[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was carried out to measure truly absorbed microbial protein synthesis, rumen bypass protein and endogenous protein loss, as well as total metabolizable protein from starchy and protein-rich raw feed materials with model comparisons. Predictions by the DVE2010 system as a more mechanistical model were compared with two other models DVE1994 and NRC-2001 that are frequently used in common international feeding practice. DVE1994 predictions for intestinally digestible rumen undegradable protein (ARUP) for starchy concentrates were higher (27 vs. 18 g/kg DM, p<0.05, SEM=1.2) than predictions by the NRC-2001 model, while there was no difference in predictions for ARUP from protein concentrates among the three models. DVE2010 and NRC-2001 had highest estimations of intestinally digestible microbial protein for starchy (92 in DVE2010 vs. 46 in NRC-2001 and 67 g/kg DM in DVE1994, p<0.05 SEM=4) and protein concentrates (69 in NRC-2001 vs. 31 in DVE1994 and 49 g/kg DM in DVE2010, p<0.05 SEM=4), respectively. Intestinally digestible protein was highest for DVE2010 in the case of starchy feedstuffs (p<0.05), but there was no difference between models for protein-rich raw materials. Potential protein supply predicted by tested models from starchy and protein concentrates are widely different and comparable direct measurements are needed to evaluate actual ability of different models to predict the potential protein supply to dairy cows from different feedstuffs.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2015; 63(29). DOI:10.1021/jf505961e · 3.11 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (540 ± 35 kg initial body weight) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design over 21-day periods to examine effects of supplementing a basal diet (CON) with thyme oil (THY, 500 mg/kg DM) or cinnamon oil (CIN, 500 mg/kg DM) on nutrient digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics and rumen microbial populations. Monensin (MON, 33 mg/kg DM) was used as positive control. Steers were fed a basal diet as total mixed ration (TMR) ad libitum. The results indicated that dry matter intake (DMI) and apparent digestibility of nutrients were not affected by additives. Dietary supplementations did not affect ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen concentration. Total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations and proportions of acetate and butyrate were not affected by essential oils (EO), but there was a trend (P<0.10) for a reduced concentration of total VFA and proportion of butyrate with MON supplementation compared to CON. Propionate proportion increased (P<0.05) with THY and MON supplementation and the ratio of acetate to propionate decreased (P<0.05) with EO and MON. The relative abundances of protozoa and methanogens decreased (P<0.01) in the rumen of steers when supplemented with additives. Ruminal population of Ruminococcus flavefaciens was not affected by treatments, but populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus decreased (P<0.05) by supplementation of EO or MON, respectively. Results from this study suggest that THY or CIN can be considered as potential alternatives to MON and might be useful as rumen fermentation modifiers in beef production systems.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The current study was conducted to examine the effect of dietary sucrose with or without sunflower oil on dairy goat performance, ruminal fermentation and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. Sixteen Saanen goats were assigned to the experimental diets control (basal diet without added oil and sucrose (CON), the basal diet supplemented with sunflower oil (SO, 3.7% of diet DM), sucrose (SU, 5.2% of diet DM) and sunflower oil plus sucrose (SO+SU, 3.7% and 5.2% of diet DM respectively). Sucrose and sunflower oil replaced barley grain in the diets. Milk production and composition were analyzed on days 18, 36 and 54 on treatments, and ruminal fermentation parameters and milk FA profile on days 18 and 54. Dry matter intake, milk fat, protein and lactose concentrations were not affected by treatments. The SU increased (P < 0.1) milk yield compared with CON whereas the SU and SO led to higher (P < 0.01) 4% fat-corrected milk yield. The SO and SU diets increased (P < 0.1) the milk lactose yield more than the CON diet. We observed a higher (P < 0.01) content of ruminal acetate in the CON diet, and also higher (P < 0.05) valerate content with the SU and SO+SU diets compared with the CON diet. Feeding SU and SO+SU tended to decrease (P < 0.05) ruminal pH, yet goats fed SU had the highest (P < 0.01) ruminal propionate concentration. There was no effect of diet on ruminal butyrate, isovalerate and ammonia-N concentrations. The acetate:propionate ratio substantially decreased (P < 0.05) with the SU compared with the CON and SO+SU, and did not change with SO diet. Feeding sunflower oil increased (P < 0.01) plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations compared with feeding the CON and SU diets. The majority of fatty acids measured were not affected by inclusion of sucrose compared with the CON diet. The SO and SO+SU diets increased the proportion of total trans-C18:1, total CLA, and C18 family in milk fat compared to CON or SU diets. The current study implies that replacing barley grain with sucrose may improve milk yield and modify ruminal fermentation pattern in dairy goats. Moreover, sucrose did no alter ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation pathways and following milk fatty acid composition when goats were fed with a combination of unsaturated fat and sugar.
Key words: Sucrose, Sunflower oil, Fatty acid profile, Dairy goat.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different doses of some
7 natural semi-arid medicinal plants’ essential oils on in vitro ruminal digestion and
fermentation patterns of a mid-forage (alfalfa hay: concentrates, 1:1) diet. Treatments
consisted of either basal diet alone (control) or added with 35, 70, 140 or 280 μl L-1 of
coriander, oregano, caraway, cumin, cinnamon, pistachio hull and thyme essential oils,
incubated for 24 hours at 38.7ºC. The essential oils of cinnamon and pistachio applied as
280 μl L-1 and thyme applied at 140 and 280 μl L-1 caused a decrease in DM
disappearance as compared with control. Thyme and pistachio essential oils (used at 280
μl L-1) resulted in a decrease of NDF disappearance, while caraway (70 μl L-1) and cumin
(140 μl L-1) resulted in an increase in it (14.8% and +18.2%, respectively). Relative to
control, the essential oils applied, did not significantly affect the medium N-NH3
concentration (except thyme at 140 and 280 μl L-1), pH (except thyme and cumin essential
oils, 6.41 and 6.22 vs. 6.3, respectively), gas produced (except thyme at 280 μl L-1) and
Feed Fermentation Efficiency (FFE). Relative to control, addition of all the essential oils
resulted in a decrease of CP disappearance and CH4 (except for cumin) production as
Mm-1 incubated. Findings revealed that these essential oils may allow manipulation of
rumen microbial fermentation.
Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 09/2014; 16:1543-1554. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with a mixture of essential oils (MEO), yeast culture (YC) and malate on performance, nutrient digestion, rumen fermentation and blood metabolites of lambs fed high-concentrate growing diets. For this purpose, twenty Baluchi lambs (17.3 ± 0.5 kg body weight and 3 months old) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments in a completely randomized design with five lambs per treatment. The treatment groups were as follows: (i) control: basal diet without any additive, (ii) basal diet plus 400 mg/day MEO (thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, limonene and cinnamaldehyde), (iii) basal diet with 4 g/day YC and (iv) basal diet plus 4 g/day malate. No differences between the dietary treatments were observed in dry matter intake, average daily gain or feed conversion ratio (p > 0.05). Compared with control and malate treatment, lambs fed MEO and YC had an improved crude protein digestibility (p < 0.05). Yeast culture significantly increased (p > 0.05) cell wall digestibility compared to the other treatments. No differences were observed between treatments with respect to nitrogen balance or ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations (p > 0.05). No differences were observed between treatments with respect to ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of acetate, butyrate and valerate. Molar proportion of propionate was higher (p < 0.05) for YC and malate compared to control and MEO. Plasma glucose concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in lambs fed YC and malate than in lambs fed the control or the MEO diet. Blood concentration of triglycerides significantly decreased when feeding the MEO and YC diets (p < 0.05). It was concluded that YC may be more useful as a feed additive for manipulation of rumen fermentation in lambs fed with high-concentrate diets than MEO and malate, because YC enhanced crude protein and cell wall digestibility, ruminal molar proportion of propionate and plasma glucose concentration.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate productive, metabolic and ovarian responses of different timing to start lipogenic diet in dairy cows. Thirty-six multiparous cows were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments in a completely randomized design. All cows were fed a similar glucogenic diet, 21 days before expected calving date. After parturition, they received a glucogenic diet until 42 days in milk (DIM; GGG) or shifted to a lipogenic diet at either 1 (GLL) or 21(GGL) DIM and remained on these diets until 42 DIM. After the day 42 postpartum, all cows returned to a common stall and received a mixed lipogenic and glucogenic (50:50) diet until 100 DIM. Postpartum dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (P<0.05) and body weight, body condition score, milk yield, milk protein, and milk lactose contents tended to be lesser (P<0.1) for the GLL group; however, negativity of energy balance, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), cholesterol, and urea concentrations were significantly higher (P<0.05). Glucose concentration and number of follicles ≥10 mm diameter were significantly higher (P<0.05) but BHBA and NEFA concentrations were lower (P<0.05) for the GLL group compared to other two groups. For the GLL group days to ovulation and cervical diameter were significantly higher (P<0.05). The conclusion is that providing a lipogenic diet immediately after calving has negative effects on energy balance, metabolic status and follicular dynamics of dairy cows. However, offering a glucogenic diet during −21 to +42 days relative to calving was more effective in improving animal performance and ovarian activity. This strategy may be enhancing the pregnancy rate.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: Saffron petal is a by-product that contains flavonoids and anthocyanins. In order to study the effects of saffron petal extract (SPE) on blood parameters, immune system, and spleen histology, five treatments (n=6) were used in a completely randomized design.
Materials and Methods: The treatments were 0, 75, 150, 225, and 450 mg/kg body weight of SPE. The SPE was injected intraperitoneally to 30 rats (10-week old, weighing 225±15 g) for 14 days. Immunization was performed using 1×108 sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on days 0 and 7 subcutaneously in all treatment groups. On day 15, blood was collected from the heart of rats after anesthesia. One part of samples were poured in heparinized tubes for counting whole blood cells (CBC) and different white blood cells (WBC) and the other part was used to measure IgG using ELISA technique. The spleen was stained by hematoxylin- eosin for histological study. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA program and the means evaluation was done using Tukey’s test. Results are presented as mean±SD.
Results: Results showed no significant difference between treatments and control group regarding the amount of RBC, HGB, HCT, and PLT. The level of IgG at 75 mg/kg was significantly increased in comparison with other groups. No changes were observed in spleen histology.
Conclusion: The results indicate that use of SPE at dose of 75 mg/kg causes an increase in antibody response without any change in hematological parameters and spleen histology.
Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine 03/2014; 4(2):103-9.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Batch cultures of mixed rumen microorganisms were used in a randomized complete block design to study the effects of alfalfa hay-to-concentrate ratio and various non-organic buffering compounds on Acidogenic Value (AV), in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), medium pH, and AV: IVDMD ratio. Alfalfa hay was included in the experimental diets as: 80% (F80), 60% (F60), 40% (F40), and 20% (F20) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Buffering compounds were added to the experimental diets as: Sodium bicarbonate [SB; 5 or 10 mg.g-1 DM], magnesium oxide (MgO; 5 or 10 mg.g-1 DM), sodium bentonite (bentonite;10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf® (5, 10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf + SB in a 3:4 ratio (11 or 16.5 mg.g-1 DM), Acid Buf + SB + MgO in a 3:4:1 ratio (12.5 or 18.75 mg.g-1 DM), and Herod’s Buffer (5, 10 or 20 mg.g-1 DM); keeping one group as control (no supplementation). After 24 h incubation, no significant differences observed in medium pH among SB, MgO, bentonite and the control, but Herod’s Buffer, Acid Buf, Acid Buf + SB, and Acid Buf + SB + MgO kept it up (P≤ 0.05). The lowest AV and AV: IVDMD ratios were observed when SB was used in the cultures (P≤ 0.05). Herod’s buffer IVDMD was the lowest (P≤ 0.05). The results indicated that the diet containing Acid Buf and SB had a relatively low AV and AV: IVDMD, and could maintain a relatively high rumen fluid pH compared with those of the others.
Key words: Acidogenic value, in vitro dry matter disappearance, buffers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Essential oils have been shown to favorably effect in vitro ruminal fermentation, but there are few in vivo studies that have examined animal responses. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of thyme (THY) and cinnamon (CIN) essential oils on feed intake, growth performance, ruminal fermentation and blood metabolites in feedlot calves fed high-concentrate diets. Twelve growing Holstein calves (213±17 kg initial BW) were used in a completely randomized design and received their respective dietary treatments for 45 d. Treatments were: 1-control (no additive), 2-THY (5 g/d/calf) and 3-CIN (5 g/d/calf). Calves were fed ad libitum diets consisting of 15% forage and 85% concentrate, and adapted to the finishing diet by gradually increasing the concentrate ratio with feeding a series of transition diets 5 wk before the experiment started. Supplementation of THY or CIN did not affect DMI and ADG, and feed efficiency was similar between treatment groups. There were no effects of additives on ruminal pH and rumen concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and total VFA; whereas molar proportion of acetate and ratio of acetate to propionate decreased, and the molar proportion of propionate increased with THY and CIN supplementation. Rumen molar concentration of butyrate was significantly increased by adding CIN compared to control; but no change was observed with THY compared with control group. No effects of THY, or CIN were observed on valerate, isobutyrate or isovalerate proportions. Plasma concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, urea-N, β-hydroxybutyrate, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were not changed by feeding THY or CIN. Results from this study suggest that supplementing a feedlot finishing diet with THY or CIN essential oil might be useful as ruminal fermentation modifiers in beef production systems, but has minor impacts on blood metabolites.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 07/2013; 26(7):935-44. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2012.12636 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eight continuous culture fermenters were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate various nutritional values of Kochia (Kochia scoparia) compared with Atriplex (Atriplex dimorphostegia). Dried and pelleted samples (leaves and stems) provided substrate for metabolism by ruminal microbes maintained in a continuous culture fermentation system. Results indicated that there were no differences (p>0.05) in dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) digestibility between the two halophytic plants. Atriplex had higher (p<0.05) organic matter (OM) digestibility compared with Kochia. Neutral detergent fiber (aNDF) digestibility of Atriplex (411 g/kg) was higher (p<0.05) than that of Kochia (348 g/kg), however acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibility was higher (p<0.05) in Kochia compared with Atriplex (406 vs. 234 g/kg). There were no differences (p>0.05) between the two halophytic plants in molar proportion of acetate and propionate, but the concentration of butyrate and valerate in Kochia were about two fold of Atriplex (p<0.05). When Kochia provided substrate to the microbes, protein synthesis was higher (p<0.05) compared with feeding Atriplex (5.96 vs. 4.85 g N/kg of OM truly digested). It was concluded that Kochia scoparia and Atriplex dimorphostegia had similar digestibility of DM and CP. It appears that these halophytic plants may not have enough digestible energy for high producing ruminants.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 05/2012; 25(5):642-7. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2011.11256 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study examined the effects of supplementation of fish oil and canola oil in the diet on milk yield, milk components and fatty acid composition of Holstein dairy cows in early lactation. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows (42±12 DIM, 40±6 kg daily milk yield) were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (Control), 2% fish oil (FO), 1% canola oil +1% fish oil (FOCO), or 2% canola oil (CO) according to a double 4×4 Latin square design. Each period lasted 3 wk; experimental analyses were restricted to the last week of each period. Supplemental oils were added to a basal diet which was formulated according to NRC (2001) and consisted of 20% alfalfa, 20% corn silage and 60% concentrate. Milk yield was similar between diets (p>0.05), but dry matter intake (DMI) was lower (p<0.05) in cows fed FO diet compared to other diets. Milk fat percentage and daily yield decreased (p<0.01) with the supplementation of fish and canola oil. The daily yield and percentage of milk protein, lactose and solids-not-fat (SNF) were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion (g/100 g fatty acids) of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increased (p<0.05) in milk of all cows fed diets supplemented with oil. The proportions of 6:0, 8:0, 10:0 12:0 and 14:0 fatty acids in milk fat decreased (p<0.01) for all diets supplemented with oil, but the proportions of 14:1, 16:0 and 16:1 fatty acids were not affected by diets (p>0.05). The proportion of trans(t)-18:1 increased (p<0.01) in milk fat of cows fed FO and FOCO diets, but CO diet had the highest proportion of cis(c)-11 18:1 (p<0.01). The concentration of t-10, c-12 18:2, c-9 t-11 18:2, 18:3, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6) increased (p<0.05) in FO and FOCO diets in comparison with the other two diets. These data indicate that including fish oil in combination with canola oil significantly modifies the fatty acid composition of milk.
Asian Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 03/2012; 25(3):311-9. DOI:10.5713/ajas.2010.10014 · 0.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of postpartum mastitis between first calving and subsequent conception on production and reproduction performance as well as culling of Holstein cows. A data set of 9,183 first lactation cows was used. Results showed that the first cumulative 100 days' milk production and the milk yield standardized to 305 days were affected by the interval from calving to first mastitis (P < 0.05). Cows with one episode of mastitis produced more milk than those with repeated episodes of mastitis (P < 0.01). Increase in the number of mastitis episodes and also decrease in interval between first calving and mastitis increased services per conception (P < 0.001). Mastitis episode and the interval between calving and first mastitis had no apparent impact on the calving to conception interval (P > 0.05). Calving year, calving difficulty score, and cumulative first 60 days milk production had significant impacts on mastitis risk (P < 0.05). The interval from calving to the first incidence of mastitis decreased over the period studied (P < 0.001). Productive life tended to be decreased due to mastitis (P = 0.07). Survival analysis showed a significant difference between the lengths of productive life for cows with different intervals from calving to first mastitis (P < 0.01). The results demonstrated that clinical mastitis between first calving and conception reduced production and reproduction performance with an increase in chance of culling.
Tropical Animal Health and Production 02/2012; 44(7):1567-73. DOI:10.1007/s11250-012-0107-3 · 0.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The major aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fat content of sunflower meal (150 and 30 g fat /kg dry matter, high and low fat, respectively) on population, growth and activity of rumen anaerobic fungi by using direct (quantitative competitive polymerase chain reaction, QC-PCR) and indirect (dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) disappearance in rumen fungi media culture for 12 days) methods. The results of QC-PCR showed that rumen anaerobic fungi population in the medium containing high fat sunflower meal was greater as compared to low fat sunflower meal (+0.14 vs. +0.10) (P<0.05). Also, disappearance of dry matter after 12 days incubation with rumen fungi will be 36.1 and 35.7 g/100 g DM for high and low fat sunflower meal, respectively) (P>0.05). High fat of sunflower meal caused increase in natural detergent fibre disappearance 12 days after culturing as compared to low fat sunflower meal (145.2 vs 139.2 mg/g dry matter, respectively) (P<0.05). Therefore, it appears that fat content of sunflower meal does not negatively affect the population, growth and activity of rumen fungi.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the effects of substituting various concentrations of dried molassed sugar beet pulp (SBP) for barley grain in low-forage diets on chewing behavior, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibilities and blood biochemical parameters using four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers in a 4 × 4 Latin square design over 28-day periods. Steers (368 ± 8 kg initial body weight) were fed 9.5 kg of dietary dry matter (DM) as a total mixed ration (TMR) (containing 350 g forage and 650 g concentrate per kg DM) twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h. The diets were formulated to supply approximately 2.3 times the maintenance requirements of the animals so that there was no refusal. Barley grain in the basal experimental diet (330 g/kg DM) was replaced with 0, 110, 220 and 330 g SBP on a DM basis to create the experimental diets SBP0, SBP110, SBP220 and SBP330, respectively. Ruminal fluid was collected by suction through the rumen cannula from before the morning feeding (0.0 h) to 8 h after feeding at 30-min intervals. Eating, ruminating and total chewing time linearly (P < 0.01) increased with the proportion of SBP in the diet. Moreover, mean ruminal pH showed linear and quadratic increases (P < 0.05) with the inclusion of SBP. In contrast, the substitution of SBP for barley grain resulted in a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.01) in the mean ruminal ammonia concentration, which was highest in steers fed SBP0. In addition inclusion of SBP gave significantly (P < 0.05) higher acetate and butyrate molar proportions and lower propionate and total volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations in the rumen fluid. Total tract apparent digestibility of DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) increased quadratically with the proportion of SBP in the diet, but crude protein (CP) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) digestibilities were similar among treatments. Plasma urea nitrogen (PUN) before the morning feeding decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with SBP inclusion and was highest and lowest for SBP0 and SBP330, respectively (21 vs. 16.26 mg/dl). Other blood biochemical parameters and venous blood gasses (including plasma glucose, blood pH, CO2 pressure, O2 pressure, oxygen saturation, base excess of extracellular fluid, base excess of blood and bicarbonate) were not affected by the treatments (P > 0.05). These results suggest that partial replacement of barley grain with SBP at low and moderate inclusion rates might improve the chewing behavior, ruminal environment and nutrient digestibility of Holstein steers fed low-forage diets.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Eighteen natural medicinal plant essential oils and garlic oil obtained from semi-arid climate were conducted to evaluate their effects on in vitro rumen microbial fermentation and their effectiveness for decrease in vitro ruminal methane production. 50 ml of buffered rumen fluid (1:2; rumen fluid: buffer solution) were introduced in 125 ml serum bottles containing 500 mg of 80:20 alfalfa hay to concentrate as basal diet and or basal diet plus 1 µ/ml of medium of medicinal essential oils or garlic oil (6 replicates for each treatment) and incubated for 24 h at 38.7°C. Head space gas pressure of each bottle was recorded using a pressure transducer at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16 and 24 h of the incubation and a sample was collected to determine methane concentration. In the end of incubation pH measured and samples were collected for ammonia nitrogen concentration and dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) disappearance were recorded and feed fermentation efficiency (FFE = mg IDMD/ ml accumulative gas produced at 24 h post incubation) were calculated. Medicinal plant essential oils which caused an increase in FFE and decrease in gas production in-contrast with those in control were selected as the candidates for gas analysis and determine their effects on methane concentration. All essential oils resulted in a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in total gas production (except in Rosemary, Dill, Clove, Fennel, Pistachio hull and black pepper) and both IDMD and ICPD (except in Black pepper, Rosemary and Dill). Of the 19 samples tested coriander, rosemary, cinnamon, red basil, oregano 2, black pepper, cumin, caraway and dill that selected as the candidates for gas analysis and determine their effects on methane concentration increase in FFE and decrease in gas production in contrast with those in control. Increase in FFE was more noticeable for thyme, lemon pulp and cinnamon essential oils (22, 21.95 and 3.2 times more than those of control, respectively). Results indicated that coriander, cinnamon, red basil, oregano 2, cumin, caraway and dill essential oils caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in total methane production (1.5, 0.3, 1.0, 1.3, 1.1, 1.1 and 2.0 compared with 2.3 in control as mmol/g DM incubated, respectively).