Darrell R Schroeder

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Рочестер, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (317)1482.88 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Despite the significant decline in smoking rates in the USA over the last 50 years, 42 million Americans continue to smoke. Although the combination of behavioural counselling with FDA-approved medications offers the best evidence-based treatment approach, 12-month relapse rates remain at >60%. Both healthcare providers and patients are searching for alternative treatment options. Most acupuncture trials have yielded poor results for smoking cessation; however, most trials have not used an intense treatment protocol and maintained treatment for at least 12 weeks. We designed a pilot study to address these methodological problems. Twenty-eight smokers were recruited to attend two 1 h acupuncture sessions weekly for 12 weeks. Primary endpoints included completion rate, acceptability of the protocol and side effects. Secondary endpoints included carbon monoxide (CO)-confirmed, 7-day point prevalence quit rates at 12 weeks and 26 weeks. Sixteen of the 28 patients enrolled (57%) completed 12 weeks of treatment. Of the 17 patients who completed the end-of-study questionnaire, 94% (16/17) rated the programme as helpful, and 82% noted they would recommend it to friends for smoking cessation. Three of the 28 who initially enrolled in the study were confirmed abstinent at 12 weeks (10.7%); one of the 28 (3.6%) was abstinent at 26 weeks. A larger study with a slightly less rigorous and more acceptable treatment protocol is feasible and should be considered. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
    Acupuncture in Medicine 06/2015; DOI:10.1136/acupmed-2015-010794 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to identify patient and procedural characteristics associated with postoperative respiratory depression or sedation requiring naloxone intervention. We identified patients who received naloxone to reverse opioid-induced respiratory depression or sedation within 48 hours after discharge from anesthetic care (transfer from the postanesthesia care unit or transfer from the operating room to postoperative areas) between July 1, 2008, and June 30, 2010. Patients were matched to 2 control subjects based on age, sex, and exact type of procedure performed during the same year. A chart review was performed to identify patient, anesthetic, and surgical factors that may be associated with risk for intervention requiring naloxone. In addition, we identified all patients who developed adverse respiratory events (hypoventilation, apnea, oxyhemoglobin desaturation, pain/sedation mismatch) during phase 1 anesthesia recovery. We performed conditional logistic regression taking into account the 1:2 matched set case-control study design to assess patient and procedural characteristics associated with naloxone use. We identified 134 naloxone administrations, 58% within 12 hours of discharge from anesthesia care, with an incidence of 1.6 per 1000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.9) anesthetics. The presence of obstructive sleep apnea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.45; 95% CI, 1.27-4.66; P = 0.008) and diagnosis of an adverse respiratory event in the postanesthesia recovery room (OR = 5.11; 95% CI, 2.32-11.27; P < 0.001) were associated with an increased risk for requiring naloxone to treat respiratory depression or sedation after discharge from anesthesia care. After discharge from anesthesia care, patients administered naloxone used a greater median dose of opioids (10 [interquartile range, 0-47.1] vs 5 [0-24.8] IV morphine equivalents, P = 0.020) and more medications with sedating side effects (n = 41 [31%] vs 24 [9%]; P < 0.001). Obstructive sleep apnea and adverse respiratory events in the recovery room are harbingers of increased risk for respiratory depression or sedation requiring naloxone after discharge from anesthesia care. Also, patients administered naloxone received more opioids and other sedating medications after discharge from anesthetic care. Our findings suggest that these patients may benefit from more careful monitoring after being discharged from anesthesia care.
    Anesthesia and analgesia 05/2015; DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000792 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) of 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine is a noninvasive marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism. Fast metabolism (i.e., a high NMR) is associated with lower cigarette smoking abstinence rates using transdermal nicotine replacement. We evaluated whether the NMR can be used to predict self-reported nicotine lozenge use and tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco users treated for tobacco dependence. This was a secondary analysis of data from one arm of a large trial. Participants received quitting support materials and 4-mg nicotine lozenges by mail plus three coaching phone calls. Saliva kits were mailed for collection of saliva samples, which were analyzed for cotinine and 3'-hydroxycotinine. Self-reported tobacco and lozenge use were assessed at 3 months. Analyses were performed using Spearman rank correlation and logistic regression. Of the 160 saliva collection kits mailed, 152 were returned. The NMR was not significantly correlated with the baseline amount of smokeless tobacco used, the number of years of tobacco use, or the level of tobacco dependence as measured by the Severson Scale of Tobacco Dependence. The NMR was positively correlated with lozenge use (r = 0.21, p = .015), but it did not predict self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence at 3 months. Fast metabolizers may need to self-administer more nicotine replacement in the form of nicotine lozenges to achieve the same clinical response achieved by slower metabolizers using fewer lozenges. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Nicotine & Tobacco Research 05/2015; DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntv102 · 2.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our anesthetic practice was hindered by inadequate postanesthesia care unit space resulting in operating room inefficiencies. In response, an anesthetic protocol designed to reduce the duration of postanesthesia stay by decreasing residual anesthetic sedation and postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) was introduced. Here the impact of this practice change is analyzed. The protocol encouraged desflurane use instead of isoflurane, triple antiemetic prophylaxis, and discouraged midazolam. Records of patients undergoing general anesthesia from calendar-matched epochs were reviewed. Epoch I included a 6-month period prior to implementation of the practice change (October 1, 2009, to March 31, 2010) and Epoch II included 6 months following the practice change (October 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011). General anesthesia was administered to 2,936 and 3,137 patients during Epochs I and II, respectively. Midazolam decreased from 57.4% to 24.0%, isoflurane from 50.8% to 5.7%, desflurane increased from 25.6% to 77.0%, and antiemetic prophylaxis from 6.5% to 50.8%. Median [IQR] recovery time decreased from 72 [50, 102] to 62 [44, 90] minutes, P <0.001. Supplemental analyses found antiemetic prophylaxis was associated with PONV reduction (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.38 -0.58, P < 0.001). When compared to isoflurane, desflurane was associated with a decreased rate of respiratory depression (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.93, P = 0.013). Patients administered midazolam trended towards higher rate of respiratory depression (OR = 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.60, P = 0.050). Introduction of an anesthetic protocol that was designed to attenuate adverse anesthetic effects was associated with a reduction of anesthetic recovery time.
    BMC Anesthesiology 04/2015; 15(1):54. DOI:10.1186/s12871-015-0040-x · 1.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hookah use has gained recent popularity among U.S. youth. The current study describes the characteristics and correlates associated with hookah use in late adolescent and young adult US Air Force (USAF) recruits. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional questionnaire of USAF personnel in Technical Training School at Joint Base San Antonio (N=10,997). Response rate was 78%. Logistic regression was used to analyze the associations between hookah use, demographic variables, other tobacco and nicotine containing product (TNCP) use, and the social environment. The prevalence of ever hookah use was 28%; at least monthly hookah use was 10%. Increased hookah use was positively associated with Hispanic ethnicity (OR [odds ratio] 1.52; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.85), cigarette smoking (OR 4.05; CI: 3.41, 4.82) and smokeless tobacco use (OR 1.35; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.71). Hookah use was negatively associated with age (OR 0.84; 95% 0.71 to 1.00), living as married (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.40-0.72), African American (OR 0.53; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.69) and ≥4-year degree (OR 0.54; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82). Hookah use was highest among recruits who "many or almost all" of their friends smoked cigarettes (OR 2.43; 95% CI: 1.80, 3.30) and for those who reported willingness to try a tobacco product that claims to be safer than cigarettes (OR 3.16; 95% CI: 2.64, 3.77). Hookah use among military recruits is similar to the civilian population. A willingness to try TNCPs claiming to be safer than cigarettes may influence hookah use. Public health campaigns disseminating accurate information about hookah health risks may be needed to reduce hookah use among youth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive behaviors 03/2015; 47:5-10. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.03.012 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Patients with polycythemia vera (PV) have historically been considered to be at high risk for perioperative hemorrhagic and thromboembolic complications. However, no recent studies have compared these outcomes between treated PV patients and patients without PV undergoing similar procedures.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Patients with PV who underwent surgery with anesthesia from June 1, 2006, to May 31, 2011, were randomly matched (sex, age, type of surgical procedure, surgical year) at a ratio of 1:4 with control patients without PV. Conditional logistic regression analysis adjusting for surgical duration, preoperative hemoglobin, platelet count, and cardiovascular disease was used to assess the association between PV and blood product transfusions, thromboembolism, and other major cardiovascular and pulmonary complications.RESULTSFifty-six PV patients who underwent 79 surgeries were matched with 312 controls. During hospitalization, 35 (44.3%) and 82 (25.9%) PV and control patients, respectively, were transfused with blood products. PV patients were at increased risk for transfusion intraoperatively (odds ratio [OR], 4.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.79-10.57; p = 0.001) and during hospitalization (OR, 4.35; 95% CI, 1.84-10.31; p < 0.001). The likelihood of thromboembolic complications and/or other major complications did not differ between the two study groups (thromboembolic—OR 1.53, 95% CI 0.39-6.02, p = 0.540; other major complications—OR 2.15, 95% CI 0.93-4.96, p = 0.073).CONCLUSIONS Medically managed PV patients had an increased likelihood of receiving blood products perioperatively. Given the low number of observed thromboembolic events, we cannot make definitive conclusions regarding the association between PV and thromboembolism.
    Transfusion 02/2015; 55(5). DOI:10.1111/trf.13006 · 3.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The benefit of routinely measuring autoimmune biomarkers to evaluate patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) remains debated outside specific contexts such as connective tissue disease (CTD). This study aimed at evaluating the influence of biomarkers on outcome on patients with ILD in a case-control study at a tertiary referral center. We hypothesized that patients with positive autoimmune biomarkers have increased odds of developing ILD even in the absence of CTD. We reviewed the medical records of 3573 patients seen at the ILD clinic in Mayo Clinic Rochester between September 2001 and September 2006. We assessed their clinical course through June 25, 2013. We included patients with patterns of ILD most often associated with CTD (n = 1256) while excluding patients with other known causes of ILD. Controls (n = 2317) included cases seen at the ILD clinic without evidence of ILD. We identified 930 (26%) cases of ILD alone, 124 (3%) CTD alone, 326 (9%) ILD combined with CTD, and 2193 (61%) with no ILD or CTD. Positive antinuclear antibodies (ANA), rheumatoid factor and aldolase were associated with ILD. After adjustment for age, gender, race, smoking history and CTD, ANA remained an independent risk factor for ILD (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.33-2.17). Among patients with ILD, the presence of CTD but not biomarker alone was associated with a better survival. In this study, the presence of positive biomarkers was associated with increased odds of ILD, even in the absence of overt CTD, but was not associated with a better outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Respiratory Medicine 01/2015; 109(3). DOI:10.1016/j.rmed.2015.01.011 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the goal of reducing exposure to secondhand smoke, the state of Minnesota (MN), enacted a smoke-free law (i.e., Freedom to Breathe Act) in all workplaces, restaurants, and bars in 2007. This retrospective cohort study analyzes emergency department (ED) visits in Olmsted County, MN, for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma over a five-year period to assess changes after enactment of the smoke-free law. We calculated the rates of ED visits in Olmsted County, MN, with a primary diagnosis of COPD and asthma in the five-year period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2009. Analyses were performed using segmented Poisson regression to assess whether ED visit rates declined following enactment of the smoke free law after adjusting for potential underlying temporal trends in ED visit rates during this time period. Using segmented Poisson regression analyses, a significant reduction was detected in asthma-related ED visits (RR 0.814, p < 0.001) but not for COPD-related ED visits following the enactment of the smoke-free law. The reduction in asthma related ED visits was observed in both adults (RR 0.840, p = 0.015) and children (RR 0.751, p = 0.015). In Olmsted County, MN, asthma-related ED visits declined significantly after enactment of a smoke-free law. These results add to the body of literature supporting community health benefits of smoke-free policies in public environments and their potential to reduce health care costs.
    BMC Pulmonary Medicine 01/2015; 15(1):6. DOI:10.1186/1471-2466-15-6 · 2.49 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in pediatric outpatient settings; however, efforts to decrease inappropriate use have largely focused on inpatients. We obtained baseline metrics to identify conditions that may benefit from establishment of outpatient antimicrobial stewardship interventions (ASP). We evaluated rates and appropriateness of antibiotic prescribing for children with acute otitis media (AOM), community acquired pneumonia (CAP), and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) in ambulatory settings within a large healthcare system in the US Midwest. We retrospectively reviewed 77,821 visits and associated diagnostic codes for children less than 17 years seen in ambulatory settings within our health system from August 1, 2009 to July 31, 2010. We measured rates of antibiotic prescribing by location, provider type, patient age, and diagnosis, and assessed concordance with treatment guidelines for AOM, CAP, and SSTI. AOM, CAP, and SSTI comprised about 1/3 of all infections in the study population. Antibiotics were prescribed in 14,543 (18.7%) visits. Antibiotic prescribing rates were 1.1 to 1.2 times higher among Emergency Room (ER) providers compared to Pediatricians and Family Physicians. Antibiotics prescribed for AOM and SSTI were concordant with guidelines in approximately 97% of cases. In contrast, 47% of antibiotics prescribed for treatment of CAP in children < 5 years old were macrolides, which are not recommended first line therapy for CAP in this age group. Antibiotic prescribing for pediatric outpatients within our health system is not guideline-concordant for treatment of CAP.
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    Mark M Smith, Steven H Rose, Darrell R Schroeder, Timothy R Long
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    ABSTRACT: Increasing the diversity of the United States (US) physician workforce to better represent the general population has received considerable attention. The purpose of this study was to compare medical student race data to that of the US general population. We hypothesized that race demographics of medical school matriculants would reflect that of the general population. Published race data from the United States Census Bureau (USCB) 2010 census and the 2011 Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) allopathic medical school application and enrollment by race and ethnicity survey were analyzed and compared. Race data of enrolled medical students was compared to race data of the general population within geographic regions and subregions. Additionally, race data of medical school applicants and matriculants were compared to race data of the overall general population. Race distribution within US medical schools was significantly different than race distribution for the overall, regional, and subregional populations of the US (P<0.001). Additionally, the overall race distribution of medical school applicants differed significantly to the race distribution of the general population (P<0.001). This study demonstrated that race demographics of US medical school applicants and matriculants are significantly different from that of the general population, and may be resultant of societal quandaries present early in formal education. Initiatives targeting underrepresented minorities at an early stage to enhance health care career interest and provide academic support and mentorship will be required to address the racial disparity that exists in US medical schools and ultimately the physician workforce.
    01/2015; 6:367-72. DOI:10.2147/AMEP.S82645
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    ABSTRACT: Orientation is one of the most stressful times in a registered nurse's career. Little information is available regarding the efficacy of stress management approaches among new nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine outcomes of the implementation of a brief Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program within a nurse orientation program. In this randomized controlled pilot study, self-reported measures of stress, mindfulness, anxiety, and resilience were measured at baseline and 12 weeks following the intervention. For each group, the mean change from baseline to week 12 was evaluated using the paired t test. The change from baseline was compared between groups using the 2-sample t test. Feasibility of integrating the SMART program into the nurse orientation program was also analyzed. Of the 55 participants enrolled, 40 (73%) completed the study. Mindfulness and resilience scores improved in the intervention group and declined in the control group, while stress and anxiety scores decreased in the intervention group and increased in the control group. The between-group change in each outcome, however, was not statistically significant. Integrating the SMART program within the nurse orientation program is feasible. While changes between groups were not significant, trends in the results indicate that the program has the potential for efficacy. Future research with larger numbers is indicated with a revised version of the program to increase its effect size.
    Ochsner Journal 01/2015; 15(1):38-44.
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence that exposure of developing brains in animals, including nonhuman primates, to commonly-utilized anesthetic agents may cause adverse effects on cognition and behavior. In this paper, we summarize our methodology for a population-based, propensity-matched study to evaluate possible anesthesia-related sequelae in preschool children when evaluated in elementary or high school. A cohort of all children born in Olmsted County, Minnesota between the years 1994-2007 who are currently local residents has been identified. Existing medical records are being used to identify all episodes of exposure to general anesthesia prior to the age of 3 years (i.e., prior to their 3rd birthday). Children with multiple, single, and no anesthesia exposure are sampled for testing between the ages of 8-12 years or 15-19 years during the period 2012-2016. To match children in different exposure groups as closely as possible, sampling is guided by propensity-matching for the likelihood of receiving anesthesia. Selected children are invited to participate in a single 4-hour session of neuropsychological testing, including the National Center for Toxicological Research-Operant Test Battery, which has been used to study anesthetic neurotoxicity in nonhuman primates. The results of this testing will be compared among children with different anesthetic exposure histories. The expected products of this research will be a detailed phenotype of possible anesthetic-associated neurotoxicity in humans, utilizing a robust patient database and neuropsychological testing battery, and the first comparison of effects of anesthetic exposure in children and nonhuman primates performing nearly identical behavioral tasks.
    Contemporary Clinical Trials 12/2014; 41. DOI:10.1016/j.cct.2014.12.020 · 1.99 Impact Factor
  • Juraj Sprung, Darrell R. Schroeder, Tom G. Hansen, David O. Warner
    Pediatric Anesthesia 12/2014; 24(12). DOI:10.1111/pan.12536 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fall prevention has emerged as a national quality metric, a focus for The Joint Commission, because falls after orthopedic surgery can result in serious injury. In this study, we examined patient characteristics and effects of fall-prevention strategies on the incidence of postoperative falls in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 09/2014; 119(5). DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000438 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Nicotine is a known analgesic. Our primary aim was to test the hypothesis that intranasal nicotine administered intraoperatively reduces the need for postoperative opioids. The secondary outcomes included evaluation of both postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting (PONV). Material and Methods Nonsmoking female patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric operations were randomized to receive either 3 mg intranasal nicotine (N = 42) or placebo spray (N = 47) at the conclusion of surgery. Postoperative opioid use converted to intravenous morphine equivalents (iv MEQ) and PONV rates were recorded during both the recovery room postanesthesia care unit (PACU) stay and the first 24 postoperative hours. All patients received multimodal antiemetic prophylaxis. Results Total iv MEQ were not significantly reduced during the PACU stay in patients receiving nicotine (median [interquartile range (IQR)], 5.3 [0, 10.0] mg for nicotine vs. 5.2 [0, 12.7] mg for placebo, one-tailed P = 0.414) or for the first 24 h following PACU discharge (39.6 [20.0, 52.5] mg for nicotine vs. 32.7 [20.3, 51.3] mg for placebo, one-tailed P = 0.752). For the combined period (PACU + 24-h post-PACU discharge), iv MEQ were 45.8 [27.0, 58.6] mg for nicotine and 39.4 [23.5, 60.0] mg for placebo, one-tailed P = 0.801. Compared to placebo, a higher percentage of patients administered nicotine received antiemetics in the PACU (57.1 vs. 25.5 %, P = 0.002). Conclusion Intraoperative intranasal nicotine did not exhibit opioid-sparing effect in nonsmoking bariatric female patients. Despite antiemetic prophylaxis, the use of nicotine was associated with the higher frequency of the use of rescue antiemetics in PACU.
    Obesity Surgery 09/2014; 25(3). DOI:10.1007/s11695-014-1431-7 · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal, and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10), and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). By randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal, and high sodium with one month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (p = 0.03) with Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9±0.9, 13.5±0.9, 13.6±0.8 fmol/mg protein, resp.) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3±0.6, 10.1±0.5, 10.3±0.6, resp.), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (p = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    The Journal of Physiology 09/2014; 592(23). DOI:10.1113/jphysiol.2014.276469 · 4.54 Impact Factor
  • Amit Sood, Varun Sharma, Darrell R. Schroeder, Brian Gorman
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To test the efficacy of a Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for decreasing stress and anxiety and improving resilience and quality of life among Department of Radiology physicians. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. Twenty-six Department of Radiology physicians were randomized in a single-blind trial to either the SMART program or a wait-list control arm for twelve-weeks. The program involved a single 90-minute group session in the SMART training with two follow-up phone calls. Primary outcomes measured at baseline and week-twelve included the Perceived Stress Scale, Linear Analog Self-Assessment Scale, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Results Twenty-two physicians completed the study. A statistically significant improvement in perceived stress, anxiety, quality of life, and mindfulness at twelve-weeks was observed in the study arm compared to the wait-list-control arm: Resilience also improved in the active arm but the changes were not statistically significant when compared to the control arm. Conclusion A single session to decrease stress among radiologists using the SMART program is feasible. Furthermore, the intervention afforded statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in anxiety, stress, quality of life, and mindful attention. Further studies including larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted.
    EXPLORE The Journal of Science and Healing 08/2014; 10(6). DOI:10.1016/j.explore.2014.08.002 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Interventions to decrease stress and enhance resiliency and mindfulness are more likely to be widely implemented if they can be offered without the need for in-person training. The purpose of this study was to assess effectiveness of a self-directed stress management and resiliency training (SMART) program delivered using only written material for improving stress, resiliency and mindfulness. Methods Thirty-seven employees at a large medical center were recruited and given written material on the SMART program. Subjects were instructed to practice the skills presented in the written materials without any additional training. The skills included: education about the neuropsychology of stress and resilience; training attention to focus in the present moment; and refining interpretations. Primary outcome measures assessed resilience, perceived stress, anxiety and quality of life. Results Thirty-three out of thirty-seven (89%) enrolled subjects completed the study and provided the baseline and follow up data. A statistically significant improvement in perceived stress, resilience, mindfulness, anxiety, and quality of life was observed at 12-weeks. Conclusion This study demonstrated that a brief, self-directed program to decrease stress and enhance resilience and mindfulness provided excellent short-term effectiveness for enhancing resilience, mindfulness and quality of life, and decreasing stress and anxiety.
    EXPLORE The Journal of Science and Healing 07/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.1016/j.explore.2014.04.002 · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of regional anesthesia for cancer surgery has been associated with improved oncologic outcomes. One of the proposed mechanisms is a reduction in the use of systemic opioids that may cause immunosuppression. We used a retrospective matched cohort design to compare long-term oncologic outcomes after prostatectomy for cancer performed under general anesthesia with systemic opioids or with epidural anesthesia with epidural fentanyl analgesia. Since epidural fentanyl is quickly reabsorbed systemically, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in long-term oncological outcomes between the 2 groups.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 06/2014; 119(4). DOI:10.1213/ANE.0000000000000320 · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) has not been assessed for elderly (95 years of age or older) surgical patients. We examined the association between the CCI and life-threatening complications and 30-day mortality rate. Medical records of patients 95 years old or older from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed for major postoperative morbidity or death. Logistic regression analyses of age, sex, the CCI, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Surgical Risk Stratification, and surgical urgency were performed to identify associations with poor surgical outcome. One hundred eighty-seven patients were identified (mean [standard deviation] age, 96.6 [1.9] years; median [interquartile range] CCI, 4 [2 to 6]). Ninety patients (48.1%) underwent moderate-risk and 20 (10.7%) underwent high-risk surgical procedures. Twenty patients (10.7%) died within 30 postoperative days and 20 others had major morbidity. Only moderate-risk (P = 0.045) and high-risk surgical procedures (P = 0.001) were associated with poor outcome. Patients of advanced age have high rates of morbidity and death after surgical procedures. These events are associated with surgical risk stratification and are independent of patient comorbidities. Risks, benefits, and alternatives must be considered carefully and discussed with patients and their families before deciding to proceed with high-risk surgery.
    The American surgeon 06/2014; 80(6):555-560. · 0.92 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

10k Citations
1,482.88 Total Impact Points


  • 1995–2015
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Health Science Research
      • • Department of Psychiatry & Psychology
      Рочестер, Minnesota, United States
  • 2007
    • Oregon Research Institute
      Eugene, Oregon, United States
    • University of Texas at Austin
      Austin, Texas, United States
    • University of Montana
      • Department of Psychology
      Missoula, MT, United States
  • 2006
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Behavioral Science
      Lexington, KY, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Minnesota Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 2000–2002
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Anesthesiology
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 1999
    • West Virginia University
      MGW, West Virginia, United States