Kun-Ho Seo

Konkuk University, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (47)62.52 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The detection ability and selectivity of Karmali agar was improved by supplementation of an extended-spectrum β-lactamase inhibitor, potassium clavulanate. The optimum concentration of potassium clavulanate (0.5 μg/ml) in Karmali agar was determined by inoculation of 50 Campylobacter and 30 extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli strains onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing various concentrations of the agent. Eighty retail carcasses were rinsed with 400 ml of buffered peptone water. The rinse samples were enriched in 2 × blood-free Bolton enrichment broth at 42°C for 48 h and then were streaked onto normal and modified Karmali agar containing 0.5 μg/ml potassium clavulanate. The suspicious colonies were subcultured on Columbia blood agar and confirmed by colony PCR. In chicken carcass samples, the modified Karmali agar showed a significantly greater isolation rate than normal Karmali agar (42.5 versus 21.3%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the selectivity of the modified Karmali agar was also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of the normal Karmali agar, as seen by comparison of the number of contaminated agar plates (83.8 versus 97.5%) and the growth index (1.67 versus 2.91) of the non-Campylobacter colonies.
    Journal of food protection 07/2014; 77(7):1207-11. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We compared Bolton enrichment broth supplemented with antimicrobial triclosan (T-Bolton broth) and normal Bolton broth for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) from chicken carcass rinse. Whole chickens were rinsed with buffered peptone water prior to enrichment in normal Bolton broth or T-Bolton broth, followed by inoculation onto modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA). Suspect colonies were confirmed by PCR. We observed a significantly higher number of C. jejuni or C. coli-positive samples in the T-Bolton broth (71.3%) than in the normal Bolton broth (27.5%) (p<0.05). Furthermore, the number of contaminated mCCDA plates was lower after enrichment in T-Bolton broth (3.8%) than in the normal Bolton broth (75%) (p<0.05), indicating that T-Bolton broth has higher selectivity. Finally, we identified extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli as the predominant competing flora in normal Bolton broth. In conclusion, the use of T-Bolton broth results in significant elimination of competing bacteria.
    International journal of food microbiology 04/2014; 181C:37-39. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic and anti-obesity effects of grape seed flours derived from white and red winemaking processing were investigated using male Golden Syrian hamsters fed high-fat (HF) diets supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from Chardonnay (ChrSd), Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd), or Syrah (SyrSd) pomace as compared to a HF control diet for three weeks. Hamsters fed the ChrSd diet had significantly lowered plasma total-, VLDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the CabSd, SyrSd, and control. The improved plasma cholesterol after ChrSd was correlated with the up-regulation of hepatic genes related to cholesterol (CYP51) and bile acid (CYP7A1) synthesis as well as LDL-cholesterol uptake (LDLR). A reduction of hepatic lipid content was associated with altered expression of the genes related to lipid metabolism. However, fecal total lipid content was not changed. Expression of ileal apical sodium bile acid transporter (ASBT) was not affected by ChrSd, indicating unchanged ileal bile acid reabsorption. The anti-obesity effect of the ChrSd diet appears to be related to expression of adipogenesis- and inflammation-related genes in adipose tissue. These findings suggest that flavonoid-rich Chardonnay grape seed flour induced cholesterol-lowering, anti-obesity, and anti-inflammatory health benefits and attenuation of hepatic steatosis via regulation of gene expression related to cholesterol, bile acid, and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissue.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 02/2014; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E has traditionally been considered an endemic disease of developing countries. It generally spreads through contaminated water. However, seroprevalence studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are not uncommon in industrialized countries. In addition, the number of autochthonous hepatitis E cases in these countries is increasing. Most HEV infections in developed countries can be traced to the ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked pork meat or sausages. Several animal species, including pigs, are known reservoirs of HEV that transmit the virus to humans. HEVs are now recognized as an emerging zoonotic agent. In this review, we describe the general characteristics of HEVs isolated from humans and animals, the risk factors for human HEV infection, and the current status of human vaccine development.
    Clinical and experimental vaccine research. 01/2014; 3(1):29-36.
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    ABSTRACT: We compared Bolton enrichment broth supplemented with antimicrobial triclosan (T-Bolton broth) and normal Bolton broth for the isolation of Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) and Campylobacter coli (C. coli) from chicken carcass rinse. Whole chickens were rinsed with buffered peptone water prior to enrichment in normal Bolton broth or T-Bolton broth, followed by inoculation onto modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA). Suspect colonies were confirmed by PCR. We observed a significantly higher number of C. jejuni or C. coli-positive samples in the T-Bolton broth (71.3%) than in the normal Bolton broth (27.5%) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the number of contaminated mCCDA plates was lower after enrichment in T-Bolton broth (3.8%) than in the normal Bolton broth (75%) (p < 0.05), indicating that T-Bolton broth has higher selectivity. Finally, we identified extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli as the predominant competing flora in normal Bolton broth. In conclusion, the use of T-Bolton broth results in significant elimination of competing bacteria.
    International Journal of Food Microbiology. 01/2014; 181:37–39.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the prevalence of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis in eggs in South Korea, we conducted a microbiological survey of commercially available eggs produced in conventional or organic farms during the period from 2010 to 2012. The contents of 7,000 raw shell eggs (6,000 of conventional and 1,000 of organic origin) were examined to evaluate the extent and type of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. A total of 26 salmonellae (7.4% of all pooled samples) were isolated from 350 homogenized pools, each containing the contents from 20 eggs. An unexpected and particularly surprising finding was that all the Salmonella isolates were serotyped as Salmonella Gallinarum. Salmonella Gallinarum was more common in eggs from organic farms: 10 of 50 egg pools (20.0%) from organic and 16 of 300 egg pools (5.3%) from conventional farms tested positive for Salmonella Gallinarum. However, organic and conventional isolates showed similar antimicrobial susceptibilities. All the isolates and a vaccine strain, SG 9R, which has been widely used in South Korea, were further characterized using the automated repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) system, DiversiLab, to ascertain the molecular subtypes and to identify differences from the vaccine strain. The rep-PCR identified 2 distinct clusters among the 26 Salmonella Gallinarum isolates with a greater than 96% similarity index. These were clearly differentiated from the vaccine strain, SG 9R, with which there was a less than 86% similarity index. We found there was low genetic heterogeneity among isolates within each cluster and were able to distinguish wild type strains from the live vaccine strain (SG 9R) using the DiversiLab system.
    Poultry Science 10/2013; 92(10):2789-97. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) on hepatic gene expression was analyzed by exon microarray and real-time PCR from livers of diet-induced obese (DIO) mice fed a HF diet supplemented either 6% HPMC or 6% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). HPMC-fed mice exhibited significantly reduced body weight gain (55% lower compared to MCC), liver weight (13%), plasma LDL-cholesterol concentration (45%), and HF diet-increased intestinal permeability (48%). HPMC significantly reduced areas under the curve for 2-h insulin and glucose responses indicating enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism. HPMC upregulated hepatic genes related to fatty acid oxidation, cholesterol and bile acid synthesis, cellular activation of glucocorticoid (bile acid recycling), and downregulated genes related to oxidative stress, triglyceride synthesis, and polyunsaturated fatty acid elongation. In conclusion, HPMC consumption ameliorates the effects of a HF diet on intestinal permeability, insulin resistance, hepatic lipid accumulation, glucocorticoid-related bile acid recycling, oxidative stress, and weight gain in DIO mice.
    Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 06/2013; · 2.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: [This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.phrp.2012.12.005.].
    Osong public health and research perspectives. 06/2013; 4(3):176.
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    ABSTRACT: Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes highly contagious respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurological diseases in wild and domestic animal species. Despite a broad vaccination campaign, the disease is still a serious problem worldwide. In this study, six field CDV strains were isolated from three dogs, two raccoon dogs, and one badger in Korea. The full sequence of the genes encoding fusion (F) and hemagglutinin (H) proteins were compared with those of other CDVs including field and vaccine strains. The phylogenetic analysis for the F and H genes indicated that the two CDV strains isolated from dogs were most closely related to Chinese strains in the Asia-1 genotype. Another four strains were closely related to Japanese strains in the Asia-2 genotype. The six currently isolated strains shared 90.2-92.1 % and 88.2-91.8 % identities with eight commercial vaccine strains in their nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the F protein, respectively. They also showed 90.1-91.4 % and 87.8-90.7 % identities with the same vaccine strains in their nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the H protein, respectively. Different N-linked glycosylation sites were identified in the F and H genes of the six isolates from the prototype vaccine strain Onderstepoort. Collectively, these results demonstrate that at least two different CDV genotypes currently exist in Korea. The considerable genetic differences between the vaccine strains and wild-type isolates would be a major factor of the incomplete protection of dogs from CDV infections.
    Virus Genes 04/2013; · 1.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood-yolk-polymyxin B-trimethoprim agar (BYPTA) was developed by the addition of egg yolk, laked horse blood, sodium pyruvate, polymyxin B, and trimethoprim, and compared with mannitol-yolk-polymyxin B agar (MYPA) for the isolation and enumeration of Bacillus cereus (B. cereus) in pure culture and various food samples. In pure culture, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between the recoverability and sensitivity of MYPA and BYPTA, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher specificity (p<0.05). To evaluate BYPTA agar with food samples, B. cereus was experimentally spiked into six types of foods, triangle kimbab, sandwich, misugaru, Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. No statistical difference was observed in recoverability (p>0.05) between MYPA and BYPTA in all tested foods, whereas BYPTA exhibited higher selectivity than MYPA, especially in foods with high background microflora, such as Saengsik, red pepper powder, and soybean paste. The newly developed selective medium BYPTA could be a useful enumeration tool to assess the level of B. cereus in foods, particularly with high background microflora.
    International journal of food microbiology 04/2013; 165(2):144-147. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in raw poultry is one of the most common factors that interfere with the isolation of Campylobacter by cefoperazone-based selective agar. The performance of modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was improved by addition of an ESBL inhibitor, potassium clavulanate (0.5mg/L). The ability of the supplemented medium (C-mCCDA) to detect Campylobacter species from chicken carcass rinse was compared with that of normal mCCDA. The isolation rate using C-mCCDA was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared with that using mCCDA (C-mCCDA, 67 out of 120; mCCDA, 38 out of 120). Furthermore, the selectivity of the C-mCCDA as assessed by comparing the number of contaminated plates (C-mCCDA, 44 out of 120; mCCDA, 110 out of 120) and growth index (C-mCCDA, 1.76; mCCDA, 2.79) of competing flora was also better (p<0.05) than that of mCCDA.
    International journal of food microbiology 04/2013; 165(1):7-10. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives. 04/2013; 4(2):124.
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    ABSTRACT: The Karmali agar was modified by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a high concentration of polymyxin B on the ability and selectivity of the modified Karmali agar to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from whole chicken carcass rinse. A total of 80 whole chickens were rinsed with 400 mL of buffer peptone water. The rinsed samples were incubated with 2× blood-free modified Bolton enrichment broth for 48 h, and then streaked onto unmodified Karmali agar and modified Karmali agar supplemented with 100000 IU/L polymixin B (P-Karmali agar). The suspected colonies were finally confirmed by colony PCR. The P-Karmali agar exhibited a significantly better (P < 0.05) isolation rate than the unmodified Karmali agar (P-Karmali agar, 73.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 33.8%). Moreover, the selectivity of the P-Karmali agar was also better (P < 0.05) than that of the other selective agar when comparing the number of contaminated plates (P-Karmali agar, 68.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 87.5%) and growth index of competing flora (P-Karmali agar, 1.4; unmodified Karmali agar, 2.7). The improved selective agar excluded competing flora resistant to antibiotic agents in unmodified Karmali agar, increasing isolation rate and selectivity for C. jejuni and C. coli.
    Journal of Food Science 03/2013; · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) induces reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in pigs of all ages. Live attenuated and inactivated vaccines are used on swine farms to control PRRSV. However, their protective efficacy against field strains of PRRSV remains questionable. New vaccines have been developed to improve the efficacy of these traditional vaccines. In this study, virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of the GP5 and M proteins of PRRSV were developed, and the capacity of the VLPs to elicit antigen-specific immunity was evaluated. Serum antibody titers and production of cytokines were measured in BALB/C mice immunized intramuscularly three times with different doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 μg) of the VLP vaccine. A commercial vaccine consisting of inactivated PRRSV and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. IgG titers to GP5 were significantly higher in all groups of mice vaccinated with the VLPs than in control mice. Neutralizing antibodies were only detected in mice vaccinated with 2.0 and 4.0 μg of the VLPs. Cytokine levels were determined in cell culture supernatants after in vitro stimulation of splenocytes with the VLPs for 3 days. Mice immunized with 4.0 μg of the VLPs produced a significantly higher amount of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) than mice immunized with the commercial inactivated PRRSV vaccine and PBS. In contrast, immunization with the commercial vaccine induced higher production of IL-4 and IL-10 in mice than mice vaccinated with VLPs. These data together demonstrate the capacity of VLPs to induce both neutralizing antibodies and IFN-γ in immunized mice. The VLP vaccine developed in this study could serve as a platform for the generation of improved VLP vaccines to control PRRSV.
    Archives of Virology 02/2013; · 2.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the abilities of these subtyping methods, we distinguished Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) isolated from food products and human clinical samples between 2009 and 2010 in Seoul using five subtyping methods. We determined the subtypes of 20 S. Enteritidis isolates from food and human sources using phage typing, antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR), and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 20 tested isolates were differentiated into six antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, three different phage types, four different PFGE profiles, seven rep-PCR patterns, and one MLST type. Food isolates were considerably more susceptible to antibiotics than human isolates. We were best able to discriminate among S. Enteritidis isolates using rep-PCR, and obtained the highest Simpson's diversity index of 0.82, whereas other methods produced indices that were less than 0.71. PFGE pattern appeared to be more related to antimicrobial resistance and phage types of S. Enteritidis isolates than rep-PCR. MLST revealed identical alleles in all isolates at all seven loci examined, indicating no resolution. The results of this study suggest that rep-PCR provided the best discriminatory power for phenotypically similar S. Enteritidis isolates of food and human origins, whereas the discriminatory ability of MLST may be problematic because of the high sequence conservation of the targeted genes.
    Osong public health and research perspectives. 02/2013; 4(1):27-33.
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    ABSTRACT: A new Campylobacter-selective enrichment broth supplemented with bacteriological charcoal and a high concentration of polymyxin B was developed (charcoal-cefoperazone-polymyxin B-deoxycholate broth; CCPD broth). We compared the ability of CCPD broth to detect Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in chicken carcass rinses to that of modified Bolton (mBolton) broth. Eighty whole chickens were purchased from retailers and rinsed with 400mL buffered peptone water. The rinsed samples were enriched with 2× blood-free mBolton enrichment broth or 2× CCPD broth at 42°C for 48h and then streaked onto modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA). The Campylobacter isolation rate was significantly higher in CCPD broth than in mBolton broth (CCPD broth, 61 out of 80; mBolton broth, 34 out of 80; p<0.05). Moreover, the selectivity of CCPD broth agar was also superior to that of mBolton broth when comparing the number of contaminated mCCDA plates (CCPD broth, 16 out of 80; mBolton broth, 58 out of 80; p<0.05) and the growth index of competing flora (CCPD broth, 1.4; mBolton broth, 2.9; p<0.05).
    International journal of food microbiology 01/2013; 162(3):308-310. · 3.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a standard culture method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) in milk and meat products. Milk, dried infant formula, sausage and ground beef that had been artificially inoculated with S. aureus were enriched in tryptic soy broth. After the enrichment, a loopful was inoculated onto Baird-Parker agar with egg-yolk-tellurite. In parallel, 23S rRNA was amplified by PCR from samples of the enriched broth. Suspected S. aureus colonies grown on selective agars were finally confirmed by a coagulase test and colony PCR. No significant statistical differences were observed between the incidence of S. aureus detected by the culture method and the incidence detected by PCR, in milk or dried infant formula. However, in sausage and ground beef, the number of positives detected by PCR was significantly higher than by the culture method (p
    Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 01/2013; 45(6).
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) can infect not only human but also several animals. This study has been conducted to evaluate the comprehensive anti-HEV seroprevalence in zoo animals in Korea. Anti-HEV antibodies were identified in 14 of 64 zoo animal species. HEV antibodies were detected for the first time in Eurasian Lynx, Setland Pony, Fallow Deer, Ezo Sika, Formosa Deer, East Wapitis, Barasingha, Corriedale, American Bison, Guanacos, Reticulated Giraffe, and Saanen. These results indicate that the several zoo animal species were exposed to HEV.
    Korean Journal of Veterinary Research. 01/2013; 53(1).
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a total of 256 samples of retail raw meats (beef, pork and chicken) and sashimi were investigated for the presence of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. We isolated a total of 117 E. faecalis and E. faecium from the samples, with contamination rates ranging from 18.8% for sashimi samples to 68.8% of chicken samples. E. faecalis was the predominant species recovered from all of the retail raw meats beef (42.2%), pork (42.2%), chicken (65.6%) and sashimi (12.5%). Among 117 isolates, 61 isolates (52.1%) were resistant to tetracycline, 32 isolates (27.4%) were resistant to erythromycin, 23 isolates (19.7%) were resistant to chloramphenicol, 16 isolates (13.7%) were resistant to ripampin, 10 isolates (8.5%) were resistant to gentamycin, 9 isolates (7.7%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin and 1 isolate (0.9%) was resistant to ampicillin and penicillin G. No resistance to amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and vancomycin was observed. Although no strain was resistant to vancomycin, the vanB gene was observed in 9 of 117 of Enterococcus (7.7%) demonstrating potential risk of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Our results indicate that E. faecalis and E. faecium were highly prevalent in retail raw meats, but most strains were sensitive to tested antibiotics.
    Hangug chugsan sigpum haghoeji = Korean journal for food science of animal resources 01/2013; 33(1). · 0.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare a conventional culture method and real-time PCR for the detection of Yersinia enterocolitica (Y. enterocolitica) in sausage and in vegetable salad. Food samples inoculated with Y. enterocolitica were enriched in peptone-sorbitol bile-broth, and swabs were then streaked onto cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin agar. Biochemical tests for suspected colonies were performed with an API 20E strip. In parallel, real-time PCR was performed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene using 1 mL of enrichment broth. In sausage, the number of positive samples detected by culture method (49 out of 60) was similar (p>0.05) with that of real-time PCR (50 out of 60). However, the number of positive samples of real-time PCR (26 out of 60) was significantly higher (p
    Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 01/2013; 45(1).