O. Groussin

Aix-Marseille Université, Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (198)465.43 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: On November 4th, 2010, the Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) successfully encountered comet 103P/Hartley 2, when it was at a heliocentric distance of 1.06 AU. Spatially resolved near-IR spectra of comet Hartley 2 were acquired in the 1.05–4.83 μm wavelength range using the HRI-IR spectrometer. We present spectral maps of the inner ∼∼10 km of the coma collected 7 min and 23 min after closest approach. The extracted reflectance spectra include well-defined absorption bands near 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 μm consistent in position, bandwidth, and shape with the presence of water ice grains. Using Hapke’s radiative transfer model, we characterize the type of mixing (areal vs. intimate), relative abundance, grain size, and spatial distribution of water ice and refractories. Our modeling suggests that the dust, which dominates the innermost coma of Hartley 2 and is at a temperature of 300 K, is thermally and physically decoupled from the fine-grained water ice particles, which are on the order of 1 μm in size. The strong correlation between the water ice, dust, and CO2 spatial distribution supports the concept that CO2 gas drags the water ice and dust grains from the nucleus. Once in the coma, the water ice begins subliming while the dust is in a constant outflow. The derived water ice scale-length is compatible with the lifetimes expected for 1-μm pure water ice grains at 1 AU, if velocities are near 0.5 m/s. Such velocities, about three order of magnitudes lower than the expansion velocities expected for isolated 1-μm water ice particles ( and ), suggest that the observed water ice grains are likely aggregates.
    Icarus 01/2014; 238:191–204. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Comet 103P/Hartley 2 made a close approach to the Earth in October 2010. It was the target of an extensive observing campaign and was visited by the Deep Impact spacecraft (mission EPOXI). We present observations of HCN and CH3OH emission lines conducted with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer on 22-23, 28 October and 4, 5 November 2010 at 1.1, 1.9 and 3.4 mm wavelengths. The thermal emission from the dust coma and nucleus is detected simultaneously. Interferometric images with unprecedented spatial resolution are obtained. A sine-wave variation of the thermal continuum is observed in the 23 October data, that we associate with the nucleus thermal light curve. The nucleus contributes up to 30-55 % of the observed continuum. The large dust-to-gas ratio (in the range 2-6) can be explained by the unusual activity of the comet for its size, which allows decimeter size particles and large boulders to be entrained by the gas. The rotational temperature of CH3OH is measured. We attribute the increase from 35 to 46 K with increasing beam size (from 150 to 1500 km) to radiative processes. The HCN production rate displays strong rotation-induced variations. The HCN production curve, as well as those of CO2 and H2O measured by EPOXI, are interpreted with a geometric model which takes into account the rotation and the shape of the comet. The HCN and H2O production curves are in phase, showing common sources. The 1.7h delay, in average, of HCN and H2O with respect to the CO2 production curve suggests that HCN and H2O are mainly produced by subliming icy grains. The scale length of production of HCN is determined to be on the order of 500-1000 km, implying a mean velocity of 100-200 m/s for the icy grains producing HCN. The modulation of the CO2 prouction and of the velocity offset of the HCN lines are interpreted in terms of localized sources of gas on the nucleus surface.
    Icarus 10/2013; 228. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Deep Impact acquired a unique rotational data set during its close flyby of comet 103/P Hartley 2 (DIXI mission, November 4, 2010). The HRI-IR spectrometer (1.05-4.85 microns) monitored the coma throughout the encounter acquiring infrared scans every 2 hr over the 18 hr period prior to closest approach and every 30 min for 2 days after closest approach. Water vapor (2.7 microns), carbon dioxide (4.3 microns), and bulk organics 3.4 microns) were the dominant emission bands detected in these spectra and their distribution was found to be highly asymmetric and variable. In particular, the distribution maps from the 8 hrs following closest approach half of the dominant 18.4 hr rotation period) are unique with spatial resolutions ranging from 0.2-3.5 km/pixel. These data allow us to explore correlations among the volatiles and the role of extended coma sources. These data will also help to quantify the heterogeneity of the outgassing and better locate specific source regions on the nucleus of Hartley 2.
    10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectroimager, selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) in February 2013 for the scientific payload of the Marco Polo R M-class mission. We present in this paper the instrument and its scientific objectives.
    09/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Little is known about the physical properties of the nuclei of Oort cloud comets. Measuring the thermal emission of a nucleus is one of the few means for deriving its size and constraining some of its thermal properties. We attempted to measure the nucleus size of the Oort cloud comet C/2009 P1 (Garradd). We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer to measure the millimetric thermal emission of this comet at 157 GHz (1.9 mm) and 266 GHz (1.1 mm). Whereas the observations at 266 GHz were not usable due to bad atmospheric conditions, we derived a 3-sigma upper limit on the comet continuum emission of 0.41 mJy at 157 GHz. Using a thermal model for a spherical nucleus with standard thermal parameters, we found an upper limit of 5.6 km for the radius. The dust contribution to our signal is estimated to be negligible. Given the water production rates measured for this comet and our upper limit, we estimated that Garradd was very active, with an active fraction of its nucleus larger than 50%.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 07/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present results from SEPPCoN, an on-going Survey of the Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei. In this report we discuss mid-infrared measurements of the thermal emission from 89 nuclei of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs). All data were obtained in 2006 and 2007 with the Spitzer Space Telescope. For all 89 comets, we present new effective radii, and for 57 comets we present beaming parameters. Thus our survey provides the largest compilation of radiometrically-derived physical properties of nuclei to date. We conclude the following. (a) The average beaming parameter of the JFC population is 1.03+/-0.11, consistent with unity, and indicating low thermal inertia. (b) The known JFC population is not complete even at 3 km radius, and even for comets with perihelia near ~2 AU. (c) We find that the JFC nuclear cumulative size distribution (CSD) has a power-law slope of around -1.9. (d) This power-law is close to that derived from visible-wavelength observations, suggesting that there is no strong dependence of geometric albedo with radius. (e) The observed CSD shows a hint of structure with an excess of comets with radii 3 to 6 km. (f) Our CSD is consistent with an intrinsic distribution that lacks many sub-kilometer objects.
    Icarus 07/2013; 226(1). · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: NASA’s EPOXI mission used the Deep Impact (DI) Flyby spacecraft to deliver a payload of three scientific instruments, two visible cameras and an IR spectrometer, to a close flyby of Comet 103P/Hartley 2 in November 2010. Interpretation of the scientific measurements made using these instruments depends on accurate calibration of the instruments’ performance. Updates to the instrument calibrations achieved during the Deep Impact primary mission and results of continued monitoring of their performance during EPOXI are reported here. The instruments’ performance has remained remarkably stable over the nearly 7 years of flight. Significant improvements in the understanding and calibration of the IR spectrometer response non-linearity, time-varying background level, flat field, wavelength map, and absolute spectral response have been achieved. Techniques for reducing some semi-coherent horizontal noise stripes in the visible cameras’ readouts were developed, and some adjustments have been made to their absolute radiometric conversion constants. The data processing pipeline has been updated to incorporate the improvements in the instrument calibrations.
    Icarus 07/2013; 225(1):643–680. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Re-calibrated near-infrared spectroscopy of the resolved nucleus of Comet 9P/Tempel 1 acquired by the Deep Impact spacecraft has been analyzed by utilizing the post-Stardust-NExT nucleus shape model and spin pole solution, as well as a novel thermophysical model that explicitly accounts for small-scale surface roughness and thermal inertia. We find that the thermal inertia varies measurably across the surface, and that thermal emission from certain regions only can be reproduced satisfactory if surface roughness is accounted for. Particularly, a scarped/pitted terrain that experienced morning sunrise during the flyby is measurably rough (Hapke mean slope angle ∼45°) and has a thermal inertia of at most 50 J m−2 K−1 s−1/2, but probably much lower. However, thick layered terrain and thin layered terrain experiencing local noon during the flyby have a substantially larger thermal inertia, reaching 150 J m−2 K−1 s−1/2 if the surface is as rough as the scarped/pitted terrain, but 200 J m−2 K−1 s−1/2 if the terrain is considered locally flat. Furthermore, the reddening of the nucleus near-infrared 1.5–2.2 μm spectrum varies between morphological units, being reddest for thick layered terrain (median value 3.4% kÅ−1) and most neutral for the smooth terrain known to contain surface water ice (median value 3.1% kÅ−1). Thus, Comet 9P/Tempel 1 is heterogeneous in terms of both thermophysical and optical properties, due to formation conditions and/or post-formation processing.
    Icarus 05/2013; 224(1):154–171. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of comet activity based on the Spitzer Space Telescope component of the Survey of the Ensemble Physical Properties of Cometary Nuclei. We show that the survey is well suited to measuring the activity of Jupiter-family comets at 3-7 AU from the Sun. Dust was detected in 33 of 89 targets (37 +/- 6%), and we conclude that 21 comets (24 +/- 5%) have morphologies that suggest ongoing or recent cometary activity. Our dust detections are sensitivity limited, therefore our measured activity rate is necessarily a lower limit. All comets with small perihelion distances (q < 1.8 AU) are inactive in our survey, and the active comets in our sample are strongly biased to post-perihelion epochs. We introduce the quantity epsilon-f-rho, intended to be a thermal emission counterpart to the often reported A-f-rho, and find that the comets with large perihelion distances likely have greater dust production rates than other comets in our survey at 3-7 AU from the Sun, indicating a bias in the discovered Jupiter-family comet population. By examining the orbital history of our survey sample, we suggest that comets perturbed to smaller perihelion distances in the past 150 yr are more likely to be active, but more study on this effect is needed.
    Icarus 04/2013; 225(1). · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The nucleus of comet Tempel 1 has been investigated at close range during two spacecraft missions sep-arated by one comet orbit of the Sun, 5½ years. The combined imaging covers $70% of the surface of this object which has a mean radius of 2.83 ± 0.1 km. The surface can be divided into two terrain types: rough, pitted terrain and smoother regions of varying local topography. The rough surface has round depressions from resolution limits ($10 m/pixel) up to $1 km across, spanning forms from crisp steep-walled pits, to subtle albedo rings, to topographic rings, with all ranges of morphologic gradation. Three gravitationally low regions of the comet have smoother terrain, parts of which appear to be deposits from minimally modified flows, with other parts likely to be heavily eroded portions of multiple layer piles. Changes observed between the two missions are primarily due to backwasting of scarps bounding one of these probable flow deposits. This style of erosion is also suggested by remnant mesa forms in other areas of smoother terrain. The two distinct terrains suggest either an evolutionary change in processes, topo-graphically-controlled processes, or a continuing interaction of erosion and deposition.
    Icarus 02/2013; 222:453-466. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t On February 14, 2011 Stardust-NExT (SN) flew by Comet Tempel 1, the target of the Deep Impact (DI) mission in 2005, obtaining dust measurements and high-resolution images of areas surrounding the 2005 impact site, and extending image coverage to almost two thirds of the nucleus surface. The nucleus has an average radius of 2.83 ± 0.1 km and a uniform geometric albedo of about 6% at visible wavelengths. Local elevation differences on the nucleus reach up to 830 m. At the time of encounter the spin rate was 213° per day (period = 40.6 h) and the comet was producing some 130 kg of dust per second. Some 30% of the nucleus is covered by smooth flow-like deposits and related materials, restricted to gravitational lows. This distribution is consistent with the view that the smooth areas represent material erupted from the subsurface and date from a time after the nucleus achieved its current shape. It is possible that some of these eruptions occurred after 1609 when the comet's perihelion distance decreased from 3.5 AU to the current 1.5 AU. Much of the surface displays evidence of layering: some related to the smooth flows and some possibly dating back to the accretion of the nucleus. Pitted terrain covers approximately half the nucleus surface. The pits range up to 850 m in diameter. Due to their large number, they are unlikely to be impact scars: rather they probably result from volatile outbursts and sublimational erosion. The DI impact site shows a subdued depression some 50 m in diameter implying surface properties similar to those of dry, loose snow. It is possible that the 50-m depression is all that remains of an initially larger crater. In the region of overlapping DI and SN coverage most of the surface remained unchanged between 2005 and 2011 in albedo, photometric properties and morphology. Significant changes took place only along the edges of a prominent smooth flow estimated to be 10–15 m thick, the margins of which receded in places by up to 50 m. Coma and jet activity were lower in 2011 than in 2005. Most of the jets observed during the SN flyby can be traced back to an apparently eroding terraced scarp. The dust instruments detected bursts of impacts consistent with a process by which larger aggregates of material emitted from the nucleus subsequently fragment into smaller particles within the coma.
    Icarus 02/2013; 222:424-435. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The Deep Impact spacecraft flew by Comet 103P/Hartley 2 on November 4th, 2010 (EPOXI mission) and Comet 9P/Tempel 1 on July 4th, 2005 (Deep Impact mission). During the two flybys, spatially resolved infrared (1.05–4.8 lm) spectra of the surface of the nucleus were acquired by the HRI-IR instrument. The analysis of these two data sets, obtained by the same instrument, offers a unique opportunity to understand, compare and contrast the surface thermal properties of these two comets. For this paper, we use spectral cubes with a spatial resolution of 30 m/pixel to 40 m/pixel for Hartley 2 and 160 m/pixel for Tempel 1. We focus our analysis on the color, temperature, thermal inertia and roughness of the nucleus. The two comets have the same color, moderately red, with an average slope of 3.0 ± 0.9% per kÅ to 3.5 ± 1.1% per kÅ. There are very small variations of the color across the surface, except for regions with water ice that are neutral to blue, and two dark spots with redder (4.5 ± 1.4% per kÅ) materials on Hart-ley 2. The nucleus thermal emission at all resolved spatial scales differs from that of a gray body with an infrared emissivity of 0.9–1.0, the discrepancy being more important for larger incidence angles. More-over, the color temperature of Comets Hartley 2 and Tempel 1 is relatively homogeneous across the sur-face and does not vary strongly with incidence angle. These two effects mainly result from surface roughness and associated projected shadows. From the temperature rise on the morning terminator, we derive a thermal inertia lower than 250 W/K/m 2 /s 1/2 for Hartley 2 and lower than 45 W/K/m 2 /s 1/2 for Tempel 1 (3r upper limits). For Hartley 2 and Tempel 1, the temperature of the regions with exposed water ice is more than 100 K above the sublimation temperature of water ice ($200 K). This observation indicates that the thermal emission is dominated by dust, and that water ice is not intimately mixed with dust at the scale of observation, with water ice patches at the meter or sub-meter scale.
    Icarus 02/2013; 222:580-594. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t Data from the Extrasolar Planet Observation and Deep Impact Extended Investigation (EPOXI) mission show Comet 103P/Hartley 2 is a bi-lobed, elongated, nearly axially symmetric comet 2.33 km in length. Surface features are primarily small mounds <40 m across, irregularly-shaped smooth areas on the two lobes, and a smooth but variegated region forming a ''waist'' between the two lobes. Assuming parts of the comet body approach the shape of an equipotential surface, the mean density of Hartley 2 is modeled to be 200–400 kg m À3 . Such a mean density suggests mass loss per orbit of >1%. The shape may be the evolutionary product of insolation, sublimation, and temporary deposition of materials controlled by the object's complex rotation.
    Icarus 02/2013; 222:550-558. · 3.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) are bodies populating the Kuiper belt and they are believed to retain the most pristine and least altered material of the solar system. The Herschel open time key programme entitled “TNOs are Cool: A survey of the trans-Neptunian region” has been awarded 373 h to investigate the albedo, size distribution and thermal properties of TNOs and Centaurs. Here we focus on the brightest targets observed by both the PACS and SPIRE multiband photometers: the dwarf planet Haumea, six TNOs (Huya, Orcus, Quaoar, Salacia, 2002 UX25, and 2002 TC302), and two Centaurs (Chiron and Chariklo). Methods. Flux densities are derived from PACS and SPIRE instruments using optimised data reduction methods. The spectral energy distribution obtained with the Herschel PACS and SPIRE instruments over 6 bands (centred at 70, 100, 160, 250, 350, and 500 μm), with Spitzer-MIPS at 23.7 and 71.4 μm, and with WISE at 11.6 and 22.1 μm in the case of 10199 Chariklo, has been modelled with the NEATM thermal model in order to derive the albedo, diameter, and beaming factor. For the Centaurs Chiron and Chariklo and for the 1000 km sized Orcus and Quaoar, a thermophysical model was also run to better constrain their thermal properties. Results. We derive the size, albedo, and thermal properties, including thermal inertia and surface emissivity, for the 9 TNOs and Centaurs. Several targets show a significant decrease in their spectral emissivity longwards of ∼300 μm and especially at 500 μm. Using our size estimations and the mass values available in the literature, we also derive the bulk densities for the binaries Quaoar/Weywot (2.18 (+0.43;−0.36)g/cm3), Orcus/Vanth (1.53 (+0.15; −0.13) g/cm3), and Salacia/Actea (1.29 (+0.29; −0.23) g/cm3). Quaoar’s density is similar to that of the other dwarf planets Pluto and Haumea, and its value implies high contents of refractory materials mixed with ices.
    http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201014683. 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Aims. The goal of this work is to characterize the ensemble thermal properties of the Centaurs / trans-Neptunian population. Methods. Thermal flux measurements obtained with Herschel/PACS and Spitzer/MIPS provide size, albedo, and beaming factors for 85 objects (13 of which are presented here for the first time) by means of standard radiometric techniques. The measured beaming factors are influenced by the combination of surface roughness and thermal inertia effects. They are interpreted within a thermophysical model to constrain, in a statistical sense, the thermal inertia in the population and to study its dependence on several parameters. We use in particular a Monte-Carlo modeling approach to the data whereby synthetic datasets of beaming factors are created using random distributions of spin orientation and surface roughness. Results. Beaming factors η range from values <1 to ~2.5, but high η values (>2) are lacking at low heliocentric distances (rh < 30 AU). Beaming factors lower than 1 occur frequently (39% of the objects), indicating that surface roughness effects are important. We determine a mean thermal inertia for Centaurs/ TNO of Γ = (2.5 ± 0.5) J m-2 s−1/2 K-1, with evidence of a trend toward decreasing Γ with increasing heliocentric (by a factor ~2.5 from 8–25 AU to 41–53 AU). These thermal inertias are 2–3 orders of magnitude lower than expected for compact ices, and generally lower than on Saturn’s satellites or in the Pluto/Charon system. Most high-albedo objects are found to have unusually low thermal inertias. Our results suggest highly porous surfaces, in which the heat transfer is affected by radiative conductivity within pores and increases with depth in the subsurface.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 01/2013; 557(2013-A60):1-19. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe recent results on the CO/CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O composition of comets together with a survey of older literature (primarily for CO/H{sub 2}O) and compare these with models of the protoplanetary disk. Even with the currently small sample, there is a wide dispersion in abundance ratios and little if any systematic difference between Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) and long-period and Halley-type comets (LPCs and HTCs). We argue that the cometary observations require reactions on grain surfaces to convert CO to CO{sub 2} and also require formation of all types of comets in largely, but not entirely, overlapping regions, probably between the CO and CO{sub 2} snow lines. Any difference in the regions of formation is in the opposite direction from the classical picture with the JFCs having formed closer to the Sun than the LPCs. In the classical picture, the LPCs formed in the region of the giant planets and the JFCs formed in the Kuiper Belt. However, these data suggest, consistent with suggestions on dynamical grounds, that the JFCs and LPCs formed in largely overlapping regions where the giant planets are today and with JFCs on average forming slightly closer to the Sun than did the LPCs. Presumably at least the JFCs passed through the scattered disk on their way to their present dynamical family.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2012; 758(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI) to comet 103P/Hartley 2 culminated in a closest approach (CA) of 700 km on November 4th, 2010, when the comet was at 1.064 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun. In visible images at closest approach, comet Hartley 2 displays jets off the end of the smaller lobe of the nucleus and beyond the terminator along the edge of the larger lobe. Spatially resolved near-IR spectra of comet Hartley 2 have been acquired in the wavelength range 1.05-4.85 micron. These data provide an unprecedented opportunity to characterize and map the spatial distribution of the ice and dust in the coma of Hartley 2. The spectra are well reproduced by a linear mixture of water ice with a dark and featureless refractory component (e.g., amorphous carbon), implying that water ice is relatively pure in the coma of Hartley 2. The best fit modeling is obtained with particle diameters on the order of 1 micron for both components. Water ice is not uniformly distributed in the coma, being enriched where the jets are observed in the visible. The relation between visible brightness and water ice abundance is not the same all over the cometary coma. Contrary to the dust, the ice does not present evidence of fragmentation or sublimation in the inner coma. Several pieces of evidence support the idea of water ice grains being dragged out from the subsurface into the coma by CO2.
    10/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present THERMAP, a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectro-imager based on uncooled micro-bolometer detector arrays. Due to the recent technological development of these detectors, which have undergone significant improvements in the last decade, we wanted to test their performances for a space mission to small bodies in the inner Solar System. THERMAP was selected by ESA in January 2012 for a one year assessment study, in the framework of a call for declaration of interest in science instrumentation for the Marco Polo R Cosmic Vision mission. In this paper, we present some results of this study and in particular demonstrate that the new generation of uncooled micro-bolometer detectors has all the imaging and spectroscopic capabilities to fulfill the scientific objectives of the Marco Polo R mission. THERMAP scientific objectives - The midinfrared instrument of the Marco Polo R mission must be able i) to determine the surface temperature by mapping the entire surface with an absolute accuracy of at least 5 K (goal 1 K) above 200 K, ii) to determine the thermal inertia with an accuracy of 10% and iii) to determine the surface composition by mapping the entire surface with a spectral resolution of 70 between 8 and 16 μm. The above mappings should be performed with a spatial resolution of 10 m for the entire surface (global characterization) and 10 cm for the sampling sites (local characterization). THERMAP imaging capabilities - In order to test the imaging capabilities of the THERMAP uncooled microbolometer detector, we set up an experiment based on a 640x480 ULIS micro-bolometer array, a germanium objective and a black body. Using the results of this experiment, we show that calibrated radiometric images can be obtained down to at least 258 K (lower limit of our experiment), and that two calibration points are sufficient to determine the absolute scene temperature with an accuracy better than 1.5 K. An extrapolation to lower temperatures provides an accuracy of about 5 K at 180 K, the lowest temperature the detector can measure. THERMAP spectroscopic capabilites - In order to test the spectroscopic performances of the detector, we added flux attenuating neutral density mid-infrared filters (transmittance: 50%, 10%, 1%) to our experiment. Our results show that we can perform spectroscopic measurements with a spectral resolution R=40-80 in the wavelength range 8-16 μm for a scene temperature larger than 300 K, the typical surface temperature of a Near Earth Asteroid at 1 AU from the Sun. THERMAP preliminary design - From the above results, we defined a preliminary design for the instrument. THERMAP is a mid-infrared (8-16 μm) spectro-imager based on two uncooled microbolometer arrays. It is composed of two channels, one for imaging and one for spectroscopy. A flip mirror allows switching between the two channels. Calibration is performed using deep space and two black bodies at known temperature. The design of the THERMAP instrument has a strong heritage from the MERTIS instrument on board Bepi-Colombo [1], which guarantees its feasibility and reliability. Our design is very flexible in term of operations, which is fundamental for a mission to a binary asteroid system (1996 FG3). The THERMAP instrument will be proposed for Marco Polo R and any future space missions to small bodies in the inner solar system.
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: In June 2010, the Herschel Space Observatory observed comet 67P/Churyumov- Gerasimenko with the PACS Instrument when the comet was at a heliocentric distance of 4.1 AU. This comet is the prime target for the Rosetta spacecraft due to arrive to orbit it in mid-2014 [1].
    09/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of the thermal properties of about 70 trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) and Centaurs observed with Herschel Space Observatory [8] (either PACS or PACS and SPIRE) and Spitzer Space Telescope [12] (MIPS). We apply radiometric modeling techniques (NEATM [2]) to the measured fluxes to derive diameter, albedo and the beaming factor (η). The latter parameter is a proxy for the combined effects of surface thermal properties (thermal inertia), surface roughness, and rotation properties. We will examine the results and search for trends in the inferred η values with several parameters, including heliocentric distance, albedo, and rotational properties.
    09/2012;

Publication Stats

1k Citations
465.43 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2012–2014
    • Aix-Marseille Université
      • Laboratory of Astrophysics of Marseille (UMR 7326 LAM)
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 1999–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      Lutetia Parisorum, Île-de-France, France
  • 2011
    • Observatoire Astrophysique de Marseille Provence
      Marsiglia, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France
  • 2006–2008
    • University of Maryland, College Park
      • Department of Astronomy
      Maryland, United States
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Applied Physics Laboratory
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2007
    • Cornell University
      • Center for Radiophysics and Space Research (CRSR)
      New York City, NY, United States
  • 2005–2007
    • Loyola University Maryland
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Honolulu, HI, United States