manager guarantees that the submitted jobs completely executed with optimal resources. The performance of job execution is improved due to job migration using Mobile Agent (MA) even if some failures occurs. This MA executes one of the check pointing algorithms and its performance is compared with check pointing algorithm-using Message Passing Interface (MPI). Also the overhead generated during job migration is compared with MA and MPI.