ABSTRACT: Safe entrance into the peritoneal cavity through the gastric wall is paramount for the successful clinical introduction of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). The aim of the study was to develop alternative safe transgastric access to the peritoneal cavity.
We performed 11 survival experiments on 50-kg pigs. In sterile conditions, the abdominal wall was punctured with a Veress needle. The peritoneal cavity was insufflated with 2 L carbon dioxide (CO (2)). A sterile endoscope was introduced into the stomach through a sterile overtube; the gastric wall was punctured with a needle-knife; after balloon dilation of the puncture site, the endoscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity. Peritoneoscopy with biopsies from abdominal wall, liver and omentum, was performed. The endoscope was withdrawn into the stomach. The animals were kept alive for 2 weeks and repeat endoscopy was followed by necropsy.
The pneumoperitoneum, easily created with the Veress needle, lifted the abdominal wall and made a CO (2)-filled space between the stomach and adjacent organs, facilitating gastric wall puncture and advancement of the endoscope into the peritoneal cavity. There were no hemodynamic changes or immediate or delayed complications related to pneumoperitoneum, transgastric access, or intraperitoneal manipulations. Follow-up endoscopy and necropsy revealed no problems or complications inside the stomach or peritoneal cavity.
Creation of a preliminary pneumoperitoneum with a Veress needle facilitates gastric wall puncture and entrance into the peritoneal cavity without injury to adjacent organs, and can improve the safety of NOTES.
Endoscopy 11/2007; 39(10):849-53. · 5.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The peroral transluminal approach to the peritoneal cavity appears safe, feasible, and may further reduce the invasiveness of surgery. However, flexible endoscopes have multiple limitations inside the peritoneal cavity, which can potentially be overcome by blending the use of both a laparoscope and a flexible upper endoscope--a hybrid approach. The goal of the present study was to evaluate a hybrid minimally invasive technique for cholecystectomy in a porcine model.
Hybrid cholecystectomies were performed in acute experiments on 50-kg pigs under general anesthesia. Pneumoperitoneum was created with a Veress needle, and a laparoscopic 10-mm port was inserted. Under laparoscopic observation, the gastric wall incision was done with an endoscopic needle-knife and sphincterotome, and the upper endoscope was advanced into the peritoneal cavity. A laparoscopic 10-mm port was inserted into the right upper quadrant of the abdomen for gallbladder traction to facilitate exposure of the cystic duct and artery. Via the biopsy channel of the flexible endoscope, and using a knife with an isolated tip, a needle knife, and clips, both the cystic duct and artery were identified, clipped, and transected. The gallbladder itself was then dissected and retracted through the mouth, and the gastric wall incision was closed with endoscopic clips.
Five hybrid cholecystectomies were performed without complications. The laparoscopic port enabled a stable pneumoperitoneum, good traction and counter-traction, and improved spatial orientation and visualization. Necropsy did not reveal any intraperitoneal complications.
The hybrid approach increases safety of initial gastric puncture and gastric wall incision, improves orientation and navigation of the flexible endoscope inside the peritoneal cavity, simplifies peroral transgastric cholecystectomy, and could be used to decrease invasiveness of laparoscopic surgery and to facilitate development and clinical introduction of transgastric endoscopic procedures.
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00464-007-9329-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Surgical Endoscopy 09/2007; 21(8):1450-3. · 4.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Pancreatic ablation is gaining popularity for the treatment of focal pancreatic lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate local effects of intrapancreatic alcohol injection and the utility of contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for its monitoring in a porcine model.
We performed four survival experiments on 50-kg pigs. Under linear EUS guidance, 0.5 mL of 50% ethanol plus purified carbon particle solution (GI Spot) was injected into the pancreatic body to create a focal area of pancreatic necrosis. The animals survived for 24-48 hours (pigs # 1, # 2, and # 3) and 7 days (pig # 4). EUS was then repeated with and without perflutren lipid microspheres (Definity) administration through the peripheral vein. Standard and microsphere-enhanced images of the pancreas were compared. Afterwards the animals were euthanized for necropsy.
Alcohol injection caused focal pancreatic necrosis, which was barely seen by standard EUS as a subtle hypoechoic lesion 1 cm in diameter. Color and power Doppler EUS of this region did not reveal any blood flow. After intravenous injection of microspheres, color Doppler EUS revealed marked contrast enhancement of normal pancreatic parenchyma with a clearly delineated avascular alcohol-treated area, which on postmortem examination corresponded to the discrete necrotic area marked with carbon particles.
EUS-guided alcohol injection consistently causes focal areas of pancreatic necrosis. Contrast-enhanced EUS with microspheres improves visualization of altered pancreatic vascular perfusion and can be used to facilitate detection of small pancreatic lesions and its follow-up post-ablation.
Endoscopy 07/2007; 39(6):525-9. · 5.21 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The peroral transgastric endoscopic approach for intraabdominal procedures appears to be feasible, although multiple aspects of this approach remain unclear. This study aimed to measure intraperitoneal pressure in a porcine model during the peroral transgastric endoscopic approach, comparing an endoscopic on-demand insufflator/light source with a standard autoregulated laparoscopic insufflator.
All experiments were performed with 50-kg female pigs under general anesthesia. A standard upper endoscope was advanced perorally through a gastric wall incision into the peritoneal cavity. The peritoneal cavity was insufflated with operating room air from an endoscopic light source/insufflator. Intraperitoneal pressure was measured by three routes: (1) through the endoscope biopsy channel, (2) through a 5-mm transabdominal laparoscopic port, and (3) through a 16-gauge Veress needle inserted into the peritoneal cavity through the anterior abdominal wall. The source of insufflation alternated between on-demand manual insufflation through the endoscopic light source/insufflator using room air and a standard autoregulated laparoscopic insufflator using carbon dioxide (CO(2)).
Six acute experiments were performed. Intraperitoneal pressure measurements showed good correlation regardless of measurement route and were independent of the type of insufflation gas, whether room air or CO(2). On-demand insufflation with the endoscopic light source/insufflator resulted in a wide variation in pressures (range, 4-32 mmHg; mean, 16.0 +/- 11.7). Intraabdominal pressures using a standard autoregulated laparoscopic insufflator demonstrated minimal fluctuation (range, 8-15 mmHg; mean, 11.0 +/- 2.2 mmHg) around a predetermined value.
Use of an on-demand unregulated endoscopic light source/insufflator for translumenal surgery can cause large variation in intraperitoneal pressures and intraabdominal hypertension, leading to the risk of hemodynamic and respiratory compromise. Safety may favor well-controlled intraabdominal pressures achieved with a standard autoregulated laparoscopic insufflator.
Surgical Endoscopy 06/2007; 21(6):998-1001. · 4.01 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Creation of a submucosal cushion before endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) significantly reduces perforation risk. We evaluated six solutions as cushioning agents in live pigs.
5 ml of normal saline, normal saline plus epinephrine, albumin 12.5 %, albumin 25 %, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, and the pig's own whole blood were endoscopically injected into the porcine esophageal submucosa. Blood was obtained from a peripheral vein immediately before injection. Injections were made every 4 cm from the gastroesophageal junction. The time from completion of the injection to disappearance of the cushion was recorded. Endoscopy was repeated at 48 hours post injection. Two EMRs were performed after blood injection. Statistical analysis employed one-way analysis of variance followed by pairwise T test comparisons using the Bonferroni correction.
Five animal experiments were completed. The mean time to dissipation of the submucosal cushion was shortest for saline plus epinephrine sites (2.87 minutes, SD 2.21) followed by the saline (4.8 minutes, SD 1.56), albumin 12.5 % (5.68 minutes, SD 3.48), albumin 25 % (7.83 minutes, SD 2.02), hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (9.77 minutes, SD 1.55), and blood sites (38.6 minutes, SD 6.07). Injection of blood resulted in significantly longer mucosal elevation than any other solution ( P < 0.0007). Blood from the cushion did not hamper visualization and facilitated EMR.
Blood produces the most durable cushion compared with standard agents, also having the advantages of being readily available and without cost. Albumin 25 % provides as durable a cushion as hydroxypropyl methylcellulose.
Endoscopy 01/2007; 38(12):1230-4. · 5.21 Impact Factor