Darrell R Schroeder

Mayo Clinic - Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, United States

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Publications (298)1318.7 Total impact

  • Juraj Sprung, Darrell R. Schroeder, Tom G. Hansen, David O. Warner
    Pediatric Anesthesia 12/2014; 24(12). · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fall prevention has emerged as a national quality metric, a focus for The Joint Commission, because falls after orthopedic surgery can result in serious injury. In this study, we examined patient characteristics and effects of fall-prevention strategies on the incidence of postoperative falls in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.
    Anesthesia & Analgesia 09/2014; · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine is a known analgesic. Our primary aim was to test the hypothesis that intranasal nicotine administered intraoperatively reduces the need for postoperative opioids. The secondary outcomes included evaluation of both postoperative pain and nausea and vomiting (PONV).
    Obesity surgery. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary sodium affects function of the beta-2 adrenoceptor (ADRB2). We tested the hypothesis that haplotype variation in the ADRB2 gene would influence the cardiovascular and regional vasodilator responses to sympathoexcitatory manoeuvres following low, normal, and high sodium diets, and ADRB2-mediated forearm vasodilation in the high sodium condition. Seventy-one healthy young adults were grouped by double homozygous haplotypes: Arg16+Gln27 (n = 31), the rare Gly16+Gln27 (n = 10), and Gly16+Glu27 (n = 30). By randomized cross-over design, subjects were studied following 5 days of controlled low, normal, and high sodium with one month or longer between diets (and low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle). All three visits utilized ECG and finger plethysmography for haemodynamic measures, and the high sodium visit included a brachial arterial catheter for forearm vasodilator responses to isoprenaline with plethysmography. Lymphocytes were sampled for ex vivo analysis of ADRB2 density and binding conformation. We found a main effect of haplotype on ADRB2 density (p = 0.03) with Gly16+Glu27 haplotype having the greatest density (low, normal, high sodium: 12.9±0.9, 13.5±0.9, 13.6±0.8 fmol/mg protein, resp.) and Arg16+Gln27 having the least (9.3±0.6, 10.1±0.5, 10.3±0.6, resp.), but there were no sodium or haplotype effects on receptor binding conformation. In the mental stress trial, there was a main effect of haplotype on cardiac output (p = 0.04), as Arg16+Gln27 had the lowest responses. Handgrip and forearm vasodilation yielded no haplotype differences, and no correlations were present for ADRB2 density and haemodynamics. Our findings support cell-based evidence that ADRB2 haplotype influences ADRB2 protein expression independent of dietary sodium, yet the haemodynamic consequences appear modest in healthy humans.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
    The Journal of Physiology 09/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • Amit Sood, Varun Sharma, Darrell R. Schroeder, Brian Gorman
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To test the efficacy of a Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program for decreasing stress and anxiety and improving resilience and quality of life among Department of Radiology physicians. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the institutional review board. Twenty-six Department of Radiology physicians were randomized in a single-blind trial to either the SMART program or a wait-list control arm for twelve-weeks. The program involved a single 90-minute group session in the SMART training with two follow-up phone calls. Primary outcomes measured at baseline and week-twelve included the Perceived Stress Scale, Linear Analog Self-Assessment Scale, Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, and Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale. Results Twenty-two physicians completed the study. A statistically significant improvement in perceived stress, anxiety, quality of life, and mindfulness at twelve-weeks was observed in the study arm compared to the wait-list-control arm: Resilience also improved in the active arm but the changes were not statistically significant when compared to the control arm. Conclusion A single session to decrease stress among radiologists using the SMART program is feasible. Furthermore, the intervention afforded statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in anxiety, stress, quality of life, and mindful attention. Further studies including larger sample size and longer follow-up are warranted.
    EXPLORE The Journal of Science and Healing 08/2014; · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of regional anesthesia for cancer surgery has been associated with improved oncologic outcomes. One of the proposed mechanisms is a reduction in the use of systemic opioids that may cause immunosuppression. We used a retrospective matched cohort design to compare long-term oncologic outcomes after prostatectomy for cancer performed under general anesthesia with systemic opioids or with epidural anesthesia with epidural fentanyl analgesia. Since epidural fentanyl is quickly reabsorbed systemically, we hypothesized that there would be no difference in long-term oncological outcomes between the 2 groups.
    Anesthesia and analgesia. 06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) has not been assessed for elderly (95 years of age or older) surgical patients. We examined the association between the CCI and life-threatening complications and 30-day mortality rate. Medical records of patients 95 years old or older from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed for major postoperative morbidity or death. Logistic regression analyses of age, sex, the CCI, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Surgical Risk Stratification, and surgical urgency were performed to identify associations with poor surgical outcome. One hundred eighty-seven patients were identified (mean [standard deviation] age, 96.6 [1.9] years; median [interquartile range] CCI, 4 [2 to 6]). Ninety patients (48.1%) underwent moderate-risk and 20 (10.7%) underwent high-risk surgical procedures. Twenty patients (10.7%) died within 30 postoperative days and 20 others had major morbidity. Only moderate-risk (P = 0.045) and high-risk surgical procedures (P = 0.001) were associated with poor outcome. Patients of advanced age have high rates of morbidity and death after surgical procedures. These events are associated with surgical risk stratification and are independent of patient comorbidities. Risks, benefits, and alternatives must be considered carefully and discussed with patients and their families before deciding to proceed with high-risk surgery.
    The American surgeon 06/2014; 80(6):555-560. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Allogeneic blood transfusion induces immunosuppression, and concern has been raised that it may increase propensity for cancer recurrence; however, these effects have not been confirmed. We examined the association of perioperative transfusion of allogeneic blood long-term oncologic outcomes in patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy.Study Design and Methods We reviewed medical records of patients who underwent radical prostatectomy between 1991 and 2005 and received allogeneic nonleukoreduced blood. Each transfused patient was matched to two controls who did not receive blood: matching included age, surgical year, prostate-specific antigen level, pathologic tumor stages, pathologic Gleason scores, and anesthetic type. Primary outcome was systemic tumor progression, with secondary outcomes of prostate cancer death and all-cause mortality. Stratified proportional hazards regression analysis was used to assess differences in outcomes between the transfused and nontransfused group.ResultsA total of 379 prostatectomy patients who were transfused and 758 nontransfused controls were followed for 9.4 and 10.2 years (median), respectively. In a multivariable analysis that took into account the matched study design and adjusted for positive surgical margins and adjuvant therapies, the use of allogeneic blood was not associated with systemic tumor progression (hazard ratio [HR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.99; p = 0.76), prostate cancer–specific death (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 0.44 to 6.48; p = 0.44), or all-cause death (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.67; p = 0.27).Conclusions When adjusted for clinicopathologic and procedural variables transfusion of allogeneic blood was not associated with systemic tumor progression and survival outcomes.
    Transfusion 04/2014; · 3.53 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer are linked because both airflow obstruction and emphysema, on computer tomography, are independent risk factors for lung cancer. However, the local risk of malignancy relative to development of regional emphysema has not yet been defined. Specifically, it is not known if primary lung cancers are associated with regions of worse emphysema within individual patients. We performed a database analysis evaluating the association between the degree of regional emphysema as scored on computer tomography and development of primary lung cancer. We also studied the association between regional emphysema and benign lung nodules. We assembled two distinct cohorts using the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's Lung Tissue Research Consortium database, hypothesizing that lung malignancy will preferentially locate in the regions of the most severe emphysema. In the Lung Tissue Research Consortium database, 624 cases met criteria for the malignant nodule cohort and 64 were included in the benign nodule cohort. When comparing location of a malignant nodule to other lung regions within the same person, the odds of having a more severe emphysema score in the location of lung cancer was 1.342 (95% confidence interval 1.112-1.620; p = 0.0022). When comparing location of a benign nodule to other lung regions within the same person, the odds of having a more severe emphysema score in the location of the benign nodule was 1.118 (95% confidence interval 0.725-1.725; p = 0.6137). Primary lung cancers are associated with areas of worse regional emphysema.
    Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 03/2014; · 4.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Cigarette smoking adds an estimated $100 billion in annual incremental direct health care costs nationwide. Cigarette smoking increases complication risk in surgical patients, but the potential effects of smoking status on perioperative health care costs are unclear. OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that current and former smoking at the time of admission for inpatient surgery, compared with never smoking, are independently associated with higher incremental health care costs for the surgical episode and the first year after hospital discharge. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This population-based, propensity-matched cohort study, with cohort membership based on smoking status (current smokers, former smokers, and never smokers) was performed at Mayo Clinic in Rochester (a tertiary care center) and included patients at least 18 years old who lived in Olmsted County, Minnesota, for at least 1 year before and after the index surgery. EXPOSURE Undergoing an inpatient surgical procedure at Mayo Clinic hospitals between April 1, 2008, and December 31, 2009. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total costs during the index surgical episode and 1 year after hospital discharge, with the latter standardized as costs per month. Costs were measured using the Olmsted County Healthcare Expenditure and Utilization Database, a claims-based database including information on medical resource use, associated charges, and estimated economic costs for patients receiving care at the 2 medical groups (Mayo Clinic and Olmsted Medical Center) that provide most medical services within Olmsted County, Minnesota. RESULTS Propensity matching resulted in 678 matched pairs in the current vs never smoker grouping and 945 pairs in the former vs never smoker grouping. Compared with never smokers, adjusted costs for the index hospitalization did not differ significantly for current or former smokers. However, the adjusted costs in the year after hospitalization were significantly higher for current and former smokers based on regression analysis (predicted monthly difference of $400 [95% CI, $131-$669] and $273 [95% CI, $56-$490] for current and former smokers, respectively). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Compared with never smokers, health care costs during the first year after hospital discharge for an inpatient surgical procedure are higher in both former and current smokers, although the cost of the index hospitalization is not affected by smoking status.
    JAMA surgery. 03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective: The objective of this investigation was to assess whether a new electronic health (e-health) platform, combining mobile computing and a content management system, could effectively deliver modular and "just-in-time" education to older patients following cardiac surgery. Subjects and Methods: Patients were provided with iPad(®) (Apple(®), Cupertino, CA) tablets that delivered educational modules as part of a daily "to do" list in a plan of care. The tablet communicated wirelessly to a dashboard where data were aggregated and displayed for providers. Results: A surgical population of 149 patients with a mean age of 68 years utilized 5,267 of 6,295 (84%) of education modules delivered over a 5.3-day hospitalization. Increased age was not associated with decreased use. Conclusions: We demonstrate that age, hospitalization, and major surgery are not significant barriers to effective patient education if content is highly consumable and relevant to patients' daily care experience. We also show that mobile technology, even if unfamiliar to many older patients, makes this possible. The combination of mobile computing with a content management system allows for dynamic, modular, personalized, and "just-in-time" education in a highly consumable format. This approach presents a means by which patients may become informed participants in new healthcare models.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 01/2014; · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: Visceral adiposity has been linked to higher rates of cardiometabolic risk than other types of adiposity. Waist circumference (WC) is the best anthropomorphic surrogate of visceral adiposity. Reductions in central adiposity may decrease cardiovascular risk. Animal studies have demonstrated that L-arginine reduces visceral adiposity and fat mass. The primary aim of our study was to assess the efficacy of L-arginine for reducing central adiposity in nondiabetic obese subjects. Secondary aims were to assess the efficacy of L-arginine for decreasing body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and weight. Materials and Methods: Female subjects (n = 20) were included if they: were ≥ 18 years and ≤ 40 years of age, had a BMI of ≥ 30 and ≤ 40 kg/m(2), had a WC ≥ 89 cm. Subjects received 3 g of L-arginine three times a day for 12 weeks and were counseled on lifestyle modification. Results: Overall, L-arginine was well tolerated with no clinically significant adverse events. Serum L-arginine levels were significantly increased from baseline at both 6 and 12 weeks (p < .05). WC (mean ± SD) decreased from 115.6 ± 12.7 cm at baseline to 109.2 ± 11.7 cm at 12 weeks (p = .0004). Weight (mean ± SD) decreased from 98.6 ± 19.7 kg at baseline to 95.7 ± 18.6 kg at 12 weeks (p = .015). Significant reductions from baseline were also observed in BMI and WHR. Conclusions: L-Arginine may be effective at reducing central adiposity in obese patients.
    Journal of Dietary Supplements 01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Combining pharmacotherapies for tobacco-dependence treatment may increase smoking abstinence. To determine efficacy and safety of varenicline and bupropion sustained-release (SR; combination therapy) compared with varenicline (monotherapy) in cigarette smokers. Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial with a 12-week treatment period and follow-up through week 52 conducted between October 2009 and April 2013 at 3 midwestern clinical research sites. Five hundred six adult (≥18 years) cigarette smokers were randomly assigned and 315 (62%) completed the study. Twelve weeks of varenicline and bupropion SR or varenicline and placebo. Primary outcome was abstinence rates at week 12, defined as prolonged (no smoking from 2 weeks after the target quit date) abstinence and 7-day point-prevalence (no smoking past 7 days) abstinence. Secondary outcomes were prolonged and point-prevalence smoking abstinence rates at weeks 26 and 52. Outcomes were biochemically confirmed. At 12 weeks, 53.0% of the combination therapy group achieved prolonged smoking abstinence and 56.2% achieved 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence compared with 43.2% and 48.6% in varenicline monotherapy (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.05-2.12; P = .03 and OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.95-1.93; P = .09, respectively). At 26 weeks, 36.6% of the combination therapy group achieved prolonged and 38.2% achieved 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence compared with 27.6% and 31.9% in varenicline monotherapy (OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.04-2.22; P = .03 and OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.91-1.91; P = .14, respectively). At 52 weeks, 30.9% of the combination therapy group achieved prolonged and 36.6% achieved 7-day point-prevalence smoking abstinence compared with 24.5% and 29.2% in varenicline monotherapy (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 0.93-2.07; P = .11 and OR, 1.40; 95% CI, 0.96-2.05; P = .08, respectively). Participants receiving combination therapy reported more anxiety (7.2% vs 3.1%; P = .04) and depressive symptoms (3.6% vs 0.8%; P = .03). Among cigarette smokers, combined use of varenicline and bupropion, compared with varenicline alone, increased prolonged abstinence but not 7-day point prevalence at 12 and 26 weeks. Neither outcome was significantly different at 52 weeks. Further research is required to determine the role of combination therapy in smoking cessation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00935818.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 01/2014; 311(2):155-63. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is strongly associated with cigarette smoking in young adults. The primary aim of this investigation was to complete a pilot evaluation of the efficacy of an integrated intervention that targets both cigarette smoking and binge drinking on the cigarette smoking and binge behavior of young adults at 6-month follow-up. Participants were 95 young adult (M = 24.3; SD = 3.5 years) smokers (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) who binge drink (≥ 1 time per month) and who were randomly assigned to standard treatment (n = 47) involving six individual treatment visits plus eight weeks of nicotine patch therapy or the identical smoking cessation treatment integrated with a binge drinking intervention (integrated intervention; n = 48). Using an intent-to-treat analysis for tobacco abstinence, at both 3 month end of treatment and 6 month follow-up, more participants who received integrated intervention were biochemically confirmed abstinent from tobacco than those who received standard treatment at 3 months (19% vs. 9%, p = 0.06) and 6 months (21% vs. 9%, p = 0.05). At 6 months, participants who completed the study and who received integrated intervention consumed fewer drinks per month (p < 0.05) and number of binge drinking episodes per month (p < 0.05) than those who received standard treatment. Preliminary data supports that integrated intervention enhances smoking cessation and reduces binge drinking compared to standard treatment.
    Addictive behaviors 01/2014; 39(5):848–853. · 2.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) has not been assessed for elderly (95 years of age or older) surgical patients. We examined the association between the CCI and life-threatening complications and 30-day mortality rate. Medical records of patients 95 years old or older from 2004 through 2008 were reviewed for major postoperative morbidity or death. Logistic regression analyses of age, sex, the CCI, American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Surgical Risk Stratification, and surgical urgency were performed to identify associations with poor surgical outcome. One hundred eighty-seven patients were identified (mean [standard deviation] age, 96.6 [1.9] years; median [interquartile range] CCI, 4 [2 to 6]). Ninety patients (48.1%) underwent moderate-risk and 20 (10.7%) underwent high-risk surgical procedures. Twenty patients (10.7%) died within 30 postoperative days and 20 others had major morbidity. Only moderate-risk (P = 0.045) and high-risk surgical procedures (P = 0.001) were associated with poor outcome. Patients of advanced age have high rates of morbidity and death after surgical procedures. These events are associated with surgical risk stratification and are independent of patient comorbidities. Risks, benefits, and alternatives must be considered carefully and discussed with patients and their families before deciding to proceed with high-risk surgery.
    The American surgeon 01/2014; 80(6). · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: /st>Systemic opioids are immunosuppressive, which could promote tumour recurrence. We, therefore, test the hypothesis that supplementing general anaesthesia with neuraxial analgesia improves long-term oncological outcomes in patients having radical prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma. /st>Patients who had general anaesthesia with neuraxial analgesia (n=1642) were matched 1:1 based on age, surgical year, pathological stage, Gleason scores, and presence of lymph node disease with those who had general anaesthesia only. Medical records were reviewed. Outcomes of interest were systemic cancer progression, recurrence, prostate cancer mortality, and all-cause mortality. Data were analysed using stratified proportional hazards regression, the Kaplan-Meier method, and log-rank tests. The median follow-up was 9 yr. /st>After adjusting for comorbidities, positive surgical margins, and adjuvant hormonal and radiation therapies within 90 postoperative days, general anaesthesia only was associated with increased risk for systemic progression [hazard ratio (HR)=2.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-6.05; P=0.008] and higher overall mortality (HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.00-1.74; P=0.047). Although not statistically significant, similar findings were observed for the outcome of prostate cancer deaths (adjusted HR=2.2, 95% CI 0.88-5.60; P=0.091). /st>This large retrospective analysis suggests a possible beneficial effect of regional anaesthetic techniques on oncological outcomes after prostate surgery for cancer; however, these findings need to be confirmed (or refuted) in randomized trials.
    BJA British Journal of Anaesthesia 12/2013; · 4.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Publication misrepresentation by residency applicants has been well documented, but fewer studies have investigated it in fellowship applicants, specifically in pain medicine. We therefore sought to evaluate the demographics of pain medicine fellowship applicants and the type, number, and accuracy of referenced publications they reported. Applications to the Multidisciplinary Pain Medicine fellowship program in the Mayo School of Graduate Medical Education, Rochester, Minnesota were reviewed for three consecutive academic years (2009-2012). Demographic information and publications claimed by applicants were compiled, and publications were scrutinized by a medical librarian for accuracy. Over a 3-year period, 179 fellowship applications were received. Of the 179 applicants, more than half (106 [59%]) listed at least one publication. Of 324 listed publications, 263 were verifiable; of these, 14 (5.3%) were deemed fraudulent, and six (2.3%) contained an inaccuracy possibly conferring a competitive advantage. In our small sample size, we found no difference in the rate of publications or in the accuracy of listed publications across subspecialties, or between US medical graduates and international medical graduates. The lack of national data, specifically on applicant misrepresentation, due to the heretofore absence of a universal application process or match, impedes assessment of the extent to which these findings are representative of the national applicant pool. We observed notable trends (few female applicants; numerous international medical graduate applicants) different from those reported by other specialties. Despite the low rate (5.3%) of fraudulent publications, fellowship program directors and selection committees should be aware of this possibility to ensure selection of fellows with the highest degree of professional and ethical integrity.
    Pain Medicine 12/2013; · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Substance use disorder (SUD) among anesthesiologists and other physicians poses serious risks to both physicians and patients. Formulation of policy and individual treatment plans is hampered by lack of data regarding the epidemiology and outcomes of physician SUD. To describe the incidence and outcomes of SUD among anesthesiology residents. Retrospective cohort study of physicians who began training in United States anesthesiology residency programs from July 1, 1975, to July 1, 2009, including 44,612 residents contributing 177,848 resident-years to analysis. Follow-up for incidence and relapse was to the end of training and December 31, 2010, respectively. Cases of SUD (including initial SUD episode and any relapse, vital status and cause of death, and professional consequences of SUD) ascertained through training records of the American Board of Anesthesiology, including information from the Disciplinary Action Notification Service of the Federation of State Medical Boards and cause of death information from the National Death Index. Of the residents, 384 had evidence of SUD during training, with an overall incidence of 2.16 (95% CI, 1.95-2.39) per 1000 resident-years (2.68 [95% CI, 2.41-2.98] men and 0.65 [95% CI, 0.44-0.93] women per 1000 resident-years). During the study period, an initial rate increase was followed by a period of lower rates in 1996-2002, but the highest incidence has occurred since 2003 (2.87 [95% CI, 2.42-3.39] per 1000 resident-years). The most common substance category was intravenous opioids, followed by alcohol, marijuana or cocaine, anesthetics/hypnotics, and oral opioids. Twenty-eight individuals (7.3%; 95% CI, 4.9%-10.4%) died during the training period; all deaths were related to SUD. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the cumulative proportion of survivors experiencing at least 1 relapse by 30 years after the initial episode (based on a median follow-up of 8.9 years [interquartile range, 5.0-18.8 years]) was 43% (95% CI, 34%-51%). Rates of relapse and death did not depend on the category of substance used. Relapse rates did not change over the study period. Among anesthesiology residents entering primary training from 1975 to 2009, 0.86% had evidence of SUD during training. Risk of relapse over the follow-up period was high, indicating persistence of risk after training.
    JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 12/2013; 310(21):2289-96. · 29.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Dietary sodium influences intermediate physiological traits in healthy adults independent of changes in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium affects cardiac autonomic modulation during mental stress. In a prospective, randomized cross-over design separated by 1 month between diets, 70 normotensive healthy young adults (F/M: 44/26, aged 18-38 years) consumed a 5-day low (10 mmol/day), normal (150 mmol), and high (400 mmol) sodium diet followed by heart rate variability (HRV) recordings at rest and during 5-min computerized mental arithmetic. Women were studied in the low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle following each diet. Diet did not affect resting blood pressure, but heart rate (HR) (mean ± SE) was 66 ± 1, 64 ± 1, and 63 ± 1 bpm in low, normal, and high sodium conditions, respectively (analysis of variance P = 0.02). For HRV, there was a main effect of sodium on resting SD of normalized RR intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared difference of successive normalized RR intervals (RMSSD), high frequency, low-frequency normalized units (LFnu), and high-frequency normalized units (HFnu) (P < 0.01 for all). The response to low sodium was most marked and consistent with sympathetic activation and reduced vagal activity, with increased LFnu and decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HFnu compared to both normal and high sodium conditions (P ≤0.05 for all). Dietary sodium-by-mental stress interactions were significant for mean NN, RMSSD, high-frequency power, LFnu, and low frequency/high frequency ratio (P < 0.05 for all). The interactions signify that sodium restriction evoked an increase in resting sympathetic activity and reduced vagal activity to the extent that mental stress caused modest additional disruptions in autonomic balance. Conversely, normal and high sodium evoked a reduction in resting sympathetic activity and incremental increase in resting vagal activity, which were disrupted to a greater extent during mental stress compared to low sodium. We conclude that autonomic control of HRV at rest and during mental stress is altered by dietary sodium in healthy normotensive young adult men and women.
    Journal of Hypertension 11/2013; · 4.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify possible predictors of post-cessation weight gain in smoking abstainers. A sample of 607 successful abstainers seen at the Centre for Tobacco-Dependent in Prague, Czech Republic, between 2005 and 2010, was included in this analysis. This sample was followed up for 1year and included 47.9% women (N=291) with the mean age of 48years (18-85). Post-cessation weight gain occurred in 88.6% of the 607 abstainers. The mean weight gain after one year post-quit was 5.1kg (95% confidence interval 4.7-5.5kg). Baseline characteristics associated with increased weight gain included a higher baseline smoking rate (p<0.001), more severe cigarette dependence (p=0.003), less physical activity (p=0.008), and a report of increased appetite on the baseline assessment of withdrawal symptoms (p<0.001). Smokers who are more dependent and have minimal physical activity are at increased risk for post-cessation weight gain. For these smokers, incorporating interventions targeting the weight issue into tobacco dependence treatment is recommended. Further research should be done to identify reasons for this important quitting complication.
    Addictive behaviors 10/2013; · 2.25 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

8k Citations
1,318.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry & Psychology
      • • Department of Health Science Research
      • • Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • • Department of Anesthesiology
      • • Division of Hematology
      Rochester, Michigan, United States
  • 2012
    • University Hospital Centre Zagreb
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Zagreb, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2009
    • Clinical Hospital Merkur
      Zagrabia, Grad Zagreb, Croatia
  • 2007
    • University of Montana
      • Department of Psychology
      Missoula, MT, United States
    • Mayo Clinic
      Jacksonville, Florida, United States
  • 2005–2006
    • University of Kentucky
      • Department of Behavioral Science
      Lexington, KY, United States
  • 2004
    • University of Minnesota Rochester
      Rochester, Minnesota, United States