[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important opportunistic pathogen associated with nosocomial and community-acquired infections. A wide repertoire of virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes is present in K. pneumoniae genomes, which can constitute extra challenges in the treatment of infections caused by some strains. K. pneumoniae Kp13 is a multidrug-resistant strain responsible for causing a large nosocomial outbreak in a teaching hospital located in Southern Brazil. Kp13 produces K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC-2) but is unrelated to isolates belonging to ST 258 and ST 11, the main clusters associated with the worldwide dissemination of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae. In this report, we perform a genomic comparison between Kp13 and each of the following three K. pneumoniae genomes: MGH 78578, NTUH-K2044 and 342.
We have completely determined the genome of K. pneumoniae Kp13, which comprises one chromosome (5.3 Mbp) and six plasmids (0.43 Mbp). Several virulence and resistance determinants were identified in strain Kp13. Specifically, we detected genes coding for six beta-lactamases (SHV-12, OXA-9, TEM-1, CTX-M-2, SHV-110 and KPC-2), eight adhesin-related gene clusters, including regions coding for types 1 (fim) and 3 (mrk) fimbrial adhesins. The rmtG plasmidial 16S rRNA methyltransferase gene was also detected, as well as efflux pumps belonging to five different families. Mutations upstream the OmpK35 porin-encoding gene were evidenced, possibly affecting its expression. SNPs analysis relative to the compared strains revealed 141 mutations falling within CDSs related to drug resistance which could also influence the Kp13 lifestyle. Finally, the genetic apparatus for synthesis of the yersiniabactin siderophore was identified within a plasticity region. Chromosomal architectural analysis allowed for the detection of 13 regions of difference in Kp13 relative to the compared strains.
Our results indicate that the plasticity occurring at many hierarchical levels (from whole genomic segments to individual nucleotide bases) may play a role on the lifestyle of K. pneumoniae Kp13 and underlie the importance of whole-genome sequencing to study bacterial pathogens. The general chromosomal structure was somewhat conserved among the compared bacteria, and recombination events with consequent gain/loss of genomic segments appears to be driving the evolution of these strains.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trypanosoma cruzi affects millions of people worldwide. Clinical variability of Chagas disease can be due to the genetic variability of this parasite, requiring further genome studies. Here we report the genome sequence of the T. cruzi Dm28c clone (TcI), a strain related to the sylvatic cycle of the parasite.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The draft genome sequence of the yeast Spathaspora arborariae UFMG-HM19.1A(T) (CBS 11463 = NRRL Y-48658) is presented here. The sequenced genome size is 12.7 Mb, consisting of 41 scaffolds containing a total of 5,625 predicted open reading frames, including many genes encoding enzymes and transporters involved in d-xylose fermentation.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Candidatus Magnetoglobus multicellularis (Ca. M. multicellularis) is a member of a group of uncultured magnetotactic prokaryotes that possesses a unique multicellular morphology. To better understand this organism's physiology, we used a genomic approach through pyrosequencing. Genomic data analysis corroborates previous structural studies and reveals the proteins that are likely involved in multicellular morphogenesis of this microorganism. Interestingly, some detected protein sequences that might be involved in cell adhesion are homologues to phylogenetically unrelated filamentous multicellular bacteria proteins, suggesting their contribution in the early development of multicellular organization in Bacteria. Genes related to the behavior of Ca. M. multicellularis (chemo-, photo- and magnetotaxis) and its metabolic capabilities were analyzed. On the basis of the genomic-physiologic information, enrichment media were tested. One medium supported chemoorganoheterotrophic growth of Ca. M. multicellularis and allowed the microorganisms to maintain their multicellular morphology and cell cycle, confirming for the first time that the entire life cycle of the MMP occurs in a multicellular form. Because Ca. M. multicellularis has a unique multicellular life style, its cultivation is an important achievement for further studies regarding the multicellular evolution in prokaryotes.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 November 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.203.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The mangroves are among the most productive and biologically important environments. The possible presence of cellulolytic enzymes and microorganisms useful for biomass degradation as well as taxonomic and functional aspects of two Brazilian mangroves were evaluated using cultivation and metagenomic approaches. From a total of 296 microorganisms with visual differences in colony morphology and growth (including bacteria, yeast and filamentous fungus), 179 (60.5%) and 117 (39.5%) were isolated from the Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Bahia (BA) samples, respectively. RJ metagenome showed the higher number of microbial isolates, which is consistent with its most conserved state and higher diversity. The metagenomic sequencing data showed similar predominant bacterial phyla in the BA and RJ mangroves with an abundance of Proteobacteria (57.8% and 44.6%), Firmicutes (11% and 12.3%) and Actinobacteria (8.4% and 7.5%). A higher number of enzymes involved in the degradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds were found in the BA mangrove. Specific sequences involved in the cellulolytic degradation, belonging to cellulases, hemicellulases, carbohydrate binding domains, dockerins and cohesins were identified, and it was possible to isolate cultivable fungi and bacteria related to biomass decomposition and with potential applications for the production of biofuels. These results showed that the mangroves possess all fundamental molecular tools required for building the cellulosome, which is required for the efficient degradation of cellulose material and sugar release.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The laminin (LM)-database, hosted at http://www.lm.lncc.br, was published in the NAR database 2011 edition. It was the first database that provided comprehensive information concerning a non-collagenous family of extracellular matrix proteins, the LMs. In its first version, this database contained a large amount of information concerning LMs related to health and disease, with particular emphasis on the haemopoietic system. Users can easily access several tabs for LMs and LM-related molecules, as well as LM nomenclatures and direct links to PubMed.The LM-database version 2.0 integrates data from several publications to achieve a more comprehensive knowledge of LMs in health and disease. The novel features include the addition of two new tabs, 'Neuromuscular Disorders' and 'miRNA--LM Relationship'. More specifically, in this updated version, an expanding set of data has been displayed concerning the role of LMs in neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as the putative involvement of microRNAs. Given the importance of LMs in several biological processes, such as cell adhesion, proliferation, differentiation, migration and cell death, this upgraded version expands for users a panoply of information, regarding complex molecular circuitries that involve LMs in health and disease, including neuromuscular and neurodegenerative disorders.
Nucleic Acids Research 10/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background
The thymic epithelium is the major microenvironmental component of the thymus, the primary lymphoid organ responsible for the generation of T lymphocytes. Thymic epithelial cells (TEC) control intrathymic T cell differentiation by means of distinct types of interactions. TEC constitutively produce chemokines and extracellular matrix ligands (such as laminin and fibronectin) and express corresponding receptors, which allow thymocytes to migrate in a very ordered fashion. We previously showed that laminin mediates TEC/thymocyte interactions in both mice and humans. More recently, we used RNAi technology to knock-down the ITGA5 gene (which encodes CD49e, the integrin α-chain subunit of the fibronectin receptor VLA-5) in cultured human TEC. Using a similar strategy, herein we knocked-down the ITGA6 gene, which encodes CD49f, the α-chain of two integrin-type laminin receptors, namely VLA-6 (α6β1) and α6β4.
We first confirmed that RNAi-induced knock-down of the ITGA6 gene was successful, at both transcription and translational levels, with a significant decrease in the membrane expression of CD49f, apart from CD49b, CD49c and CD49d, ascertained by cytofluorometry on living TEC. We also demonstrated that such knock-down promotes a decrease in cell adhesion to laminin. Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that gene expression of other integrin α-chains were concomitantly down-regulated, particularly those which form other laminin receptors, including ITGA1, ITGA2 and ITGA7. Interestingly enough, LAMA1 gene expression (whose corresponding protein chain is part of laminin-111) was largely increased in ITGA6 knocked-down TEC cultures. Lastly, the network complexity of gene expression under ITGA6 influence is much broader, since we found that other cell migration-related genes, namely those coding for various chemokines, are also modulated when IGTA6 is knocked-down.
The data presented herein clearly show that down regulation of ITGA6 gene in the human thymic epithelium triggers a complex cascade of effects upon the expression levels of several other cell migration-related genes, including extracellular matrix and chemokine ligands and receptors. Taken together, these data unravel the concept that the expression of genes involved in controlling of thymocyte migration by the thymic microenvironment should be regarded as complex networks, so that a defect in the expression of one single gene may reflect in an amplified cascade with functional consequences for TEC adhesion onto the natural ligand and potential consequences upon the normal patterns of TEC/thymocyte interactions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at www.labinfo.lncc.br/index.php/anopheles-darlingi.
Nucleic Acids Research 06/2013; · 8.28 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) represent a group of diverse motile prokaryotes that biomineralize magnetosomes, the organelles responsible for magnetotaxis. Magnetosomes consist of intracellular, membrane-bounded, tens-of-nanometre-sized crystals of the magnetic minerals magnetite (Fe3 O4 ) or greigite (Fe3 S4 ) and are usually organized as a chain within the cell acting like a compass needle. Most information regarding the biomineralization processes involved in magnetosome formation comes from studies involving Alphaproteobacteria species which biomineralize cuboctahedral and elongated prismatic crystals of magnetite. Many magnetosome genes, the mam genes, identified in these organisms are conserved in all known MTB. Here we present a comparative genomic analysis of magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria that synthesize bullet-shaped crystals of magnetite and/or greigite. We show that in addition to mam genes, there is a conserved set of genes, designated mad genes, specific to the magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria, some also being present in Candidatus Magnetobacterium bavaricum of the Nitrospirae phylum, but absent in the magnetotactic Alphaproteobacteria. Our results suggest that the number of genes associated with magnetotaxis in magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria is larger than previously thought. We also demonstrate that the minimum set of mam genes necessary for magnetosome formation in Magnetospirillum is also conserved in magnetite-producing, magnetotactic Deltaproteobacteria. Some putative novel functions of mad genes are discussed.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), the transfer of genetic material other than by descent, is thought to have played significant roles in the evolution and distribution of genes in prokaryotes. These include those responsible for the ability of motile, aquatic magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) to align and swim along magnetic field lines and the biomineralization of magnetosomes that are responsible for this behaviour. There is some genomic evidence that HGT might be responsible for the distribution of magnetosome genes in different phylogenetic groups of bacteria. For example, in the genomes of a number of MTB, magnetosome genes are present as clusters within a larger structure known as the magnetosome genomic island surrounded by mobile elements such as insertion sequences and transposases as well as tRNA genes. Despite this, there is no strong direct proof of HGT between these organisms. Here we show that a phylogenetic tree based on magnetosome protein amino acid sequences from a number of MTB was congruent with the tree based on the organisms' 16S rRNA gene sequences. This shows that evolution and divergence of these proteins and the 16S rRNA gene occurred similarly. This suggests that magnetotaxis originated monophyletically in the Proteobacteria phylum and implies that the common ancestor of all Proteobacteria was magnetotactic.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endosymbiont-bearing trypanosomatids have been considered excellent models for the study of cell evolution because the host protozoan co-evolves with an intracellular bacterium in a mutualistic relationship. Such protozoa inhabit a single invertebrate host during their entire life cycle and exhibit special characteristics that group them in a particular phylogenetic cluster of the Trypanosomatidae family, thus classified as monoxenics. In an effort to better understand such symbiotic association, we used DNA pyrosequencing and a reference-guided assembly to generate reads that predicted 16,960 and 12,162 open reading frames (ORFs) in two symbiont-bearing trypanosomatids, Angomonas deanei (previously named as Crithidia deanei) and Strigomonas culicis (first known as Blastocrithidia culicis), respectively. Identification of each ORF was based primarily on TriTrypDB using tblastn, and each ORF was confirmed by employing getorf from EMBOSS and Newbler 2.6 when necessary. The monoxenic organisms revealed conserved housekeeping functions when compared to other trypanosomatids, especially compared with Leishmania major. However, major differences were found in ORFs corresponding to the cytoskeleton, the kinetoplast, and the paraflagellar structure. The monoxenic organisms also contain a large number of genes for cytosolic calpain-like and surface gp63 metalloproteases and a reduced number of compartmentalized cysteine proteases in comparison to other TriTryp organisms, reflecting adaptations to the presence of the symbiont. The assembled bacterial endosymbiont sequences exhibit a high A+T content with a total of 787 and 769 ORFs for the Angomonas deanei and Strigomonas culicis endosymbionts, respectively, and indicate that these organisms hold a common ancestor related to the Alcaligenaceae family. Importantly, both symbionts contain enzymes that complement essential host cell biosynthetic pathways, such as those for amino acid, lipid and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. These findings increase our understanding of the intricate symbiotic relationship between the bacterium and the trypanosomatid host and provide clues to better understand eukaryotic cell evolution.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(4):e60209. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Some non-pathogenic trypanosomatids maintain a mutualistic relationship with a betaproteobacterium of the Alcaligenaceae family. Intensive nutritional exchanges have been reported between the two partners, indicating that these protozoa are excellent biological models to study metabolic co-evolution. We previously sequenced and herein investigate the entire genomes of five trypanosomatids which harbor a symbiotic bacterium (SHTs for Symbiont-Haboring Trypanosomatids) and the respective bacteria (TPEs for Trypanosomatid Proteobacterial Endosymbiont), as well as two trypanosomatids without symbionts (RTs for Regular Trypanosomatids), for the presence of genes of the classical pathways for vitamin biosynthesis. Our data show that genes for the biosynthetic pathways of thiamine, biotin, and nicotinic acid are absent from all trypanosomatid genomes. This is in agreement with the absolute growth requirement for these vitamins in all protozoa of the family. Also absent from the genomes of RTs are the genes for the synthesis of pantothenic acid, folic acid, riboflavin, and vitamin B6. This is also in agreement with the available data showing that RTs are auxotrophic for these essential vitamins. On the other hand, SHTs are autotrophic for such vitamins. Indeed, all the genes of the corresponding biosynthetic pathways were identified, most of them in the symbiont genomes, while a few genes, mostly of eukaryotic origin, were found in the host genomes. The only exceptions to the latter are: the gene coding for the enzyme ketopantoate reductase (EC:18.104.22.168) which is related instead to the Firmicutes bacteria; and two other genes, one involved in the salvage pathway of pantothenic acid and the other in the synthesis of ubiquinone, that are related to Gammaproteobacteria. Their presence in trypanosomatids may result from lateral gene transfer. Taken together, our results reinforce the idea that the low nutritional requirement of SHTs is associated with the presence of the symbiotic bacterium, which contains most genes for vitamin production.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e79786. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soil conservation practices are critical for agricultural sustainability, and in this study the shotgun sequencing approach was used to investigate the effects on soil biodiversity of different soil- and crop-management practices in a 13-year field trial in southern Brazil. Treatments consisted of conventional tillage (CT) with plowing and disking, or no-tillage (NT) with direct sowing into the residues of previous crops, in a crop succession [soybean (summer)/wheat (winter)] or rotation [soybean/maize (summer)/wheat/lupine/oat (winter)]. About 1 million reads per treatment revealed very high levels of diversity. The majority of the sequences were attributed to the Bacteria (54%), and 0.3% and 0.2% fitted into Archaea and Eucarya domains, respectively; 46% showed no similarity with any known sequences. Major differences were associated with tillage and, to a lesser extent, with crop management. Statistically significant higher abundances with CT encompassed microorganisms associated with residue decomposition, carbon and nitrogen cycling, and xenobiosis. Eucarya were also more abundant with CT, possibly related to higher tolerance of environmental stresses. In contrast, NT showed higher abundances particularly of nitrogen-fixing Rhizobiales and Archaea that inhabit environments rich in organic matter.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Biofilm is considered an important virulence factor in nosocomial infections. Herein, we report the complete genome sequence of a variant of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, strain BMB9393, which is highly disseminated in Brazil. This strain belongs to the lineage ST239 and displays increased ability to accumulate ica-independent biofilm and to invade human epithelial cells.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899 and Rhizobium sp. PRF 81 are alpha-Proteobacteria that establish nitrogen-fixing symbioses with a range of legume hosts. These strains are broadly used in commercial inoculants for application to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in South America and Africa. Both strains display intrinsic resistance to several abiotic stressful conditions such as low soil pH and high temperatures, which are common in tropical environments, and to several antimicrobials, including pesticides. The genetic determinants of these interesting characteristics remain largely unknown. RESULTS: Genome sequencing revealed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 share a highly-conserved symbiotic plasmid (pSym) that is present also in Rhizobium leucaenae CFN 299, a rhizobium displaying a similar host range. This pSym seems to have arisen by a co-integration event between two replicons. Remarkably, three distinct nodA genes were found in the pSym, a characteristic that may contribute to the broad host range of these rhizobia. Genes for biosynthesis and modulation of plant-hormone levels were also identified in the pSym. Analysis of genes involved in stress response showed that CIAT 899 and PRF 81 are well equipped to cope with low pH, high temperatures and also with oxidative and osmotic stresses. Interestingly, the genomes of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 had large numbers of genes encoding drug-efflux systems, which may explain their high resistance to antimicrobials. Genome analysis also revealed a wide array of traits that may allow these strains to be successful rhizosphere colonizers, including surface polysaccharides, uptake transporters and catabolic enzymes for nutrients, diverse iron-acquisition systems, cell wall-degrading enzymes, type I and IV pili, and novel T1SS and T5SS secreted adhesins. CONCLUSIONS: Availability of the complete genome sequences of CIAT 899 and PRF 81 may be exploited in further efforts to understand the interaction of tropical rhizobia with common bean and other legume hosts.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genus Burkholderia represents a challenge to the fields of taxonomy and phylogeny and, especially, to the understanding of the contrasting roles as either opportunistic pathogens or bacteria with biotechnological potential. Few genomes of nonpathogenic strains, especially of diazotrophic symbiotic bacteria, have been sequenced to improve understanding of the genus. Here, we contribute with the complete genome sequence of Burkholderia phenoliruptrix strain BR3459a (CLA1), an effective diazotrophic symbiont of the leguminous tree Mimosa flocculosa Burkart, which is endemic to South America.
Journal of bacteriology 12/2012; 194(23):6675-6. · 3.94 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: A large number of genome-scale metabolic networks is now available for many organisms, mostly bacteria. Previous works on minimal gene sets, when analysing host-dependent bacteria, found small common sets of metabolic genes. When such analyses are restricted to bacteria with similar lifestyles, larger portions of metabolism are expected to be shared and their composition is worth investigating. Here we report a comparative analysis of the small molecule metabolism of symbiotic bacteria, exploring common and variable portions as well as the contribution of different lifestyle groups to the reduction of a common set of metabolic capabilities. RESULTS: We found no reaction shared by all the bacteria analysed. Disregarding those with the smallest genomes, we still do not find a reaction core, however we did find a core of biochemical capabilities. While obligate intracellular symbionts have no core of reactions within their group, extracellular and cell-associated symbionts do have a small core composed of disconnected fragments. In agreement with previous findings in Escherichia coli, their cores are enriched in biosynthetic processes whereas the variable metabolisms have similar ratios of biosynthetic and degradation reactions. Conversely, the variable metabolism of obligate intracellular symbionts is enriched in anabolism. CONCLUSION: Even when removing the symbionts with the most reduced genomes, there is no core of reactions common to the analysed symbiotic bacteria. The main reason is the very high specialisation of obligate intracellular symbionts, however, host-dependence alone is not an explanation for such absence. The composition of the metabolism of cell-associated and extracellular bacteria shows that while they have similar needs in terms of the building blocks of their cells, they have to adapt to very distinct environments. On the other hand, in obligate intracellular bacteria, catabolism has largely disappeared, whereas synthetic routes appear to have been selected for depending on the nature of the symbiosis. As more genomes are added, we expect, based on our simulations, that the core of cell-associated and extracellular bacteria continues to diminish, converging to approximately 60 reactions.