[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radical cystectomy is a standard treatment of nonmetastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Treatment with trimodality therapy consisting of maximal transurethral resection of the bladder tumor followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation has emerged as a method to preserve the native bladder in highly motivated patients. Several factors can affect the likelihood of long-term bladder preservation after trimodality therapy and therefore should be taken into account when selecting patients. New radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy and image-guided radiation therapy may decrease the toxicity of radiotherapy in this setting. Novel chemotherapy regimens may improve response rates and minimize toxicity.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
Urologic Clinics of North America 05/2015; 42(2):169-180. DOI:10.1016/j.ucl.2015.02.002 · 1.35 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A number of agents are used clinically to enhance the efficacy of radiotherapy today, many of which are cytotoxic chemotherapies. Agents that enhance radiation induced tumor cell killing or protect normal tissues from the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation are collectively termed radiation modifiers. A significant effort in radiobiological research is geared towards describing and testing radiation modifiers with the intent of enhancing the therapeutic effects of radiation while minimizing normal tissue toxicity. In this review, we discuss the characteristics of these agents, the testing required to translate these agents into clinical trials, and highlight some challenges in these efforts.
Seminars in Oncology 12/2014; 41(6). DOI:10.1053/j.seminoncol.2014.09.013 · 3.94 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation fibrosis of the lung is a late toxicity of thoracic irradiation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling has previously been implicated in radiation lung injury. We hypothesized that TGF-α, an EGF receptor ligand, plays a key role in radiation-induced fibrosis in lung. Mice deficient in transforming growth factor (TGF-α(-/-)) and control C57Bl/6J (C57-WT) mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation in 5 daily fractions of 6 Gy. Cohorts of mice were followed for survival (n ≥ 5 per group) and tissue collection (n = 3 per strain and time point). Collagen accumulation in irradiated lungs was assessed by Masson's trichrome staining and analysis of hydroxyproline content. Cytokine levels in lung tissue were assessed with ELISA. The effects of TGF-α on pneumocyte and fibroblast proliferation and collagen production were analyzed in vitro. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) expression and activity were measured in vitro and in vivo. Irradiated C57-WT mice had a median survival of 24.4 weeks compared to 48.2 weeks for irradiated TGF-α(-/-) mice (P = 0.001). At 20 weeks after irradiation, hydroxyproline content was markedly increased in C57-WT mice exposed to radiation compared to TGF-α(-/-) mice exposed to radiation or unirradiated C57-WT mice (63.0, 30.5 and 37.6 μg/lung, respectively, P = 0.01). C57-WT mice exposed to radiation had dense foci of subpleural fibrosis at 20 weeks after exposure, whereas the lungs of irradiated TGF-α (-/-) mice were largely devoid of fibrotic foci. Lung tissue concentrations of IL-1β, IL-4, TNF-α, TGF-β and EGF at multiple time points after irradiation were similar in C57-WT and TGF-α(-/-) mice. TGF-α in lung tissue of C57-WT mice rose rapidly after irradiation and remained elevated through 20 weeks. TGF-α(-/-) mice had lower basal LOX expression than C57-WT mice. Both LOX expression and LOX activity were increased after irradiation in all mice but to a lesser degree in TGF-α(-/-) mice. Treatment of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts with TGF-α resulted in increases in proliferation, collagen production and LOX activity. These studies identify TGF-α as a critical mediator of radiation-induced lung injury and a novel therapeutic target in this setting. Further, these data implicate TGF-α as a mediator of collagen maturation through a TGF-β independent activation of lysyl oxidase.
Radiation Research 08/2014; 182(3). DOI:10.1667/RR13625.1 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a complication that developed in some patients receiving 12 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) in addition to lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy prior to infusion of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) with high-dose aldesleukin (IL-2). This article describes the incidence, presentation, and course of radiation-associated TMA.
The data for patients with metastatic melanoma who received ACT with TIL plus aldesleukin following myeloablative chemotherapy and 12-Gy TBI was examined, in order to look at patient characteristics and the natural history of TMA.
The median time to presentation was approximately 8 months after completing TBI. The estimated cumulative incidence of TMA was 31.2% (median follow-up of 24 months). Noninvasive criteria for diagnosis included newly elevated creatinine levels, new-onset hypertension, new-onset anemia, microscopic hematuria, thrombocytopenia, low haptoglobin, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase values. Once diagnosed, patients were managed with control of their hypertension with multiple agents and supportive red blood cell transfusions. TMA typically stabilized or improved and no patient progressed to dialysis. TMA was associated with a higher probability of an antitumor response.
TMA occurs in approximately a third of patients treated with a lymphodepleting preparative chemotherapy regimen with TBI prior to autologous T cell therapy. The disease has a variable natural history, however, no patient developed end-stage renal failure. Successful management with supportive care and aggressive hypertension control is vital to the safe application of a systemic therapy that has shown curative potential for patients with disseminated melanoma. Cancer 2014. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Cancer 05/2014; 120(9). DOI:10.1002/cncr.28547 · 4.90 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: " ... patients from both ends of the prostate cancer spectrum - those with highly aggressive or indolent tumors - would benefit from the development of accurate prognostic biomarkers."
Biomarkers in Medicine 12/2013; 7(6):823-825. DOI:10.2217/bmm.13.127 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: Serum PSA screening for prostate cancer (PCa) is controversial. Here, we identify three urinary biomarkers - aHGF, IGFBP3 and OPN - for PCa screening and prognostication. Methods: Urinary aHGF, OPN and IGFBP3 from healthy men (n = 19) and men with localized (n = 65) and metastatic (n = 36) PCa were quantified via ELISA. Mann-Whitney nonparametric t-test and the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING) analyses were used to analyze associations. Results: Mean aHGF and IGFBP3 levels were significantly elevated in PCa patients versus controls (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0012, respectively), and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve (indicator of diagnostic accuracy) for aHGF and IGFBP3 was 0.75 and 0.74, respectively. OPN levels were significantly higher in metastatic groups (p = 0.0060) versus localized and controls (area under the curve = 0.68). Conclusion: Urinary aHGF and IGFBP3 exhibit the capacity for diagnostic discrimination for PCa, whereas OPN may indicate presence of metastatic disease.
Biomarkers in Medicine 12/2013; 7(6):831-841. DOI:10.2217/bmm.13.112 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: "The ability to accurately identify which patients harbor aggressive disease requiring therapy would prevent overtreatment of a substantial number of men with localized prostate cancer, removing the burden of unnecessary therapy from patients and healthcare systems."
Biomarkers in Medicine 12/2013; 7(6):827-829. DOI:10.2217/bmm.13.123 · 2.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cross-priming of CD8+ T cells and generation of effector immune responses is pivotal for tumor immunity as well as for successful anticancer vaccination and therapy. Dead and dying cells produce signals that can influence Ag processing and presentation; however, there is conflicting evidence regarding the immunogenicity of necrotic cell death. We used a mouse model of sterile necrosis, in which mice were injected with sterile primary necrotic cells, to investigate a role of these cells in priming of CD8+ T cells. We discovered a molecular mechanism operating in Ag donor cells that regulates cross-priming of CD8+ T cells during primary sterile necrosis and thereby controls adaptive immune responses. We found that the cellular peptidases dipeptidyl peptidase 3 (DPP-3) and thimet oligopeptidase 1 (TOP-1), both of which are present in nonimmunogenic necrotic cells, eliminated proteasomal degradation products and blocked Ag cross-presentation. While sterile necrotic tumor cells failed to induce CD8+ T cell responses, their nonimmunogenicity could be reversed in vitro and in vivo by inactivation of DPP-3 and TOP-1. These results indicate that control of cross-priming and thereby immunogenicity of primary sterile necrosis relies on proteasome-dependent oligopeptide generation and functional status of peptidases in Ag donor cells.
The Journal of clinical investigation 10/2013; DOI:10.1172/JCI65698 · 13.77 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) can result in the development of cutaneous fibrosis, for which few therapeutic options exist. We tested the hypothesis that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) would favorably alter the progression of IR-induced fibrosis. We found that a systemic infusion of BMSC from syngeneic or allogeneic donors reduced skin contracture, thickening and collagen deposition in a murine model. Transcriptional profiling with a fibrosis-targeted assay demonstrated increased expression of interleukin-10 (IL-10) and decreased expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the irradiated skin of mice 14 days after receiving BMSC. Similarly, immunoassay studies demonstrated durable alteration of these and several additional inflammatory mediators. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a reduction in infiltration of pro-inflammatory classically activated CD80(+) macrophages and increased numbers of anti-inflammatory regulatory CD163(+) macrophages in irradiated skin of BMSC-treated mice. In vitro co-culture experiments confirmed that BMSC induce expression of IL-10 by activated macrophages, suggesting polarization toward a regulatory phenotype. Furthermore, we demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-receptor 2 (TNF-R2) mediates IL-10 production and transition toward a regulatory phenotype during co-culture with BMSC. Taken together, these data demonstrate that systemic infusion of BMSC can durably alter the progression of radiation-induced fibrosis by altering macrophage phenotype and suppressing local inflammation in a TNF-R2 dependent fashion. Stem Cells 2013.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation is a commonly delivered therapeutic modality for cancer. The causes underlying the chronic, progressive nature of radiation injury in the lung are poorly understood.
C57Bl/6NCr mice were exposed to thoracic irradiation (n = 3 per dose and time point for tissue collection). Microarray analysis of gene expression from irradiated murine lung was performed using one-way analysis of variance with post hoc Scheffe analysis. Senescence and type II airway epithelial cell (AECII) count were assayed in irradiated murine lung tissue (n = 3 per condition). Irradiated mice were treated with diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase (NOX), and fibrosis was assessed by collagen assays. All statistical tests were two-tailed.
Gene expression in lung tissue from mice irradiated to 17.5 Gy clustered with that of aged unirradiated mice. Only fibrogenic exposures led to AECII senescence (0 Gy: 0.66% +/- 0.67%; 5 Gy: 4.5% +/- 1.19%; 17.5 Gy: 18.7% +/- 3.05; P = .007) and depletion (0 Gy: 2.89 per alveolus +/- 0.26; 5 Gy: 2.41 +/- 0.19; 17.5 Gy: 1.6 +/- 0.14; P < .001) at 30 weeks. Treatment of irradiated mice with DPI for 16 weeks markedly reduced collagen accumulation (5×6 Gy: 57.26 μg/lung +/- 9.91; 5×6 Gy +/- DPI: 36.54μg/lung +/- 4.39; P = .03) and AECII senescence (5×6 Gy: 37.61% +/- 4.82%; 5×6 Gy +/- DPI: 12.38% +/- 2.78; P < .001).
These studies identify senescence as an important process in AECII in vivo and indicate that NOX is a critical mediator of radiation-induced AECII senescence and pulmonary fibrosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Radiation induced fibrosis of the skin is a late toxicity that may result in loss of function due to reduced range of motion and pain. The current study sought to determine if oral delivery of quercetin mitigates radiation-induced cutaneous injury. Female C3H/HeN mice were fed control chow or quercetin-formulated chow (1% by weight). The right hind leg was exposed to 35 Gy of X rays and the mice were followed serially to assess acute toxicity and hind leg extension. Tissue samples were collected for assessment of soluble collagen and tissue cytokines. Human and murine fibroblasts were subjected to clonogenic assays to determine the effects of quercetin on radiation response. Contractility of fibroblasts was assessed with a collagen contraction assay in the presence or absence of quercetin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Western blotting of proteins involved in fibroblast contractility and TGF-β signaling were performed. Quercetin treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture, collagen accumulation and expression of TGF-β in irradiated skin. Quercetin had no effect on the radioresponse of fibroblasts or murine tumors, but was capable of reducing the contractility of fibroblasts in response to TGF-β, an effect that correlated with partial stabilization of phosphorylated cofilin. Quercetin is capable of mitigating radiation induced skin fibrosis and should be further explored as a therapy for radiation fibrosis.
Radiation Research 07/2013; 180(2). DOI:10.1667/RR3237.1 · 2.45 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inhibition of the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (Ras/MAPK) pathway through the suppression of mutated Ras or MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2) has been shown to sensitize tumor cells to ionizing radiation (IR). The molecular mechanisms of this sensitization however, are not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) in the radiosensitizing effects of selumetinib, a selective inhibitor of MEK1/2. The expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands was assessed by ELISA in both Ras wild-type and Ras mutant cells that were exposed to radiation with or without selumetinib. The effects of selumetinib on the TGF-α/EGFR signaling cascade in response to radiation were examined by western blot analysis, clonogenic assay and by determing the yield of mitotic catastrophe. The treatment of cells with selumetinib reduced the basal and IR-induced secretion of TGF-α in both Ras wild-type and Ras mutant cell lines in vitro and in vivo. The reduction of TGF-α secretion was accompanied with a reduction in phosphorylated tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE) in the cells treated with selumetinib with or without IR. The treatment of cells with selumetinib with or without IR inhibited the phosphorylation of EGFR and checkpoint kinase 2 (Chk2), and reduced the expression of survivin. Supplementation with exogenous TGF-α partially rescued the selumetinib-treated cells from IR-induced cell death, restored EGFR and Chk2 phosphorylation and increased survivin expression. These data suggest that the inhibition of MEK1/2 with selumetinib may provide a mechanism to sensitize tumor cells to IR in a fashion that prevents the activation of the TGF-α autocrine loop following IR.
International Journal of Oncology 04/2013; 42(6). DOI:10.3892/ijo.2013.1890 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: No conventional therapy exists for salivary hypofunction in surviving head and neck cancer patients with Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late grade 2-3 toxicity. We conducted a phase I clinical trial to test the safety and biologic efficacy of serotype 5, adenoviral-mediated aquaporin-1 cDNA transfer to a single previously irradiated parotid gland in 11 subjects using an open label, single-dose, dose-escalation design (AdhAQP1 vector; four dose tiers from 4.8 × 10(7) to 5.8 × 10(9) vector particles per gland). Treated subjects were followed at scheduled intervals. Multiple safety parameters were measured and biologic efficacy was evaluated with measurements of parotid salivary flow rate. Symptoms were assessed with a visual analog scale. All subjects tolerated vector delivery and study procedures well over the 42-d study period reported. No deaths, serious adverse events, or dose-limiting toxicities occurred. Generally, few adverse events occurred, and all were considered mild or moderate. No consistent changes were found in any clinical chemistry and hematology parameters measured. Objective responses were seen in six subjects, all at doses <5.8 × 10(9) vector particles per gland. Five of these six subjects also experienced subjective improvement in xerostomia. AdhAQP1 vector delivery to a single parotid gland was safe and transfer of the hAQP1 cDNA increased parotid flow and relieved symptoms in a subset of subjects.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2012; 109(47). DOI:10.1073/pnas.1210662109 · 9.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: Dermal fibrosis is a disabling late toxicity of radiotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that overactive signaling via the Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-beta (PDGFR-β) and V-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (cAbl) may be etiologic factors in the development of radiation-induced fibrosis. We tested the hypothesis that imatinib, a clinically available inhibitor of PDGFR-β, Mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-kit) and cAbl, would reduce the severity of dermal fibrosis in a murine model. Materials and Methods: The right hind legs of female C3H/HeN mice were exposed to 35 Gy of x-rays. Cohorts of mice were maintained on chow formulated with imatinib 0.5 mg/gm or control chow for the duration of the experiment. Bilateral hind limb extension was measured serially to assess fibrotic contracture. Immunohistochemistry and biochemical assays were used to evaluate the levels of collagen and cytokines implicated in radiation-induced fibrosis. Results: Imatinib treatment significantly reduced hind limb contracture and dermal thickness after irradiation. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated a substantial reduction in PDGFR-β phosphorylation. We also observed reduced Transforming Growth factor-β (TGF-β) and collagen expression in irradiated skin of imatinib treated mice, suggesting that imatinib may suppress the fibrotic process by interrupting cross-talk between these pathways. Conclusions: Taken together, these results support that imatinib may be a useful agent in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced dermal fibrosis.
International Journal of Radiation Biology 10/2012; 89(3). DOI:10.3109/09553002.2013.741281 · 1.84 Impact Factor