[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the opportunity to study biological tissues and processes in a non-disruptive manner. The technique shows promise for the study of the load-bearing performance (consolidation) of articular cartilage and changes in articular cartilage accompanying osteoarthritis. Consolidation of articular cartilage involves the recording of two transient characteristics: the change over time of strain and the hydrostatic excess pore pressure (HEPP). MRI study of cartilage consolidation under mechanical load is limited by difficulties in measuring the HEPP in the presence of the strong magnetic fields associated with the MRI technique. Here we describe the use of MRI to image and characterize bovine articular cartilage deforming under load in an MRI compatible consolidometer while monitoring pressure with a Fabry-Perot interferometer-based fiber-optic pressure transducer.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microscopic changes that occur in plant food materials during drying significantly influence the macroscopic properties and quality factors of the dried food materials. It is critical to study the microstructure to understand the underlying cellular mechanisms to improve the performance of food drying techniques. However, there is limited research on such microstructural changes of plant food material during drying. In this work, Gala apple parenchyma tissue samples were studied using a scanning electron microscope for gradual microstructural changes as affected by temperature, time, and moisture content during hot air drying at two drying temperatures: 57 and 70°C. For fresh samples, the average cellular parameter values were as follows: cell area, 20,000 µm2; ferret diameter, 160 µm; perimeter, 600 µm; roundness, 0.76; elongation, 1.45; and compactness, 0.84. During drying, a higher degree of cell shrinkage was observed with cell wall warping and an increase in intercellular space. However, no significant cell wall breakage was observed. The overall reductions in cell area, ferret diameter, and perimeter were about 60, 40, and 30%. The cell roundness and elongation showed overall increments of about 5% and the compactness remained unchanged. Throughout the drying cycle, cellular deformations were mainly influenced by the moisture content. During the initial and intermediate stages of drying, cellular deformations were also positively influenced by the drying temperature and the effect was reversed at the final stages of drying, which provides clues regarding case hardening of the material.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper assesses the capacity to provide semipermeability of the synthetic layer of surface-active phospholipids created to replace the depleted surface amorphous layer of articular cartilage. The surfaces of articular cartilage specimens in normal, delipidized, and relipidized conditions following incubation in dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine and palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine components of the joint lipid mixture were characterized nanoscopically with the atomic force microscope and also imaged as deuterium oxide (D(2)O) diffused transiently through these surfaces in a magnetic resonance imaging enclosure. The MR images were then used to determine the apparent diffusion coefficients in a purpose-built MATLAB(®)-based algorithm. Our results revealed that all surfaces were permeable to D(2)O, but that there was a significant difference in the semipermeability of the surfaces under the different conditions, relative to the apparent diffusion coefficients. Based on the results and observations, it can be concluded that the synthetic lipid that is deposited to replace the depleted SAL of articular cartilage is capable of inducing some level of semipermeability.
Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine 02/2013; · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The concept of non-destructive testing (NDT) of materials and structures is of immense importance in engineering and medicine. Several NDT methods including electromagnetic (EM)-based e.g. X-ray and Infrared; ultrasound; and S-waves have been proposed for medical applications. This paper evaluates the viability of near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, an EM method for rapid non-destructive evaluation of articular cartilage. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that there is a correlation between the NIR spectrum and the physical and mechanical characteristics of articular cartilage such as thickness, stress and stiffness. Intact, visually normal cartilage-on-bone plugs from 2-3yr old bovine patellae were exposed to NIR light from a diffuse reflectance fibre-optic probe and tested mechanically to obtain their thickness, stress, and stiffness. Multivariate statistical analysis-based predictive models relating articular cartilage NIR spectra to these characterising parameters were developed. Our results show that there is a varying degree of correlation between the different parameters and the NIR spectra of the samples with R2 varying between 65 and 93%. We therefore conclude that NIR can be used to determine, nondestructively, the physical and functional characteristics of articular cartilage.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper assesses the capacity of high-frequency ultrasonic waves for detecting changes in the proteoglycan (PG) content of articular cartilage. 26 cartilage-on-bone samples were exposed to ultrasonic waves via an ultrasound transducer at a frequency of 20MHz. Histology and ImageJ processing were conducted to determine the PG content of the specimen. The ratios of the reflected signals from both the surface and the osteochondral junction (OCJ) were determined from the experimental data. The initial results show an inconsistency in the capacity of ultrasound to distinguish samples with severe proteoglycan loss (i.e. >90% PG loss) from the normal intact sample. This lack of clear distinction was also demonstrated for samples with less than 60% depletion, while there is a clear differentiation between the normal intact sample and those with 55-70% PG loss.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The conventional mechanical properties of articular cartilage, such as compressive stiffness, have been demonstrated to be limited in their capacity to distinguish intact (visually normal) from degraded cartilage samples. In this paper, we explore the correlation between a new mechanical parameter, namely the reswelling of articular cartilage following unloading from a given compressive load, and the near infrared (NIR) spectrum. The capacity to distinguish mechanically intact from proteoglycan-depleted tissue relative to the "reswelling" characteristic was first established, and the result was subsequently correlated with the NIR spectral data of the respective tissue samples. To achieve this, normal intact and enzymatically degraded samples were subjected to both NIR probing and mechanical compression based on a load-unload-reswelling protocol. The parameter δ(r), characteristic of the osmotic "reswelling" of the matrix after unloading to a constant small load in the order of the osmotic pressure of cartilage, was obtained for the different sample types. Multivariate statistics was employed to determine the degree of correlation between δ(r) and the NIR absorption spectrum of relevant specimens using Partial Least Squared (PLS) regression. The results show a strong relationship (R(2)=95.89%, p<0.0001) between the spectral data and δ(r). This correlation of δ(r) with NIR spectral data suggests the potential for determining the reswelling characteristics non-destructively. It was also observed that δ(r) values bear a significant relationship with the cartilage matrix integrity, indicated by its proteoglycan content, and can therefore differentiate between normal and artificially degraded proteoglycan-depleted cartilage samples. It is therefore argued that the reswelling of cartilage, which is both biochemical (osmotic) and mechanical (hydrostatic pressure) in origin, could be a strong candidate for characterizing the tissue, especially in regions surrounding focal cartilage defects in joints.
Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials. 12/2012;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The determination of the characteristics of articular cartilage such as thickness, stiffness and swelling, especially in the form that can facilitate real-time decisions and diagnostics is still a matter for research and development. This paper correlates near infrared spectroscopy with mechanically measured cartilage thickness to establish a fast, non-destructive, repeatable and precise protocol for determining this tissue property. Statistical correlation was conducted between the thickness of bovine cartilage specimens (n=97) and regions of their near infrared spectra. Nine regions were established along the full absorption spectrum of each sample and were correlated with the thickness using partial least squares (PLS) regression multivariate analysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) varied between 53 and 93%, with the most predictive region (R(2)=93.1%, p<0.0001) for cartilage thickness lying in the region (wavenumber) 5350-8850cm(-1). Our results demonstrate that the thickness of articular cartilage can be measured spectroscopically using NIR light. This protocol is potentially beneficial to clinical practice and surgical procedures in the treatment of joint disease such as osteoarthritis.
Medical Engineering & Physics 07/2012; · 1.78 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to demonstrate the potential of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for categorizing cartilage degeneration induced in animal models.
Three models of osteoarthritic degeneration were induced in laboratory rats via one of the following methods: (1) menisectomy (MSX); (2) anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT); and (3) intra-articular injection of mono-ido-acetate (1 mg) (MIA), in the right knee joint, with 12 rats per model group. After 8 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and tibial knee joints were collected. A custom-made near-infrared (NIR) probe of diameter 5 mm was placed on the cartilage surface and spectral data were acquired from each specimen in the wave number range 4,000-12,500 cm(-1). Following spectral data acquisition, the specimens were fixed and Safranin-O staining was performed to assess disease severity based on the Mankin scoring system. Using multivariate statistical analysis based on principal component analysis and partial least squares regression, the spectral data were then related to the Mankin scores of the samples tested.
Mild to severe degenerative cartilage changes were observed in the subject animals. The ACLT models showed mild cartilage degeneration, MSX models moderate, and MIA severe cartilage degenerative changes both morphologically and histologically. Our result demonstrates that NIR spectroscopic information is capable of separating the cartilage samples into different groups relative to the severity of degeneration, with NIR correlating significantly with their Mankin score (R(2) = 88.85%).
We conclude that NIR is a viable tool for evaluating articular cartilage health and physical properties such as change in thickness with degeneration.
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 07/2012; 20(11):1367-73. · 4.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early-stage treatments for osteoarthritis are attracting considerable interest as a means to delay, or avoid altogether, the pain and lack of mobility associated with late-stage disease, and the considerable burden that it places on the community. With the development of these treatments comes a need to assess the tissue to which they are applied, both in trialling of new treatments and as an aid to clinical decision making. Here, we measure a range of mechanical indentation, ultrasound and near-infrared spectroscopy parameters in normal and osteoarthritic bovine joints in vitro to describe the role of different physical phenomena in disease progression, using this as a basis to investigate the potential value of the techniques as clinical tools. Based on 72 samples we found that mechanical and ultrasound parameters showed differences between fibrillated tissue, macroscopically normal tissue in osteoarthritic joints, and normal tissue, yet did were unable to differentiate degradation beyond that which was visible to the naked eye. Near-infrared spectroscopy showed a clear progression of degradation across the visibly normal osteoarthritic joint surface and as such, was the only technique considered useful for clinical application.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 01/2012; 57(2):547-59. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper reviews the current state in the application of infrared methods, particularly mid-infrared (mid-IR) and near infrared (NIR), for the evaluation of the structural and functional integrity of articular cartilage. It is noted that while a considerable amount of research has been conducted with respect to tissue characterization using mid-IR, it is almost certain that full-thickness cartilage assessment is not feasible with this method. On the contrary, the relatively more considerable penetration capacity of NIR suggests that it is a suitable candidate for full-thickness cartilage evaluation. Nevertheless, significant research is still required to improve the specificity and clinical applicability of the method if we are going to be able to use it for distinguishing between functional and dysfunctional cartilage.
Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A. 11/2011; 1:892- 898.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A non-destructive, diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy (DR-NIRS) approach is considered as a potential tool for determining the component-level structural properties of articular cartilage. To this end, DR-NIRS was applied in vitro to detect structural changes, using principal component analysis as the statistical basis for characterization. The results show that this technique, particularly with first-derivative pretreatment, can distinguish normal, intact cartilage from enzymatically digested cartilage. Further, this paper establishes that the use of DR-NIRS enables the probing of the full depth of the uncalcified cartilage matrix, potentially allowing the assessment of degenerative changes in joint tissue, independent of the site of initiation of the osteoarthritic process.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 10/2009; 54(18):5579-94. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: With the aim of providing information for modelling joint and limb systems, widely available constitutive hyperelastic laws are evaluated in this paper for their ability to predict the mechanical responses of normal and osteoarthritic articular cartilage. Load-displacement data from mechanical indentation were obtained for normal and osteoarthritic cartilage at 0.1 s(-1) and 0.025 s(-1) and converted to the stress-stretch ratio. The data were then fitted to the Arruda-Boyce, Mooney-Rivlin, neo-Hookean, Ogden, polynomial, and Yeoh hyperelastic laws in the MATLAB environment. Although each of the hyperelastic laws performed satisfactorily at the higher rate of loading, their ability to fit experimental data at the lower loading rate varied considerably. For the preferred models, coefficients were provided for stiff, soft, and average tissues to represent normal and degraded tissue at high and low loading rates. The present authors recommend the use of the Mooney-Rivlin or the Yeoh models for describing both normal and degraded articular cartilage, with the Mooney-Rivlin model providing the best compromise between accuracy and required computational power.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 09/2009; 223(6):643-52. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper is a sequel to previously published findings showing that mechanical indentation alone cannot clearly discriminate between normal and degraded articular cartilage. Consequently, the structural elasticity potential Rc = epsilon r/sigma i, which combines indentation stress sigma i with near-instantaneous rebound epsilon r following unloading, is hypothesized as a potential cartilage assessment parameter, which arguably measures the integrity of the collagen fibre-proteoglycan entrapment system. To establish the validity of our hypothesis, samples of normal intact, artificially degraded, and osteoarthritic bovine cartilage were subjected to quasi-static compression at 0.1 s(-1) and 0.025 s(-1) to 30 per cent strain and then unloaded. A significant reduction in recovery was observed for artificially and naturally degraded samples in the first 5s following unloading (p < 0.01). The structural elasticity potential provided a considerable improvement over the results obtained using the individual indentation and rebound parameters to distinguish between paired normal and artificially degraded samples and indicated a high statistical significance of p < 0.005 when applied to the differentiation of normal and osteoarthritic samples.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H Journal of Engineering in Medicine 02/2009; 223(1):53-62. · 1.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present paper is based on experimental studies of self-lubricated porous sliding bearings with hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) as an additive. The friction coefficients of powder matrix lubricated by (h-BN+oil) were measured at varying loads of 1.05–2.0MPa and sliding speeds of 1.35 and 2.5m/s. The results are discussed in the form of performance characteristics such as the coefficient of friction, bearing temperature, and load-carrying capacity. The micro-particles of the h-BN additive were between 1 and 2μm in diameter. The effect of the PV (pressure–velocity) parameter on the transition time to seizure for porous bush composites impregnated by the lubricant has been studied. It was found that the addition of the micro-particles to the oil decreased the friction coefficient about twice as compared to self-lubricated bearings lubricated only by oil.The main effect of (h-BN micro-particles+oil) in comparison to Mobil DTE-BB lubricant appears to be that the impregnation of h-BN micro-particles persists for a long period of time and the micro-particles are gradually released, being supplied to the contact surfaces. For a manufacturing application, the porous bearings were assembled in a car clutch.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A microscopic layer of surface active phospholipids overlays the articular cartilage of the knee. Its depletion in osteoarthritic joints results in loss of lubrication and load-bearing efficiency. We hypothesize that exposure of articular cartilage to the dominant unsaturated phospholipid component of knee surfactant can regenerate the load-bearing properties of the tissue. This was evaluated by studying the stress-strain and stiffness characteristics of normal intact and lipid-depleted cartilage exposed to lipid-based surfactants for known durations.
Normal intact, lipid-depleted and surfactant-treated bovine articular cartilage specimens were compressed at 0.5mm/min to a maximum strain of 40% and their stress-strain and stiffness data were compared.
The stiffness of lipid-depleted samples increased by 40% on average relative to the normal; after exposure of the same samples to saturated surfactant for one and 24h, the average stiffness decreased by 25% and 62%, respectively from this high value. On the other hand, exposure of delipidized specimens to a mixture of selected unsaturated surfactant species for one and 24h resulted in a reduction of 85% and 90% in the stiffness of the depilidized samples respectively, largely reversing the effect of lipid removal to a level much closer to that of the normal intact cartilage and therefore better than that obtained with incubation in the saturated surfactant.
Lipid loss in articular cartilage results in a consistent increase in stiffness relative to normal tissue stiffness. This consequence of lipid loss can be partially reversed by the reintroduction of surface active phospholipids. The results of this study show that the lipid components of cartilage play an important role in determining the compliance of the loaded tissue.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability to quantify and qualify the progression of joint degeneration is becoming increasingly important in surgery. This paper examines the patterns of relative ultrasound reflection from normal, artificially and naturally degraded cartilage-on-bone, particularly investigating the potential of the ratio of reflection coefficients from the surface and osteochondral junction in distinguishing normal from osteoarthritic tissue. To this end, the reflection coefficients from the articular surface and osteochondral junction of normal cartilage-on-bone samples were calculated and compared to samples after the removal of proteoglycans, disruption of the collagen meshwork, delipidization of the articular surface and mechanical abrasion. Our results show that the large variation across normal and degraded joint samples negates the use of an isolated bone reflection measurement and to a lesser extent, an isolated surface reflection. The relative surface to bone reflections, calculated as a ratio of reflection coefficients, provided a more consistent and statistically significant (p < 0.001) method for distinguishing each type of degradation, especially osteoarthritic degradation, and due to the complementary relationship between surface and bone reflections was found to be an effective method for distinguishing degraded from normal tissue in the osteoarthritic joint, independent of the site of initiation of the osteoarthritic process.
Physics in Medicine and Biology 08/2008; 53(15):4123-35. · 2.70 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipid molecules (PLs) in vivo and graphite, molybdenum disulfide, tungsten disulfide and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) in vitro are good examples of frictionless lubricants. PLs and solid materials have the ability to form multi-bilayer or layered structures similar to lamellate solid. It has been confirmed experimentally that PLs as lamellar lubricants protect the surface of joints against wear while acting as frictionless lubricant. An experimental study has been conducted on the friction properties of h-boron nitride on porous non-full journal bearings. The porous non-full journal bearings were a mixture of 97.5 wt.% Fe and 2.5 wt.% Cu powder, and compressed to a density of 5.9 g/cm(3). The porosity of non-full journal bearings were 15.5 and 27.8 wt.% and were impregnated with vaseline and vaseline+5 wt.% h-BN. Additionally, the two additives SFR NLGI #2 (or SFR 2522) grease and graphite grease were used for comparison to h-BN. The tribological tests were performed on a four-ball machine under load of 49 daN, and a friction tribotester. The above experiment strongly suggested that h-BN has the ability to lubricate under load with very low friction coefficient comparable to phospholipids. Relatively low surface energy and low adhesion between the crystallites are giving the additives low friction coefficient. The results of the experimental studies showed that h-BN as an additive in vaseline possesses friction reducing properties, and excellent anti-wear properties.
Bio Systems 08/2008; 94(3):202-8. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common form of arthritis is a degenerative joint disease, which causes severe long-term pain and physical disability. It is becoming more important to improve diagnosis and understanding of the disease process and subsequently develop new intervention to delay or even reverse the disease progress. Our study was designed to combine two relatively novel treatment techniques, autologous chondrocyte transplantation (ACT) and proposed application of medical remedies based on surface-active phospholipids. To this end we exposed chondrocyte to culture environments with mixtures of culture medium and phospholipid solutions. Following various culture periods, cell survival and well-being were determined by measuring proliferation and assessing morphological features, and comparing these with the behaviour of cells grown in classical which were not mixed with surfactant, i.e., control culture medium. Scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy demonstrate that the cells exposed to mixtures with surfactant were as healthy as those in the control environment with polygonal morphology, while proliferation assay indicated a noticeably higher level of proliferation over similar periods, for cells cultured in media that was mixed with surfactants. Also, the cells in media with unsaturated surfactants responded better than those cultured in mixtures containing saturated surfactant.
Bio Systems 08/2008; 94(3):209-14. · 1.27 Impact Factor