Young Sik Lee

Chung-Ang University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (76)288.2 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships). Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students. Methods: A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males) provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names). Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale. Results: The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness) used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.
    PLoS ONE 11/2015; 10(11):e0142782. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0142782 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) between slow and fast oscillations is considered to represent cortico-subcortical interactions. The purpose of this electroencephalographic (EEG) study was to evaluate the diagnostic utility of TGC by comparing the power spectra and TGC at rest between ADHD and control children. Nineteen-channel EEGs were recorded from 97 volunteers (including 53 subjects with ADHD attending a camp for hyperactive children). The EEG power spectra and TGC data were analyzed. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted on the quantitative EEG results between the groups to adjust for sex. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to examine the discriminating ability of each parameter for ADHD diagnosis. The ADHD group exhibited significantly decreased TGC in multiple areas, including frontal (Fp1, F3, F7, F6), temporal (T3), and occipital (O2) areas, compared with the control group. The ROC analysis performed on the TGC data generated the most accurate result among the EEG measures, with an overall classification accuracy of 71.7%. TGC, which reflects the degree of neuronal interactions between functional systems, provides information about an individual's attentional network. Therefore, resting-state TGC is a promising neurophysiological marker of ADHD in children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Neuroscience Letters 07/2015; 603. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.07.006 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Online gaming addiction has been increasingly recognized as a mental disorder. However, the predictive factors that lead to online gaming addiction are not well established. The aim of this study was to identify factors that may influence the development of online gaming addiction. A total of 263 patients with problematic online gaming addiction (255 males (97%) and 8 females (3%), age: mean = 20.4 ± 5.8 years) and153 healthy comparison subjects (118 males (77%) and 35 females (23%), age: 21.2 ± 5.5 years, range) were recruited for participation in the current study. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses among each set of variables were conducted. Individual factors (sex and age), cognitive factors (IQ and perseverative errors), psychopathological conditions (ADHD, depression, anxiety, and impulsivity), and social interaction factors (family environment, social anxiety, and self-esteem) were evaluated in a stepwise fashion. All four factors were associated with online gaming addiction, with psychopathological conditions being the strongest risk factors for the addiction. Individual factors, psychological factors, and social interactions were associated with the development of pure online gaming addiction. As before, psychological factors (attention, mood, anxiety and impulsivity) were the strongest risk factors for online gaming addiction in patients with pure online gaming addiction. Psychopathologies, including ADHD and depression, were the strongest factors associated with the development of online gaming addiction in individuals.
    Computers in Human Behavior 07/2015; 48:706-713. DOI:10.1016/j.chb.2015.02.008 · 2.69 Impact Factor
  • Jeong Ha Park · Gi Jung Hyun · Ji Hyun Son · Young Sik Lee ·

    06/2015; 26(2):75-85. DOI:10.5765/jkacap.2015.26.2.75
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome, which leads to serious economic losses in the pig industry worldwide. While the molecular basis of PCV2 replication and pathogenicity remains elusive, it is increasingly apparent that the microRNA (miRNA) pathway plays a key role in controlling virus-host interactions, in addition to a wide range of cellular processes. Here, we employed Solexa deep sequencing technology to determine which cellular miRNAs were differentially regulated after expression of each of three PCV2-encoded open reading frames (ORFs) in porcine kidney epithelial (PK15) cells. We identified 51 ORF1-regulated miRNAs, 74 ORF2-regulated miRNAs, and 32 ORF3-regulated miRNAs that differed in abundance compared to the control. Gene ontology analysis of the putative targets of these miRNAs identified transcriptional regulation as the most significantly enriched biological process, while KEGG pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment for several pathways including MAPK signaling, which is activated during PCV2 infection. Among the potential target genes of ORF-regulated miRNAs, two genes encoding proteins that are known to interact with PCV2-encoded proteins, zinc finger protein 265 (ZNF265) and regulator of G protein signaling 16 (RGS16), were selected for further analysis. We provide evidence that ZNF265 and RGS16 are direct targets of miR-139-5p and let-7e, respectively, which are both down-regulated by ORF2. Our data will initiate further studies to elucidate the roles of ORF-regulated cellular miRNAs in PCV2-host interactions. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0172-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Veterinary Research 04/2015; 46(1). DOI:10.1186/s13567-015-0172-5 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    Jun Won Kim · Jaewon Lee · Hyun-Jin Kim · Young Sik Lee · Kyung Joon Min ·
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    ABSTRACT: The Continuous Performance Test (CPT) is a valuable tool for assessing behavior in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) is a promising tool for the diagnosis of ADHD. Recently, theta-phase gamma-amplitude coupling (TGC) measurement has received attention because it is a feasible method of assessing brain function. We investigated the relationship between CPT performance and EEG measures such as TGC and theta and gamma activity. EEGs were recorded from 68 volunteers from a camp for hyperactive children using a 19-electrode system. Their TGC, theta and 40Hz gamma activity were estimated and compared with results obtained on the Korean ADHD Rating Scale (KARS) and the Intermediate Visual and Auditory (IVA) CPT. The results demonstrated significant negative partial correlations between TGC and the IVA CPT, such as the Response Control Quotient (RCQ) and Attention Quotient (AQ). TGC successfully identified the level of dysfunctional interaction of the attention/arousal system at a multi-scale large network level. It is thought that as the TGC increases, the efficacy of the system is very low or dysfunctional. Compensatory hyper-arousal patterns of the dysfunctional attention/arousal system may account for this effect. TGC is a promising neurophysiological marker for ADHD behavior in children. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
    Neuroscience Letters 01/2015; 590. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2015.01.068 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) characteristics of patients with un-medicated schizophrenia (SPR) and to investigate the diagnostic utility of QEEG in assessing such patients during resting conditions. The subjects included 90 patients with schizophrenia and 90 normal controls. Spectral analysis was performed on the absolute power of all of the electrodes across five frequency bands following artifact removal. We conducted a repeated-measures ANOVA to examine group differences within the five frequency bands across several brain regions and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analyses to examine the discrimination ability of each frequency band. Compared with controls, patients with schizophrenia showed increased delta and theta activity and decreased alpha 2 activity, particularly in the frontocentral area. There were no significant differences in the alpha 1 and beta activity. The ROC analysis performed on the delta frequency band generated the best result, with an overall classification accuracy of 62.2%. The results of this study confirmed the characteristics of the QEEG power in un-medicated schizophrenia patients compared with normal controls. These findings suggest that a resting EEG test can be a supportive tool for evaluating patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Neuroscience Letters 01/2015; 589. DOI:10.1016/j.neulet.2014.12.064 · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined risk factors that discriminate between suicide attempt (SA) adolescents and suicidal ideation only (SI only) adolescents using data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (12-19 years; N = 73,238). In males, heavy alcohol use, drug use, and high perceived sadness/hopelessness showed significant effects on the presence of SA versus the presence of SI only. In females, along with these variables, low academic achievement, poor perceived health status, high perceived stress, and unhealthy coping strategy were also significantly related to the presence of SA versus SI only. Therefore, clinical interventions targeting adolescents' psychological distress are warranted to prevent suicide. © 2014 The American Association of Suicidology.
    Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior 12/2014; 45(4). DOI:10.1111/sltb.12143 · 1.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IntroductionThis article aims to assess the efficacy and safety of atomoxetine in Korean adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Methods This post hoc double-blind, placebo-controlled study of atomoxetine (40–120 mg/day) over 10 weeks in adults with ADHD at 45 Japanese, Korean, and Taiwanese study sites focused on patient data from Korea (atomoxetine, n = 37; placebo, n = 37). Primary efficacy outcome was change in baseline-to-endpoint Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator-rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) Total ADHD Symptoms score. Secondary efficacy outcomes included changes in Adult ADHD Quality of Life (AAQoL) total, Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version Self-Report (BRIEF-A:Self-Report), and Clinical Global Impression-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) scale scores.ResultsAtomoxetine-treated patients demonstrated a mean 18.9-point reduction in CAARS-Inv:SV total ADHD Symptoms score, compared with the 7.45-point reduction in placebo-treated patients (P ≤ 0.01). Significantly greater improvement was found for atomoxetine versus placebo in CGI-ADHD-S (P ≤ 0.01), BRIEF-A:Self-Report global executive composite (P ≤ 0.05), and metacognition index (P ≤ 0.01) executive function scores. Nausea, decreased appetite, and dry mouth were reported with significantly greater frequency by atomoxetine-treated patients, and only one placebo-treated patient discontinued because of adverse event. A 2.1-kg reduction in weight and a 7.5-beat/minute increase in pulse rate were observed in atomoxetine-treated patients.DiscussionThese data support a significant benefit of 80- to 120-mg once daily atomoxetine versus placebo for treatment of ADHD in adult Korean patients. A high placebo response rate was observed in this adult Korean sample; a higher discontinuation rate was also observed in atomoxetine-treated patients. These observations warrant further investigation.
    Asia-Pacific Psychiatry 11/2014; 6(4). DOI:10.1111/appy.12160 · 0.63 Impact Factor
  • Doug Hyun Han · Young Sik Lee · Xianfeng Shi · Perry F. Renshaw ·
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    ABSTRACT: Recent brain imaging studies suggested that both the frontal and temporal cortices are important candidate areas for mediating the symptoms of internet addiction. We hypothesized that deficits of prefrontal and temporal cortical function in patients with on-line game addiction (PGA) would be reflected in decreased levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and cytosolic, choline containing compound (Cho). Seventy three young PGA and 38 age and sex matched healthy control subjects were recruited in the study. Structural MR and 1H MRS data were acquired using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. Voxels were sequentially placed in right frontal cortex and right medial temporal cortices. In the right frontal cortex, the levels of NAA in PGA were lower than those in healthy controls. In the medial temporal cortex, the levels of Cho in PGA participants were lower than those observed in healthy controls. The Young Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores and perseverative responses in PGA were negatively correlated with the level of NAA in right frontal cortex. The Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI) scores in the PGA cohort were negatively correlated with Cho levels in the right temporal lobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first MRS study of individuals with on-line game addiction. Although, the subjects with on-line game addiction in the current study were free from psychiatric co-morbidity, patients with on-line game addiction appear to share characteristics with ADHD and MDD in terms of neurochemical changes in frontal and temporal cortices.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 11/2014; 58. DOI:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2014.07.007 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein–RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3′ overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells.
    Nucleic Acids Research 10/2014; 42(20). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku957 · 9.11 Impact Factor
  • Joonbeom Bae · Suk Jun Lee · Chung-Gyu Park · Young Sik Lee · Taehoon Chun ·
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    ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG-3; CD223), a structural homolog of CD4, binds to MHC class II molecules. Recent research indicated that signaling mediated by LAG-3 inhibits T cell proliferation, and LAG-3 serves as a key surface molecule for the function of regulatory T cells. Previous reports demonstrated that the majority of LAG-3 is retained in the intracellular compartments and is rapidly translocated to the cell surface upon stimulation. However, the mechanism by which LAG-3 translocates to the cell surface was unclear. In this study, we examined the trafficking of human LAG-3 under unstimulated as well as stimulated conditions of T cells. Under the unstimulated condition, the majority of LAG-3 did not reach the cell surface, but rather degraded within the lysosomal compartments. After stimulation, the majority of LAG-3 translocated to the cell surface without degradation in the lysosomal compartments. Results indicated that the cytoplasmic domain without Glu-Pro repetitive sequence is critical for the translocation of LAG-3 from lysosomal compartments to the cell surface. Moreover, protein kinase C signaling leads to the translocation of LAG-3 to the cell surface. However, two potential serine phosphorylation sites from the LAG-3 cytoplasmic domain are not involved in the translocation of LAG-3. These results clearly indicate that LAG-3 trafficking from lysosomal compartments to the cell surface is dependent on the cytoplasmic domain through protein kinase C signaling in activated T cells.
    The Journal of Immunology 08/2014; 193(6). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1401025 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Previous studies have reported comorbidity of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and allergic diseases. The current study investigated ADHD like behavioral symptoms and parenting stress in pediatric allergic rhinitis. Methods Eighty-seven children (6-13 years old) with allergic rhinitis and 73 age- and sex-matched children of control group were recruited. Diagnosis and severity assessments of allergic rhinitis were determined by a pediatric allergist. The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF), ADHD Rating Scale (ARS), and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were completed by their mothers. Results In the allergic rhinitis group, the total PSI-SF score (p<0.01), ARS score (p<0.01), the subscale scores of the CBCL including somatization, attentional problems and emotional instability (p=0.01; p<0.01; p<0.01) and prevalence of ADHD (p=0.03) were significantly higher than those of the control group. Among mothers of children with allergic rhinitis, those of children with comorbid ADHD demonstrated significantly higher parenting stress than those without comorbid ADHD (p<0.01). Parenting stress was correlated with severity of child's allergic symptoms and the ARS total score (beta=0.50, p<0.01; beta=0.39, p<0.01). There was a significant correlation between allergic symptom severity and the ARS total score (B=8.4, SD=2.5, t=3.3, p<0.01). Conclusion This study demonstrated that ADHD symptoms were common in children with allergic rhinitis, and this factor increased parenting stress and disrupted the parent-child relationship. Routine evaluation and early management of ADHD symptoms in pediatric allergic rhinitis may benefit families of children with allergic rhinitis.
    Psychiatry investigation 07/2014; 11(3):266-71. DOI:10.4306/pi.2014.11.3.266 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The development of gene delivery systems into embryos is challenging due to technical difficulties, delivery efficiency and toxicity. Here, we developed an organic compound (VisuFect)-mediated gene delivery system for zygotes. The VisuFect, which is hydrophilic and Cy5.5-labeled, was conjugated with poly(A) oligo (VFA). The VFA into CHO cells showed clathrin-mediated internalization and no toxicity. The VFA successfully penetrated through the zona pellucida of fertilized eggs of various species including pigs, zebrafish, drosophilas and mice. The experiment with VisuFect-mediated delivery of the miR34c inhibitor showed similar results with direct microinjection of the miR34c inhibitor by suppressing the development of zygotes up to the blastocyst stage. Noticeable features of the VisuFect will provide great benefits for further studies on gene function in sperms and embryos.
    Scientific Reports 06/2014; 4:5417. DOI:10.1038/srep05417 · 5.58 Impact Factor
  • Do-Hwan Lim · Chun-Taek Oh · Sung-Jun Han · Young Sik Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) are a newly emerged class of small regulatory RNAs. In Drosophila melanogaster, the production of endo-siRNAs depends on the RNase III enzyme Dicer-2 (Dcr-2). Loss of dcr-2 function reduces the resistance of adult flies to various stresses and shortens their life span. The mutants also exhibit alterations in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that the endo-siRNA pathway plays a protective role during exposure to stress and aging in D. melanogaster, possibly by regulating metabolic homeostasis. Here, we describe the methods that were used to discover the phenotypes associated with endo-siRNA deficiency by using dcr-2 null mutants.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 06/2014; 1173:51-8. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4939-0931-5_5 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with the deficit in executive functions. Playing Go involves many aspect of cognitive function and we hypothesized that it would be effective for children with ADHD. Methods Seventeen drug naïve children with ADHD and seventeen age and sex matched comparison subjects were participated. Participants played Go under the instructor's education for 2 hours/day, 5 days/week. Before and at the end of Go period, clinical symptoms, cognitive functions, and brain EEG were assessed with Dupaul's ADHD scale (ARS), Child depression inventory (CDI), digit span, the Children's Color Trails Test (CCTT), and 8-channel QEEG system (LXE3208, Laxtha Inc., Daejeon, Korea). Results There were significant improvements of ARS total score (z=2.93, p<0.01) and inattentive score (z=2.94, p<0.01) in children with ADHD. However, there was no significant change in hyperactivity score (z=1.33, p=0.18). There were improvement of digit total score (z=2.60, p<0.01; z=2.06, p=0.03), digit forward score (z=2.21, p=0.02; z=2.02, p=0.04) in both ADHD and healthy comparisons. In addition, ADHD children showed decreased time of CCTT-2 (z=2.21, p=0.03). The change of theta/beta right of prefrontal cortex during 16 weeks was greater in children with ADHD than in healthy comparisons (F=4.45, p=0.04). The change of right theta/beta in prefrontal cortex has a positive correlation with ARS-inattention score in children with ADHD (r=0.44, p=0.03). Conclusion We suggest that playing Go would be effective for children with ADHD by activating hypoarousal prefrontal function and enhancing executive function.
    Psychiatry investigation 04/2014; 11(2):143-51. DOI:10.4306/pi.2014.11.2.143 · 1.28 Impact Factor
  • Hae Young Ko · Young Sik Lee · Soonhag Kim ·
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    ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small noncoding RNA molecules that inhibit the expression of cognate genes in multicellular organisms. These small RNAs have been demonstrated to play crucial roles in a variety of biological processes including cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Knowledge of specific expression patterns of miRNAs is critical for functional studies. Here, we describe a bioluminescence reporter gene-based method to measure miRNA activity in cultured cells and mice using a Gaussia luciferase reporter gene controlled by miRNA binding sites in its 3'untranslated region. This method can be used to noninvasively monitor the expression patterns of functionally active miRNAs involved in different biological processes or diseases in mice.
    Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) 01/2014; 1098:85-95. DOI:10.1007/978-1-62703-718-1_7 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted in order to investigate characteristics of temperament, depression, anxiety, attention, and impulsivity in adult males with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and internet addiction tendency.
    01/2014; 53(3):154. DOI:10.4306/jknpa.2014.53.3.154
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives : The objective of this study is to find out the differences in psychopathology, temperament, and character factors between young adults with and without childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Methods : The subjects consisted of 314 university students (male=72, female=242) in Gongju. They were divided into childhood ADHD group (N=54) and normal group (N=260) to the Wender-Utah Rating Scale. Participants were assessed using Korean Adult ADHD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Kimberly Young's Internet Addiction Test, Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, Paranoia Scale, Korean-Schizotypal Ambivalence Scale, Lubben Social Network Scale, and Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised. Descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square, spearman correlation, and stepwise multiple regression were applied to analyze the data. Results : Participants with childhood ADHD symptoms had high level of adult ADHD symptoms (p
    12/2013; 24(4). DOI:10.5765/jkacap.2013.24.4.191
  • Sun Mi Kim · Doug Hyun Han · George H Trksak · Young Sik Lee ·
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    ABSTRACT: Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.
    Anxiety, stress, and coping 12/2013; 27(4). DOI:10.1080/10615806.2013.876010 · 1.55 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
288.20 Total Impact Points


  • 2005-2015
    • Chung-Ang University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2004-2015
    • Chung-Ang University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hanyang University
      • Division of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2000-2015
    • Korea University
      • • Department of Biotechnology
      • • College of Life Sciences
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2014
    • University of Utah
      • The Brain Institute
      Salt Lake City, Utah, United States
  • 2012
    • Kyung Hee University
      • Department of Applied Chemistry
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2003-2009
    • Northwestern University
      • Department of Cell and Molecular Biology
      Evanston, Illinois, United States
  • 2008
    • National Fisheries Research and Development Institution
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 1988
    • Yonsei University Hospital
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea