[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, display a shortened lifespan and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. A lipidomic analysis revealed specific changes in sphingolipids that accompanied the premature ageing of Isc1p-deficient cells under severe calorie restriction conditions, including a decrease of dihydrosphingosine levels and an increase of dihydro-C(26) -ceramide and phyto-C(26) -ceramide levels, the latter raising the possibility of activation of ceramide-dependent protein phosphatases. Consequently, deletion of the SIT4 gene, which encodes for the catalytic subunit of type 2A ceramide-activated protein phosphatase in yeast, abolished the premature ageing and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of isc1Δ cells. SIT4 deletion also abolished the respiratory defects and catalase A deficiency exhibited by isc1Δ mutants. These results are consistent with catabolic derepression associated with the loss of Sit4p. The overall results show that Isc1p is an upstream regulator of Sit4p and implicate Sit4p activation in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of isc1Δ mutants.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The inositolphosphosphingolipid phospholipase C (Isc1p) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to the family of neutral sphingomyelinases that generates the bioactive sphingolipid ceramide. In this work the role of Isc1p in oxidative stress resistance and chronological lifespan was investigated. Loss of Isc1p resulted in a higher sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide that was associated with an increase in oxidative stress markers, namely intracellular oxidation, protein carbonylation, and lipid peroxidation. Microarray analysis showed that Isc1p deficiency up-regulated the iron regulon leading to increased levels of iron, which is known to catalyze the production of the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals via the Fenton reaction. In agreement, iron chelation suppressed hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of isc1Delta mutants. Cells lacking Isc1p also displayed a shortened chronological lifespan associated with oxidative stress markers and aging of parental cells was correlated with a decrease in Isc1p activity. The analysis of DNA fragmentation and caspase-like activity showed that Isc1p deficiency increased apoptotic cell death associated with oxidative stress and aging. Furthermore, deletion of Yca1p metacaspase suppressed the oxidative stress sensitivity and premature aging phenotypes of isc1Delta mutants. These results indicate that Isc1p plays an important role in the regulation of cellular redox homeostasis, through modulation of iron levels, and of apoptosis.
Molecular biology of the cell 04/2008; 19(3):865-76. DOI:10.1091/mbc.E07-06-0604 · 5.98 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Turnover of damaged molecules is considered to play a key role in housekeeping of cells exposed to oxidative stress, and during the progress of ageing. In this work, global changes in the transcriptome were analysed during recovery of yeast cells after H(2)O(2) stress. Regarding induced genes, those associated with protein fate were the most significantly over-represented. In addition to genes encoding subunits of the 20S proteasome, genes related to vacuolar proteolysis (PEP4 and LAP4), protein sorting into the vacuole, and vacuolar fusion were found to be induced. The upregulation of PEP4 gene expression was associated with an increase in Pep4p activity. The induction of genes related to proteolysis was correlated with an increased protein turnover after H(2)O(2)-induced oxidation. Furthermore, protein degradation and the removal of oxidized proteins decreased in Pep4p-deficient cells. Pep4p activity also increased during chronological ageing, and cells lacking Pep4p displayed a shortened lifespan associated with higher levels of carbonylated proteins. PEP4 overexpression prevented the accumulation of oxidized proteins, but did not increase lifespan. These results indicate that Pep4p is important for protein turnover after oxidative damage; however, increased removal of oxidized proteins is not sufficient to enhance lifespan.