[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Bluejay genome browser has been developed over several years to address the challenges posed by the ever increasing number of data types as well as the increasing volume of data in genome research. Beginning with a browser capable of rendering views of XML-based genomic information and providing scalable vector graphics output, we have now completed version 1.0 of the system with many additional features. Our development efforts were guided by our observation that biologists who use both gene expression profiling and comparative genomics gain functional insights above and beyond those provided by traditional per-gene analyses.
Bluejay 1.0 is a genome viewer integrating genome annotation with: (i) gene expression information; and (ii) comparative analysis with an unlimited number of other genomes in the same view. This allows the biologist to see a gene not just in the context of its genome, but also its regulation and its evolution. Bluejay now has rich provision for personalization by users: (i) numerous display customization features; (ii) the availability of waypoints for marking multiple points of interest on a genome and subsequently utilizing them; and (iii) the ability to take user relevance feedback of annotated genes or textual items to offer personalized recommendations. Bluejay 1.0 also embeds the Seahawk browser for the Moby protocol, enabling users to seamlessly invoke hundreds of Web Services on genomic data of interest without any hard-coding.
Bluejay offers a unique set of customizable genome-browsing features, with the goal of allowing biologists to quickly focus on, analyze, compare, and retrieve related information on the parts of the genomic data they are most interested in. We expect these capabilities of Bluejay to benefit the many biologists who want to answer complex questions using the information available from completely sequenced genomes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of type II tumor suppressors (ING1-ING5) is involved in many cellular processes such as cell aging, apoptosis, DNA repair and tumorigenesis. To expand our understanding of the proteins with which the ING proteins interact, we designed a method that did not depend upon large-scale proteomics-based methods, since they may fail to highlight transient or relatively weak interactions. Here we test a cross-species (yeast, fly, and human) bioinformatics-based approach to identify potential human ING-interacting proteins with higher probability and accuracy than approaches based on screens in a single species.
We confirm the validity of this screen and show that ING1 interacts specifically with three of the three proteins tested; p38MAPK, MEKK4 and RAD50. These novel ING-interacting proteins further link ING proteins to cell stress and DNA damage signaling, providing previously unknown upstream links to DNA damage response pathways in which ING1 participates. The bioinformatics approach we describe can be used to create an interaction prediction list for any human proteins with yeast homolog(s).
None of the validated interactions were predicted by the conventional protein-protein interaction tools we tested. Validation of our approach by traditional laboratory techniques shows that we can extract value from the voluminous weak interaction data already elucidated in yeast and fly databases. We therefore propose that the weak (low signal to noise ratio) data from large-scale interaction datasets are currently underutilized.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The genome sequence of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was reanalyzed to design unique 70-mer oligonucleotide probes against 2,824 probable protein-coding regions. These included three genes not previously annotated, including one that encodes a c-type cytochrome. Using microarrays printed with these 70-mer probes, we analyzed the gene expression profile of wild-type D. vulgaris grown on cathodic hydrogen, generated at an iron electrode surface with an imposed negative potential of -1.1 V (cathodic protection conditions). The gene expression profile of cells grown on cathodic hydrogen was compared to that of cells grown with gaseous hydrogen bubbling through the culture. Relative to the latter, the electrode-grown cells overexpressed two hydrogenases, the hyn-1 genes for [NiFe] hydrogenase 1 and the hyd genes, encoding [Fe] hydrogenase. The hmc genes for the high-molecular-weight cytochrome complex, which allows electron flow from the hydrogenases across the cytoplasmic membrane, were also overexpressed. In contrast, cells grown on gaseous hydrogen overexpressed the hys genes for [NiFeSe] hydrogenase. Cells growing on the electrode also overexpressed genes encoding proteins which promote biofilm formation. Although the gene expression profiles for these two modes of growth were distinct, they were more closely related to each other than to that for cells grown in a lactate- and sulfate-containing medium. Electrochemically measured corrosion rates were lower for iron electrodes covered with hyn-1, hyd, and hmc mutant biofilms than for wild-type biofilms. This confirms the importance, suggested by the gene expression studies, of the corresponding gene products in D. vulgaris-mediated iron corrosion.
Applied and environmental microbiology 05/2008; 74(8):2404-13. · 3.69 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hyperthermophilic, facultatively heterotrophic crenarchaeum Thermoproteus tenax was analyzed using a low-coverage shotgun-sequencing approach. A total of 1.81 Mbp (representing 98.5% of the total genome), with an average gap size of 100 bp and 5.3-fold coverage, are reported, giving insights into the genome of T. tenax. Genome analysis and biochemical studies enabled us to reconstruct its central carbohydrate metabolism. T. tenax uses a variant of the reversible Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and two different variants of the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway (a nonphosphorylative variant and a semiphosphorylative variant) for carbohydrate catabolism. For the EMP pathway some new, unexpected enzymes were identified. The semiphosphorylative ED pathway, hitherto supposed to be active only in halophiles, is found in T. tenax. No evidence for a functional pentose phosphate pathway, which is essential for the generation of pentoses and NADPH for anabolic purposes in bacteria and eucarya, is found in T. tenax. Most genes involved in the reversible citric acid cycle were identified, suggesting the presence of a functional oxidative cycle under heterotrophic growth conditions and a reductive cycle for CO2 fixation under autotrophic growth conditions. Almost all genes necessary for glycogen and trehalose metabolism were identified in the T. tenax genome.
Journal of Bacteriology 05/2004; 186(7):2179-94. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have adapted the Java Molecular Viewer (JMV) to virtual reality display environments, through a number of extensions to the Java 3D code. Phylogenetic information derived from multiple alignments (temporal information) can be overlaid onto molecule structures (spatial information). The number of sequences included in the underlying multiple alignment can be changed instantaneously, resulting in dynamical updates of the displayed information. JMV was also extended to handle an infinite number of objects (molecules) in the same display. The objects can be manipulated in six degrees of freedom simultaneously or independently. We have used the small subunit ribosomal RNA to demonstrate the system (http:// cave.ucalgary.ca), which can be used for any molecule with a resolved structure.
International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Life 01/2003; 55(4-5):279-83. · 2.79 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The ability of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans to switch from a yeast to a hyphal morphology in response to external signals is implicated in its pathogenicity. We used glass DNA microarrays to investigate the transcription profiles of 6333 predicted ORFs in cells undergoing this transition and their responses to changes in temperature and culture medium. We have identified several genes whose transcriptional profiles are similar to those of known virulence factors that are modulated by the switch to hyphal growth caused by addition of serum and a 37 degrees C growth temperature. Time course analysis of this transition identified transcripts that are induced before germ tube initiation and shut off later in the developmental process. A strain deleted for the Efg1p and Cph1p transcription factors is defective in hyphae formation, and its response to serum and increased temperature is almost identical to the response of a wild-type strain grown at 37 degrees C in the absence of serum. Thus Efg1p and Cph1p are needed for the activation of the transcriptional program that is induced by the presence of serum.
Molecular Biology of the Cell 11/2002; 13(10):3452-65. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The phylogenetic relationships of amoebae are poorly resolved. To address this difficult question, we have sequenced 1,280 expressed sequence tags from Mastigamoeba balamuthi and assembled a large data set containing 123 genes for representatives of three phenotypically highly divergent major amoeboid lineages: Pelobionta, Entamoebidae, and Mycetozoa. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed on approximately 25,000 aa positions for 30 species by using maximum-likelihood approaches. All well-established eukaryotic groups were recovered with high statistical support, validating our approach. Interestingly, the three amoeboid lineages strongly clustered together in agreement with the Conosa hypothesis [as defined by T. Cavalier-Smith (1998) Biol. Rev. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 73, 203-266]. Two amitochondriate amoebae, the free-living Mastigamoeba and the human parasite Entamoeba, formed a significant sister group to the exclusion of the mycetozoan Dictyostelium. This result suggested that a part of the reductive process in the evolution of Entamoeba (e.g., loss of typical mitochondria) occurred in its free-living ancestors. Applying this inexpensive expressed sequence tag approach to many other lineages will surely improve our understanding of eukaryotic evolution.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2002; 99(3):1414-9. · 9.74 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The taxonomic position and phylogenetic relationships of the Pelobionta, an amitochondriate amoeboflagellate group, are not yet completely settled. To provide more information, we obtained sequences for the large subunit rDNA gene, the gene for translation elongation factor 1alpha, and for a large part of the gene encoding translation elongation factor 2 from a representative of this group, Mastigamoeba balamuthi (formerly Phreatamoeba balamuthi). The gene for the large subunit rDNA was unusually large compared to those of other protists, a phenomenon that had previously been observed for the gene encoding the small subunit rDNA. Phylogenetic reconstruction using a maximum likelihood method was performed with these sequences, as well as the gene encoding the small subunit rDNA. When evaluated individually, the M. balamuthi genes for the small and large subunit rDNAs and elongation factor 1alpha had a most recent common ancestor with either the Mycetozoa (slime molds) or with Entamoeba histolytica. A clade formed by M. balamuthi, E. histolytica, and Mycetozoa was not rejected statistically for any of the sequences. A combined maximum likelihood analysis using 3,935 positions from all molecules suggested that these three taxonomic units form a robust clade. We were unable to resolve the closest group to this clade using the combined analysis. These findings support the notion, which had previously been proposed primarily on cytological evidence, that both M. balamuthi and E. histolytica are closely related to the Mycetozoa and that these three together represent a major eukaryotic lineage.
Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology 01/2002; 49(1):1-10. · 2.16 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inorganic pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) of the amitochondriate eukaryote Mas- tigamoeba balamuthi was sequenced and showed about 60% identity to PPi-PFKs from two eubacteria, Propi- onibacterium freudenreichii and Sinorhizobium meliloti. These gene products represent a newly recognized lineage of PFKs. All four lineages of group II PFKs, as defined by phylogenetic analysis, contained both prokaryotic and eukaryotic species, underlining the complex evolutionary history of this enzyme. We have recently extended our studies on glycolytic enzymes of parasitic amitochondriate eukaryotes (20) to the free-living Mastigamoeba balamuthi (ATCC 30984) (6) with the goal of comparing the metabolic properties of anaerobic and mi- croaerophilic eukaryotes with dramatically different life styles. This species belongs to the pelobionts, a group of amitochond- riate amoeboflagellate protists of uncertain evolutionary posi- tion (5, 25). We noted that the sequence of its phosphofruc-
Journal of Bacteriology 01/2001; 183(22):6714-6716. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The sequence of a 281-kbp contig from the crenarchaeote Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 was determined and analysed. Notable features in this region include 29 ribosomal protein genes, 12 tRNA genes (four of which contain archaeal-type introns), operons encoding enzymes of histidine biosynthesis, pyrimidine biosynthesis, and arginine biosynthesis, an ATPase operon, numerous genes for enzymes of lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, and six insertion sequences. The content and organization of this contig are compared with sequences from crenarchaeotes, euryarchaeotes, bacteria, and eukaryotes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 genome collaborators are poised to sequence the entire 3-Mbp genome of this crenarchaeote archaeon. About 80% of the genome has been sequenced to date, with the rest of the sequence being assembled fast. In this publication we introduce the genomic sequencing and automated analysis strategy and present intial data derived from the sequence analysis. After an overview of the general sequence features, metabolic pathway studies are explained, using sugar metabolism as an example. The paper closes with an overview of repetitive elements in S. solfataricus.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract: The World Wide Web illustrates the power of using a common, simple markup language (HTML) to describe distributed documents. To expand this power to other types of data, a system for the markup and visualization of linear data is introduced. The Browser for Linear Units in Java (Bluejay) is composed of three main components: (i) a set of Java foundation classes for data parsing, visualization, and user event handling, (ii) an HTTP proxy server for data conversion, and (iii) Java classes implementing the user interface for a particular application of the browser. Bluejay users can efficiently browse specialized data on the Web, concentrating on information of particular interest to them. This is achieved through the use of the W3C's Extensible Markup Language (XML) as the data format, a data conversion server, and a document components tree which can be configured to restrict the type of data shown. An application of Bluejay for browsing genetic sequence data encoded in BIOML ...
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 genome collaborators are poised to sequence the entire 3-Mbp genome of this crenarchaeote archaeon. About 80% of the genome
has been sequenced to date, with the rest of the sequence being assembled fast. In this publication we introduce the genomic
sequencing and automated analysis strategy and present intial data derived from the sequence analysis. After an overview of
the general sequence features, metabolic pathway studies are explained, using sugar metabolism as an example. The paper closes
with an overview of repetitive elements in S. solfataricus.