[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) play an important role in primary colorectal cancer, but their activity in liver metastases has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine whether tumor-selective infiltration, activation, and cytotoxic activity of TIL can be demonstrated in situ in colorectal liver metastases.
TIL were obtained from liver metastases and corresponding normal liver tissue of 16 patients with colorectal liver metastases. Characterization of TIL in situ was performed by multicolor flowcytometric analysis. Presence of tumor antigen-reactive T cells was evaluated by interferon gamma Elispot analysis.
TIL in colorectal liver metastases responding against tumor antigens were present in most patients. Although the proportions of CD3(+) T cells were comparable in liver metastasis and normal liver tissue, metastases contained significantly enhanced proportions of CD4(+) cells (49% vs. 22%, P < .001). Among all CD4(+) T helper cells, the proportion of activated (CD4(+)CD25(+)) effector cells was significantly increased in liver metastases (15.0% vs. 7.8%, P = .003). Metastases showed significantly higher proportions of activated (CD69(+) [70.1% vs. 49.8%, P = .02] and CD25(+) [4.1% vs. .6%, P = .06]) and cytotoxically active (CD107a(+)) CD8(+) TIL (3.2% vs. 1.3%, P = .03). Importantly, the presence of activated T helper cells correlated with the frequencies of cytotoxic T lymphocytes that exerted cytotoxic activity in situ (P = .02).
CD4(+) and CD8(+) TIL are selectively activated in liver metastases, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes exert tumor-selective cytotoxic activity in situ in the presence of activated T helper cells, suggesting the requirement of in-situ-activated T helper cells for efficient cytotoxic T lymphocytes effector function.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 08/2008; 15(8):2310-7. · 4.12 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To examine whether tumor-selective infiltration, activation, and cytotoxic activity of tumor infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL) can be demonstrated in situ in colorectal cancer samples.
Recent studies indicated a correlation between the presence of TIL and an improved prognosis in colorectal cancer. However, tumor-selective activation and cytotoxic activity of CD8 TIL in situ in colorectal cancer patients have not yet been examined.
Tumor samples from 49 patients and corresponding normal mucosa samples from 23 patients with colorectal cancer (UICC stages II-IV) were examined for TIL. Two-color fluorescence immunohistochemistry and multicolor flowcytometric (FACS) analysis were used for quantification of CD8 T cells and measurement of their activation status (CD69-expression) and cytotoxic activity (CD107a-expression) in situ. Presence of tumor antigen-reactive T cells in tumor, blood, and bone marrow was evaluated by IFN-gamma Elispot analysis.
While absolute numbers of CD8 T cells were similar, CD4 T helper cells were significantly increased in tumor tissue compared with normal mucosa. There was a significantly higher proportion of activated and cytotoxically active CD8 TIL in colorectal cancer compared with normal mucosa. Increased activation, cytotoxic activity, and functional reactivity of TIL were correlated with the presence of functional tumor antigen-reactive T cells in the blood and bone marrow. The proportion of activated TIL decreased significantly with higher tumor stage.
Tumor-selective activation and cytotoxic activity of CD8 TIL and tumor-selective migration of CD4 T helper cells were demonstrated in colorectal cancer for the first time. Our data support the immunogenicity of colorectal cancer and suggest clinical significance of tumor-specific immune responses.
Annals of Surgery 01/2007; 244(6):986-92; discussion 992-3. · 6.33 Impact Factor