[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The International Scientific Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment (SOSORT), that produced its first Guidelines in 2005, felt the need to revise them and increase their scientific quality. The aim is to offer to all professionals and their patients an evidence-based updated review of the actual evidence on conservative treatment of idiopathic scoliosis (CTIS).
All types of professionals (specialty physicians, and allied health professionals) engaged in CTIS have been involved together with a methodologist and a patient representative. A review of all the relevant literature and of the existing Guidelines have been performed. Documents, recommendations, and practical approach flow charts have been developed according to a Delphi procedure. A methodological and practical review has been made, and a final Consensus Session was held during the 2011 Barcelona SOSORT Meeting.
The contents of the document are: methodology; generalities on idiopathic scoliosis; approach to CTIS in different patients, with practical flow-charts; literature review and recommendations on assessment, bracing, physiotherapy, Physiotherapeutic Specific Exercises (PSE) and other CTIS. Sixty-five recommendations have been given, divided in the following topics: Bracing (20 recommendations), PSE to prevent scoliosis progression during growth (8), PSE during brace treatment and surgical therapy (5), Other conservative treatments (3), Respiratory function and exercises (3), Sports activities (6), Assessment (20). No recommendations reached a Strength of Evidence level I; 2 were level II; 7 level III; and 20 level IV; through the Consensus procedure 26 reached level V and 10 level VI. The Strength of Recommendations was Grade A for 13, B for 49 and C for 3; none had grade D.
These Guidelines have been a big effort of SOSORT to paint the actual situation of CTIS, starting from the evidence, and filling all the gray areas using a scientific method. According to results, it is possible to understand the lack of research in general on CTIS. SOSORT invites researchers to join, and clinicians to develop good research strategies to allow in the future to support or refute these recommendations according to new and stronger evidence.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This report is the SOSORT Consensus Paper on Terminology for use in the treatment of conservative spinal deformities. Figures are provided and relevant literature is cited where appropriate.
The Delphi method was used to reach a preliminary consensus before the meeting, where the terms that still needed further clarification were discussed.
A final agreement was found for all the terms, which now constitute the base of this glossary. New terms will be added after being discussed and accepted.
When only one set of terms is used for communication in a place or among a group of people, then everyone can clearly and efficiently communicate. This principle applies for any professional group. Until now, no common set of terms was available in the field of the conservative treatment of scoliosis and spinal deformities. This glossary gives a common base language to draw from to discuss data, findings and treatment.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : Thoracic hyperkyphosis is a frequent problem and can impact greatly on patient's quality of life during adolescence. This condition can be idiopathic or secondary to Scheuermann disease, a disease disturbing vertebral growth. To date, there is no sound scientific data available on the management of this condition. Some studies discuss the effects of bracing, however no guidelines, protocols or indication's of treatment for this condition were found. The aim of this paper was to develop and verify the consensus on managing thoracic hyperkyphosis patients treated with braces and/or physiotherapy.
The Delphi process was utilised in four steps gradually modified according to the results of a set of recommendations: we involved the SOSORT Board twice, then all SOSORT members twice, with a Pre-Meeting Questionnaire (PMQ), and during a Consensus Session at the SOSORT Lyon Meeting with a Meeting Questionnaire (MQ).
There was an unanimous agreement on the general efficacy of bracing and physiotherapy for this condition. Most experts suggested the use of 4-5 point bracing systems, however there was some controversy with regards to physiotherapeutic aims and modalities.
The SOSORT panel of experts suggest the use of rigid braces and physiotherapy to correct thoracic hyperkyphosis during adolescence. The evaluation of specific braces and physiotherapy techniques has been recommended.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Spinal classification systems for scoliosis which were developed to correlate with surgical treatment historically have been used in brace treatment as well. Previously, there had not been a scoliosis classification system developed specifically to correlate with brace design and treatment. The purpose of this study is to show the intra- and inter- observer reliability of a new scoliosis classification system correlating with brace treatment.
An original classification system ("Rigo Classification") was developed in order to define specific principles of correction required for efficacious brace design and fabrication. The classification includes radiological as well as clinical criteria. The radiological criteria are utilized to differentiate five basic types of curvatures including: (I) imbalanced thoracic (or three curves pattern), (II) true double (or four curve pattern), (III) balanced thoracic and false double (non 3 non 4), (IV) single lumbar and (V) single thoracolumbar. In addition to the radiological criteria, the Rigo Classification incorporates the curve pattern according to SRS terminology, the balance/imbalance at the transitional point, and L4-5 counter-tilting. To test the intra-and inter-observer reliability of the Rigo Classification, three observers (1 MD, 1 PT and 1 CPO) measured (and one of them, the MD, re-measured) 51 AP radiographs including all curvature types.
The intra-observer Kappa value was 0.87 (acceptance >0.70). The inter-observer Kappa values fluctuated from 0.61 to 0.81 with an average of 0.71 (acceptance > 0.70).
A specific scoliosis classification which correlates with brace treatment has been proposed with an acceptable intra-and inter-observer reliability.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Conservative management of idiopathic scoliosis (IS) and other spinal deformities is a real alternative to surgical treatment. Most of adolescent with IS can be managed conservatively with high safety. Many infantile and juvenile cases show also a good immediate response to conservative care, which can be considered a sign of good prognosis. Only patients showing a continue deterioration even treated conservatively with efficient techniques should be considered candidates to surgical correction and stabilization. Rehabilitation (including specific exercises) and bracing are usually involved in conservative care of IS. In this paper we describe our personal approach in conservative scoliosis care regarding rehabilitation. Bracing has been described in a different paper also published in the present book. Specific exercises can change the signs and symptoms in scoliosis patients. Specialists in physiotherapy for spinal deformities teach the patient how to perform a routine of 'curve pattern' specific exercises with the purpose to facilitate the correction of the asymmetric posture and to teach the patient to maintain the corrected posture in daily activities. Principles of correction are based on those developed by the German physiotherapist K. Schroth.
Studies in health technology and informatics 02/2008; 135:208-27.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thoracic hypokyphosis with increasing axial rotational instability is claimed to be a primary factor for the initiation of Idiopathic Scoliosis (IS) according to some authors. The objective of this study was to compare the sagittal configuration of the spine in two groups of girls with and without scoliosis in order to determine whether thoracic hypokyphosis and/or lumbar hypolordosis are initiating factors for AIS or not. A group of 207 consecutive non-treated girls diagnosed with IS (12.7 y +/- 1.8) measured with the Formetric system were compared to a control group of 45 non-scoliotic girls of the same age (12.4 y +/- 2). The Cobb angle for the whole scoliosis sample was 26 degrees +/- 13.6 and the angle of axial rotation 12.4 degrees +/- 7.7 (Perdriolle). The patient group was divided into subgroups by their Cobb angle ie G1 (5 degrees -19 degrees, n=79), G2 (20 degrees -34 degrees, n=81), G3 (<or=35 degrees, n=47). The values of the kyphotic angle and lordotic angle were compared. The kyphotic angle was not significantly different in the patients group (48.7 degrees +/- 9.4) compared to the control group (51.5 degrees +/- 10) while the lordotic angle was slightly but significantly lower in the patient group (39.3 degrees +/- 9.4) than in control (42.3 degrees +/- 8.8); however, the lordotic angle in G1 (40.5 degrees +/- 8.3) was not lower than that of the controls. Non-scoliotic girls and those with a mild scoliotic curve had the same angle of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. Both angles tended to decrease in progressive curves. Neither thoracic hypokyphosis or lumbar hypolordosis are considered to be initiating factors for scoliosis but are factors in its progression.
Studies in health technology and informatics 01/2006; 123:90-4.