[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We undertook this study to validate the Myositis Damage Index (MDI) in juvenile and adult myositis, to describe the degree and types of damage and to develop predictors of damage.
Retrospective MDI evaluations and prospective assessment of disease activity and illness features were conducted. Patients with juvenile-onset disease (n = 143) were evaluated a median of 18 months after diagnosis; 135 patients were assessed 7-9 months later, and 121 were last assessed a median of 82 months after diagnosis. Ninety-six patients with adult-onset dermatomyositis or polymyositis had a baseline assessment a median of 30 months after diagnosis; 77 patients had a 6-month followup evaluation, and 55 had a final assessment a median of 60 months after diagnosis.
Damage was present in 79% of juvenile patients and in 97% of adult patients. In juveniles, scarring, contractures, persistent weakness, muscle dysfunction, and calcinosis were most frequent (23-30%) at the last evaluation. In adults, muscle atrophy, muscle dysfunction, and muscle weakness were most frequent (74-84%). MDI severity correlated with physician-assessed global damage, serum creatinine, and muscle atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging, and in juveniles also with functional disability and weakness. MDI damage scores and frequency were highest in patients with a chronic illness course and in adult patients who died. Predictors of damage included functional disability, duration of active disease, disease severity at diagnosis, physician-assessed global disease activity, and illness features, including ulcerations in children and pericarditis in adults.
Damage is common in myositis after a median duration of 5 years in patients with adult-onset disease and 6.8 years in patients with juvenile-onset disease. The MDI has good content, construct, and predictive validity in juvenile and adult myositis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To define the relative importance (RI) of class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk or protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM), and to compare these with HLA associations in adult DM.
DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and the results were compared with HLA typing data from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race-matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression were used to assess the RI of the HLA associations.
The HLA-DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (odds ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity for DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in patients with adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 alleles *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter 2 also being protective factors in adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 (9)EYSTS(13) was a risk factor, and DQA1 motifs F(25), S(26), and (45)(V/A)W(R/K)(47) were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed that among the identified risk factors for juvenile DM, DRB1*0301 had a higher RI (100%) than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA1*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM.
DRB1*0301 is ranked higher in RI than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 is a newly identified HLA risk factor for juvenile DM, while 3 of the DQA1 alleles studied are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM.