[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study compared the incidence of lung cancer among Puerto Ricans (PRs) with that of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the United States. We computed age-standardized rates of lung cancer during 1992-2010 and percentages of change over time. Standardized rate ratios (SRR) were estimated to assess racial/ethnic and gender differences. All men groups showed a significant decline in lung cancer over time but PRs observed the smallest change (-1.2 %). For both men and women, PRs had lower incidence rates compared to other racial/ethnic groups (SRR < 1; P < 0.05). Among all groups, men reported higher incidence rates than women but PRs showed the largest gender disparity (SRR = 2.29). This study showed that although PRs exhibited lower incidence rates of lung cancer, this subgroup of Hispanics faced an important burden of lung cancer, principally because PR men had the smallest decline over time and the largest gender difference among all groups.
Journal of immigrant and minority health / Center for Minority Public Health. 01/2015;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Barrett's esophagus (BE) is the strongest risk factor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). A previous study found a lower incidence of EAC in Puerto Rico (PR) as compared to other racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US). Notwithstanding, BE epidemiology in PR is unknown. Study aims: i) to determine BE prevalence among individuals with gastroenterological pathology reports from three major anatomic pathology laboratories in PR and ii) to describe the association between dysplastic BE with age and gender.
Clinic-based study examined data collected from three anatomic pathology laboratories encompassing the majority of gastroenterology practices in PR. Individuals with histology confirmed BE (January 2007-December 2011) were analyzed (n = 1,232). We estimated BE prevalence and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) to assess magnitude of association between dysplastic BE with age and gender using logistic regression models.
Overall BE prevalence was 4.4% (95% CI = 4.1-4.6). Most BE patients were males (male-to-female ratio = 2.3:1) with mean age of 64 ± 13 years. Ninety one percent of BE biopsies showed no dysplasia whereas 6.2% had EAC. BE patients age > 74 years had an increased risk of EAC (AOR: 2.38, 95% CI = 1.14-4.94) compared to those < 55 years old. Males had increased EAC risk (AOR: 2.23, 95% CI = 1.23-4.06) compared to females.
BE prevalence in PR is similar to that of non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics in US. The lower occurrence of dysplastic BE in PR could explain EAC incidence disparities between PR and other groups in the US.
Puerto Rico health sciences journal 12/2014; 33(4):184-9. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scientific findings need to be summarized for the better understanding of the community and for the development of the respective preventive actions that they espouse, suggest, or imply. The news media play a critical role in communicating health information to the public. Among chronic diseases, cancer receives a great deal of attention from the media, possibly because of its position as a leading cause of death. While the news media are vital to the dissemination of health information, one of the main information sources comes from epidemiological studies. Thus, it is important that health professionals interpret the results of these studies in order to efficiently communicate the results in a thorough and comprehensible manner. This special article aims to guide health professionals through the process of reading and interpreting the most relevant components of epidemiological literature.
Puerto Rico health sciences journal 06/2014; 33(2):39-44. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of cancer and human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers and the risk of death (by cancer status) among people living with AIDS (PLWA) in Puerto Rico. We used data from the Puerto Rico AIDS Surveillance Program and Central Cancer Registry (1985-2005). Cancers with highest incidence were cervix (299.6/100,000) for women and oral cavity/oropharynx for men (150.0/100,000); the greatest excess of cancer incidence for men (standardized incidence ratio, 86.8) and women (standardized incidence ratio, 52.8) was for anal cancer. PLWA who developed a cancer had decreased survival and increased risk of death compared with those who did not have cancer. Cancer control strategies for PLWA will be essential for improving their disease survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the prevalence and association of diabetes mellitus (DM) and prediabetes with cardiovascular risk factors among Puerto Ricans adults. Data from a household survey of 857 adults aged 21-79 years who underwent interviews, physical exams, and blood draws were analyzed. Prevalence of total DM and prediabetes was estimated using American Diabetes Association diagnostic criteria of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Poisson regression models were used to estimate the prevalence ratio for each cardiovascular risk factor under study. Age-standardized prevalence of total DM and prediabetes, detected by FPG and/or HbA1c, was 25.5 and 47.4 %, respectively. Compared with participants with normoglycemia, those with previously diagnosed DM, undiagnosed DM, and prediabetes had more adverse cardiovascular risk factor profiles, characterized by a higher prevalence of general and abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, and elevated plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (p < 0.05). The high prevalence of DM and prediabetes calls for public health actions to plan and implement lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay the onset of DM and cardiovascular disease.
Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 04/2014; · 1.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The incidence of anal cancer is increasing, particularly among HIV and men who have sex with men (MSM) groups. The vast majority of cases are associated with human papillomavirus (HPV), the most common sexually transmitted infection. Epidemiological studies have also documented low survival, which might be linked to lack of appropriate screening, access, and utilization of pertinent health care services. Our objective was to assess the relative survival (1 and 3 years) of anal cancer in Puerto Rico for men and women during the period from 2000-2007.
All histological types of cancer of anus, anal canal, and anorectum (ICD-O-3 codes C210-C218), except for sarcomas, were included. Relative survival was estimated with the use of life tables from the population of Puerto Rico. In addition, the excess survival was compared by age at diagnosis, histology, and stage (defined as local, regional, or distant), using the Poisson regression model.
The overall 3-year relative survival in Puerto Rico was the same (53 %) for men and women.
Our findings establish baseline survival data for anal cancer in Hispanics from Puerto Rico. Since now, the national guidelines for anal cancer screening and treatment are on their way to be determined; baseline information about survival will allow monitoring the efficacy that standardized screening programs may eventually have in increasing anal cancer survival in this population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies have found a link between a low DNA repair capacity (DRC) level and increased risk for breast cancer (BC). A recent study by Matta et al. 2012 showed that women with BC have an average reduction of 60% in DRC compared to controls (P < 0.001). Using the same group of Hispanic women, we selected a subgroup of cases (n=35) and controls (n=2) who donated their tumors and normal tissue for performing molecular studies in order to 1) compare the expression of DNA repair genes in breast tissue between BC cases and controls without this disease, 2) assess the correlation between gene expression and DRC levels, 3) examine whether DRC levels are associated with tumor DNA repair gene expression profiling when women were stratified according to their hormone receptor status. DRC levels were measured in lymphocytes by means of a host-cell reactivation assay. Gene expression levels were measured in tumors by means of DNA microarray analysis. Twenty-one DNA repair genes were found to be differentially and significantly expressed in women with BC. Those candidate genes were CHEK2, EME1 (MMS4L), ERCC3 (XPB), FANCM, H2AFX (H2AX), HMGB1, HUS1, MBD4, NEIL3, PCNA, RAD1, RAD23B, RAD51, RAD54B, RDM1 (RAD52B), SHFM1 (DSS1), TP1, UBE2N (UBC13) and XRCC5 (Ku80). Most DNA repair genes (n=18 or 82%) were overexpressed, ranging from 3.76-fold (RDM1) to 1.47-fold (XRCC5). Only 4 genes (18%) were underexpressed, ranging from 62% (SAPCD1) to 25% (RAD23B). Statistically significant positive correlations between DRC level and gene expression were found for the RAD51, FANCB and FANCA genes. We discuss the clinical and translational significance of these findings. Our results support the usefulness of studying DNA repair as a measure of BC risk. This study also provides a list of candidate DNA repair genes that might be associated with dysregulation of DNA repair in breast cancer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and correlates of seropositivity to human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 in a subsample of adults who participated in the parent study Epidemiology of Hepatitis C in the adult population of Puerto Rico (PR).
The parent study was a population-based household survey aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of hepatitis C and other viral infections (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, HIV, and herpes simplex type 2) in PR (n=1654) between 2005 and 2008.
A subsample of the last 450 consecutive adults aged 21-64 years, recruited between February 2007 and January 2008, who participated in the parent study and agreed to participate in HPV testing.
The samples were tested by ELISA for HPV-16 viral-like particle-specific immunoglobulin G. Information on sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics was collected. Logistic regression modelling was used to estimate the prevalence odds ratio (POR) to assess factors associated to HPV-16 seropositivity.
Prevalence of seropositivity to HPV-16 was 11.3%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (15.8%) than men (5.6%; p=0.001). After adjusting for age and sex, ever smokers (POR 2.06, 95% CI 1.08 to 3.92) and participants with at least five lifetime sexual partners (POR 2.91, 95% CI 1.24 to 6.81) were more likely to be HPV-16 seropositive.
HPV-16 seropositivity is similar to that reported in the USA (10.4%) for NHANES 2003-2004 participants, although different assays were used in these studies. While future studies should evaluate HPV seroprevalence using a larger population-based sample, our results highlight the need to further understand the burden of HPV infection and HPV-related malignancies in PR, population with a low vaccine uptake.
BMJ Open 01/2014; 4(2):e004203. · 2.06 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Puerto Rico's (PR) epidemiological data on each oral cavity and pharynx cancer (OCPC) site is yet largely unexplored. Our aim was to compare OCPC incidence in PR, by anatomical site, with that of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanic (USH) individuals in the USA.
Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program and the PR Central Cancer Registry were collected and analyzed. Age-standardized rates, percent changes, and standardized rate ratios were estimated with 95% confidence intervals.
Although declining incidence rates were observed for most anatomical sites in most racial/ethnic groups and in both sexes, the incidence of oropharynx cancers slightly increased for cancers in the oropharynx among PR women, both in the base of tongue and soft palate/other oropharynx (p>0.05). The incidence of soft palate/other oropharynx cancers in PR men was about 2.8 times higher than in USH men (p<0.05) and about 1.4 times higher than in NHW men but 21% lower than in NHB men (p>0.05). Significant interactions terms formed with racial/ethnic group and age were shown in various sites. The largest differences between sexes were consistently noted in PR.
Further research in PR should assess the effect of the HPV infection, as well as of other risk factors, in OCPC incidence by anatomical site in younger populations. These data could explain more precisely the reasons for the differences observed in this study, particularly among sexes in PR.
Puerto Rico health sciences journal 12/2013; 32(4):175-81. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics associated with HIV among Men who have sex with Men (MSM) and men who have sex with women (MSW) in Puerto Rico. Data from a population-based cross-sectional study in PR (2005-2008) was analyzed. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study sample and bivariate analyses were performed to identify differences of sociodemographic, behavioral and clinical characteristics between MSM and MSW. Exact logistic regression models adjusting for age were constructed for each risk behavior associated to MSM in bivariate analysis. Of the 674 men interviewed, 6.1% (n=41) reported ever having sex with men. Age-adjusted logistic regression models indicated that MSM were significantly more likely than MSW to have first sexual intercourse before the age of 15 (POR=2.6; 95%CI= 1.3, 5.3) and have at least 10 lifetime sex partners (POR=2.8; 95%CI= 1.4,5.9). Also, MSM were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of marihuana (POR=2.7; 95%CI= 1.3,5.8), cocaine (POR=2.5; 95%CI= 1.2,5.0), amphetamines (POR=3.8; 95%CI= 1.4,9.2) and sedatives or tranquilizers (POR=3.3; 95%CI= 1.4,7.2). Also, MSM were 13 times more likely to be HIV seropositive as compared to MSW (POR=13.3; 95%CI=1.7,102.0). In this population-based sample of men living in Puerto Rico, self-reported same-sex behavior is strongly associated with HIV, and other behavioral factors associated with HIV. Future targeted research is still necessary for the development of intervention programs among MSM in Puerto Rico.
Sexuality Research and Social Policy Journal of NSRC 09/2013; 10(3).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Information on the impact of hormone receptor status subtypes in breast cancer (BC) prognosis is still limited for Hispanics. We aimed to evaluate the association of BC molecular subtypes and other clinical factors with survival in a hospital-based female population of BC cases in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 663 cases of invasive BC diagnosed between 2002 and 2005. Information on HER-2/neu (HER-2) overexpression, estrogen (ER), and progesterone (PR) receptor status and clinical characteristics were retrieved from hospitals cancer registries and record review. Survival probabilities by covariates of interest were described using the Kaplan-Meier estimators. Cox proportional hazards models were employed to assess factors associated with risk of BC death. Overall, 17.3% of BC cases were triple-negative (TN), 61.8% were Luminal-A, 13.3% were Luminal-B, and 7.5% were HER-2 overexpressed. In the multivariate Cox model, among patients with localized stage, women with TN BC had higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.29-5.12) as compared to those with Luminal-A status, after adjusting for age at diagnosis. In addition, among women with regional/distant stage at diagnosis, those with TN BC (HR: 5.48, 95% CI: 2.63-11.47) and those HER-2+, including HER-2 overexpressed and Luminal-B, (HR: 2.73, 95% CI:1.30-5.75) had a higher mortality. This is the most comprehensive epidemiological study to date on the impact of hormone receptor expression subtypes in BC survival in Puerto Rico. Consistent to results in other populations, the TN subtype and HER-2+ tumors were associated with decreased survival.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anal cancer is a rare tumor that is associated with oncogenic HPV genotypes. This study aims to compare the age-standardized rates (ASRs) of anal cancer incidence and mortality in men and women living in Puerto Rico (PR) with those of non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and Hispanics (USH) living in the continental United States (US).
ASRs were calculated based on cancer data that came from the PR Cancer Central Registry and from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The age-specific relative risks (RR) and 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) were estimated using Poisson regression models.
Comparing the period of 2001 to 2004 to that of 1992 to 1996, the incidence of anal cancer increased among NHW, NHB, and PR men. In females, an increase in the incidence was observed for all racial groups except for Puerto Rican women. When evaluating findings by age groups, Puerto Rican men younger than 60 years old had a 20% higher incidence of anal cancer than did USH men of the same age strata (RR: 2.20; 95% CI = 1.48-3.29). However, Puerto Rican females had a lower incidence of anal cancer than NHW and NHB women. An increased percent change in mortality was observed only in NHW and NHB men. A decreasing trend was observed in all racial/ethnic groups except for NHW women.
Our results support the notion that there are racial/ethnic differences in anal cancer incidence and mortality, with potential disparities among men and women in PR compared with USH men and women. Given the increasing incidence trends in anal cancer, particularly among PR, NHW, and NHB men, further investigation is needed to better elucidate screening practices that can aid in the prevention of anal cancer.
Puerto Rico health sciences journal 06/2013; 32(2):76-81. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the prevalence and concordance between cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and compare cervicovaginal and anal self-collection methods for HPV testing between physician and self-collected specimens in women in Puerto Rico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Specimens for HPV-DNA testing were obtained from 100 women aged 18 to 34 years attending a general gynecology clinic for a routine Pap smear. Human papillomavirus testing was performed using polymerase chain reaction MY09/MY11 primers. Positive samples were typed for 39 genotypes. Agreement between sampling methods was determined by percent agreement and the κ statistic. RESULTS: For the 39 genotypes evaluated, 38.4% (38/99) of cervicovaginal and 33.7% (30/89) of anal physician-collected samples were HPV+, whereas 35.1% (34/97) of cervicovaginal and 32.0% (31/97) of anal self-collected samples were positive. Human papillomavirus type 16 was the most common type identified in the cervix (8.3%, 8/97) and the anus (5.6%, 5/89) of physician-collected samples, with similar prevalence in self-collected samples. Concordance between cervical and anal HPV infection was high (>90%) for all types evaluated. There was a strong percent agreement between physician- and self-collected cervicovaginal and anal samples (>95% for all HPV types) and good to excellent agreement (κ > 0.60) for most HPV types. CONCLUSIONS: The clinic-based prevalence of anal and cervicovaginal HPV infection was high, with a strong concordance between cervical and anal infection and good to excellent agreement between physician- and self-collected samples. This study supports the feasibility of using cervical and anal self-sampling methods in future population-based studies of HPV infection in Puerto Rico and as an HPV screening method in women.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Limited knowledge on the prevalence and distribution of risk factors impairs the planning and implementation of cardiovascular prevention programs in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region.
Prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, abnormal lipoprotein levels, obesity, and smoking were estimated from individual-level patient data pooled from population-based surveys (1998-2007, n = 31,009) from eight LAC countries and from a national survey of the United States (US) population (1999-2004) Age and gender specific prevalence were estimated and age-gender adjusted comparisons between both populations were conducted. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol in LAC were 5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 3.4, 7.9), 20.2% (95% CI: 12.5, 31), and 53.3% (95% CI: 47, 63.4), respectively. Compared to LAC region's average, the prevalence of each risk factor tended to be lower in Peru and higher in Chile. LAC women had higher prevalence of obesity and low HDL-cholesterol than men. Obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia were more prevalent in the US population than in LAC population (31 vs. 16.1%, 16.8 vs. 8.9%, and 36.2 vs. 26.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of low HDL-cholesterol was higher in LAC than in the US (53.3 vs. 33.7%).
Major cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent in LAC region, in particular low HDL-cholesterol. In addition, marked differences do exist in this prevalence profile between LAC and the US. The observed patterns of obesity-related risk factors and their current and future impact on the burden of cardiovascular diseases remain to be explained.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e54056. · 3.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study compares incidence and mortality of penile cancer in Puerto Rico (PR) with other racial/ethnic groups in the United States (US) and evaluates the extent in which socioeconomic position index (SEP) or its components infl uence incidence and mortality in PR. Materials and Methods: Age-standardized rates were calculated for incidence and mortality based on data from the PR Cancer Registry and the US National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results program, using the direct method. Results: PR men had approximately 3-fold higher incidence of penile cancer as compared to non-Hispanic white (Standardized rate ratio [SRR]: 3.33; 95%CI=2.80-3.95). A higher incidence of penile cancer was also reported in PR men as compared to non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics men. Mortality from penile cancer was also higher for PR men as compared to all other ethnic/racial groups. PR men in the lowest SEP index had 70% higher incidence of penile cancer as compared with those PR men in the highest SEP index. However, the association was marginally signifi cant (SRR: 1.70; 95%CI=0.97, 2.87). Only low educational attainment was statistically associated with higher penile cancer incidence (SRR: 2.18; 95%CI=1.42-3.29). Conclusions: Although penile cancer is relatively uncommon, our results support significant disparities in the incidence and mortality rates among men in PR. Low educational attainment might influence the high incidence of penile cancer among PR men. Further studies are strongly recommended to explore these disparities.
International braz j urol: official journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology 11/2012; 38(6):728-38.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found a link between a low DNA repair capacity (DRC) level and increased cancer risk. Our aim was to assess the statistical association of DRC level and breast cancer (BC) using a case--control epidemiological study in a Hispanic community. METHODS: We conducted a comparative observational study to assess the validity of DRC in detecting BC in 824 women throughout Puerto Rico. Over a 6-year period, we compared 285 women newly diagnosed with BC to 539 without BC. DRC levels were measured in lymphocytes by means of a host-cell reactivation assay. We assessed the sensitivity, specificity, and association using the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Multiple logistic regression-adjusted odds ratios were estimated with 95% confidence level to measure the strength of the association of DRC and BC after adjusting for all confounders simultaneously. RESULTS: Compared to women without cancer, women with BC showed an average decrease of 60% in their DRC levels (p < 0.001). Validity of the association of DRC as a measure of BC risk showed a sensitivity of 83.2% and specificity of 77.6% (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the usefulness of DRC level as a measure of BC risk. Additional studies in other populations are needed to further verify its usefulness.
BMC Cancer 10/2012; 12(1):490. · 3.32 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: The aim of our study was to compare the age-standardized incidence of esophageal cancer (EC) in Puerto Ricans (PRs) with that for non-Hispanic White (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and Hispanic (USH), groups in the United States (US) as reported by the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program for the 1992-2005 period. Methods: We computed the age-standardized and age-specific incidence (per 100,000 individuals) of EC during 1992-2005 using the World Standard Population as reference. The percent changes for age-standardized rates (ASR), from 1992-1996 to 2001-2005, were calculated. The relative risks (RR) and the standardized rate ratios (SRR) were estimated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The ASR of adenocarcinomas (AC) showed increases for most racial/ethnic groups from 1992-1996 to 2001-2005. All racial/ethnic groups showed ASR reductions for squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). For both sexes, PRs had lower AC incidences than NHW and USH but higher than NHB. For those younger than 80 years of age, PR men showed higher SCC incidences than NHW but lower than NHB (P<0.05). The incidence of SCC was about two times higher in PR men than USH men (SRR: 2.16; 95% CI=1.65-2.88). Among women, the RR for SCC increased with age when comparing PRs to groups in the US. Conclusion: Incidence disparities were observed between PRs and other racial/ethnic groups in the US. These differences and trends may reflect lifestyles of each racial/ethnic group. Further studies are warranted to explain these disparities.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer and the most common cause of cancer death among men in Puerto Rico (PR). Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities with regard to prostate cancer incidence have been reported in the United States of America (US); however, detailed information regarding health disparities in PR is scarce.
Age-standardized rates for prostate cancer incidence and mortality were calculated based on the world standard population using data from the PR Central Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute SEER program. The age-specific relative risks were calculated using Poisson regression models. In addition, incidence and mortality rates in PR were compared by socioeconomic position (SEP) at the municipal level.
For the period from 1992 to 2004, the incidence and mortality trends of prostate cancer decreased in all racial/ethnic groups except for PR men and US Hispanics (USH). Non-Hispanic whites (NHW), non-Hispanic blacks (NHB), and USH had higher incidence of prostate cancer than did PR men; however, PR men aged 85+ yrs and USH aged 45-54 yrs/85+ yrs, respectively, had higher incidences than did NHW and USH. Nonetheless, men in PR had a higher mortality than did USH and NHW. PR men aged 55-64 years with the highest SEP had a 40% higher mortality of prostate cancer than did those with the lowest SEP.
Areas of concern include the higher mortality of prostate cancer in PR as compared with the USH and NHW in the US. Further research should be performed to guide the design and implementation of prostate cancer prevention and education programs that can increase early detection in PR men.
Puerto Rico health sciences journal 09/2012; 31(3):107-13. · 0.67 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study evaluated correlates of the metabolic syndrome among adults living in Puerto Rico, a Hispanic subpopulation disproportionately affected by diabetes.
A probability cluster design was used to select a sample of households of the San Juan Metropolitan Area in Puerto Rico. A total of 858 persons aged 21-79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, blood sampling and spot urine. Logistic regression was employed to assess correlates of the metabolic syndrome.
Of 368 (42.9%) of adults who met the criteria for metabolic syndrome, elevated fasting glucose (49.8%), abdominal obesity (48.6%), and reduced HDL cholesterol (45.8%) were the most prevalent diagnostic criteria. In a multivariable logistic model that simultaneously adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and health behaviors, older age, high school educational attainment or less, no alcohol intake, and lack of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity remained significantly (p < 0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome. However, the associations for male gender, some college education, and current smoking > or = 20 cigarettes/day had borderline significance. Further controlling for inflammatory markers slightly attenuated the strength of most of these associations but remained significantly (p < 0.05) associated to the metabolic syndrome with only a few exceptions. Middle and upper tertiles of hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and PLl-1 and an elevated albumin-to-creatinine ratio were also associated (p < 0.05) with the metabolic syndrome.
Enhancing public education regarding modifiable risk factors for the metabolic syndrome and providing optimal medical management of individual metabolic disturbances among those at risk through preventive lifestyle changes should be placed as a public health priority for Puerto Rico.
Puerto Rico health sciences journal 09/2012; 31(3):114-22. · 0.67 Impact Factor