J. R. Drummond

Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

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Publications (355)483.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of a long-range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wild-land fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event, but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long-range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ∼ 24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present ob-serving network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 08/2014; 14:8449-8460. DOI:10.5194/acp-14-8449-2014 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present measurements of a long range smoke transport event recorded on 20–21 July 2011 over Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS-B) campaign. Ground-based Fourier transform spectrometers and photometers detected air masses associated with large wildland fires burning in eastern Manitoba and western Ontario. We investigate a plume with high trace gas amounts but low amounts of particles that preceded and overlapped at the Halifax site with a second plume with high trace gas loadings and significant amounts of particulate material. We show that the first plume experienced a meteorological scavenging event but the second plume had not been similarly scavenged. This points to the necessity to account carefully for the plume history when considering long range transport since simultaneous or near-simultaneous times of arrival are not necessarily indicative of either similar trajectories or meteorological history. We investigate the origin of the scavenged plume, and the possibility of an aerosol wet deposition event occurring in the plume ~24 h prior to the measurements over Halifax. The region of lofting and scavenging is only monitored on an intermittent basis by the present observing network, and thus we must consider many different pieces of evidence in an effort to understand the early dynamics of the plume. Through this discussion we also demonstrate the value of having many simultaneous remote-sensing measurements in order to understand the physical and chemical behaviour of biomass burning plumes.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 02/2014; 14:3395-3426. DOI:10.5194/acpd-14-3395-2014 · 4.88 Impact Factor
  • C. Viatte · K. Strong · K. A. Walker · J. R. Drummond
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    ABSTRACT: We present a five-year time series of seven tropospheric species measured using a ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL; Eureka, Nunavut, Canada; 80 degrees 05' N, 86 degrees 42' W) from 2007 to 2011. Total columns and temporal variabilities of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ethane (C2H6) as well as the first derived total columns at Eureka of acetylene (C2H2), methanol (CH3OH), formic acid (HCOOH) and formaldehyde (H2CO) are investigated, providing a new data set in the sparsely sampled high latitudes. Total columns are obtained using the SFIT2 retrieval algorithm based on the optimal estimation method. The microwindows as well as the a priori profiles and variabilities are selected to optimize the information content of the retrievals, and error analyses are performed for all seven species. Our retrievals show good sensitivities in the troposphere. The seasonal amplitudes of the time series, ranging from 34 to 104%, are captured while using a single a priori profile for each species. The time series of the CO, C2H6 and C2H2 total columns at PEARL exhibit strong seasonal cycles with maxima in winter and minima in summer, in opposite phase to the HCN, CH3OH, HCOOH and H2CO time series. These cycles result from the relative contributions of the photochemistry, oxidation and transport as well as biogenic and biomass burning emissions. Comparisons of the FTIR partial columns with coincident satellite measurements by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) show good agreement. The correlation coefficients and the slopes range from 0.56 to 0.97 and 0.50 to 3.35, respectively, for the seven target species. Our new data set is compared to previous measurements found in the literature to assess atmospheric budgets of these tropospheric species in the high Arctic. The CO and C2H6 concentrations are consistent with negative trends observed over the Northern Hemisphere, attributed to fossil fuel emission decrease. The importance of poleward transport for the atmospheric budgets of HCN and C2H2 is highlighted. Columns and variabilities of CH3OH and HCOOH at PEARL are comparable to previous measurements performed at other remote sites. However, the small columns of H2CO in early May might reflect its large atmospheric variability and/or the effect of the updated spectroscopic parameters used in our retrievals. Overall, emissions from biomass burning contribute to the day-to-day variabilities of the seven tropospheric species observed at Eureka.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 01/2014; 7(6):1547-1570. DOI:10.5194/amt-7-1547-2014 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In August 2010, simultaneous enhancements of aerosol optical depth and total columns of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and ethane (C2H6) were observed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL, 80.05°N, −86.42°W, 0.61 km above sea level, Eureka, Nunavut, Canada). Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) hot spots, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) aerosol index maps, and Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) back-trajectories were used to attribute these enhancements to an intense boreal fire event occurring in Russia. A ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometer at PEARL provided vertically integrated measurements of trace gases transported in smoke plumes. We derived HCN and C2H6 equivalent emission ratios with respect to CO of 0.0054 ± 0.0022 and 0.0108 ± 0.0036, respectively, and converted them into equivalent emission factors of 0.66 ± 0.27 g kg−1 and 1.47 ± 0.50 g kg−1 (in grams of gas per kilogram of dry biomass burnt, with one-sigma uncertainties). These emission factors add new observations to the relatively sparse datasets available and can be used to improve the simulation of biomass burning fire emissions in chemical transport models. These emission factors for the boreal forest are in agreement with the mean values recently reported in a compilation study.
    Atmosphere-ocean 12/2013; 51(5). DOI:10.1080/07055900.2013.823373 · 1.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of total column measurements of CO, C2 H6 and fine-mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the “Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites” (BORTAS-B) campaign over eastern Canada. Ground-based observations, using Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) and sun photometers, were carried out in July and August 2011. These measurements were taken in Halifax, Nova Scotia, which is an ideal location to monitor the outflow of boreal fires from North America, and also in Toronto, Ontario. Measurements of fine-mode AOD enhancements were highly correlated with enhancements in coincident trace gas (CO and C2H6) observations between 19 and 21 July 2011, which is typical for a smoke plume event. In this paper, we focus on the identification of the origin and the transport of this smoke plume. We use back trajectories calculated by the Canadian Meteorological Centre as well as FLEXPART forward trajectories to demonstrate that the enhanced CO, C2H6 and fine-mode AOD seen near Halifax and Toronto originated from forest fires in northwestern Ontario that occurred between 17 and 19 July 2011. In addition, total column measurements of CO from the satellite-borne Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) have been used to trace the smoke plume and to confirm the origin of the CO enhancement. Furthermore, the enhancement ratio – that is, in this case equivalent to the emission ratio (ERC2 H6 /CO) – was estimated from these ground- based observations. These C2 H6 emission results from boreal fires in northwestern Ontario agree well with C2H6 emission measurements from other boreal regions, and are relatively high compared to fires from other geographical regions. The ground-based CO and C2H6 observations were compared with outputs from the 3-D global chemical trans- port model GEOS-Chem, using the Fire Locating And Modeling of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) inventory. Agreement within the stated measurement uncertainty (∼ 3 % for CO and ∼ 8 % for C2H6) was found for the magnitude of the enhancement of the CO and C2H6 total columns between the measured and modelled results. However, there is a small shift in time (of approximately 6 h) of arrival of the plume over Halifax between the results.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 10/2013; 13:10227-10241. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-10227-2013 · 5.30 Impact Factor
  • P.F. Fogal · L.M. Leblanc · J.R. Drummond
  • Pierre F. Fogal · Lisa M. LeBlanc · James R. Drummond
    09/2013; 66(3):377. DOI:10.14430/arctic4321
  • C. E. Meek · A. H. Manson · W. K. Hocking · J. R. Drummond
    Annales Geophysicae 07/2013; 31(7):1267-1277. DOI:10.5194/angeo-31-1267-2013 · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We describe the design and execution of the BORTAS (Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants using Aircraft and Satellites) experiment, which has the overarching objective of understanding the chemical aging of airmasses that contain the emission products from seasonal boreal wildfires and how these airmasses subsequently impact downwind atmospheric composition. The central focus of the experiment was a two-week deployment of the UK BAe-146-301 Atmospheric Research Aircraft (ARA) over eastern Canada. The planned July 2010 deployment of the ARA was postponed by 12 months because of activities related to the dispersal of material emitted by the Eyjafjallajo¨kull volcano. However, most other planned model and measurement activities, including ground-based measurements at the Dalhousie University Ground Station (DGS), enhanced ozonesonde launches, and measurements at the Pico Atmospheric Observatory in the Azores, went ahead and constituted phase A of the experiment. Phase B of BORTAS in July 2011 included the same measurements, but included the ARA, special satellite observations and a more comprehensive measurement suite at the DGS. The high-frequency aircraft data provided a comprehensive snapshot of the pyrogenic plumes from wildfires. The coordinated ground-based and sonde data provided detailed but spatially-limited information that put the aircraft data into context of the longer burning season. We coordinated aircraft vertical profiles and overpasses of the NASA Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer and the Canadian Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment. These space-borne data, while less precise than other data, helped to relate the two-week measurement campaign to larger geographical and longer temporal scales. We interpret these data using a range of chemistry models: from a near-explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism, which tests out under standing of the underlying chemical mechanism, to regional and global 3-D models of atmospheric transport and lumped chemistry, which helps to assess the performance of the simplified chemical mechanism and effectively act as intermediaries between different measurement types. We also present an overview of some of the new science that has originated from this project from the mission planning and execution to the analysis of the ground-based, aircraft, and space-borne data.
    ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS 07/2013; 13:6239-6261. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-6239-2013 · 5.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This presentation will describe the use of ground-based FTIR spectroscopy to measure atmospheric composition. It will focus on measurements made at the UofT Atmospheric Observatory and the high-Arctic PEARL facility, and introduce a new Canadian FTIR network.
    Fourier Transform Spectroscopy; 06/2013
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    ABSTRACT: The Extended-range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (E-AERI) was installed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada in October 2008. Spectra from the E-AERI provide information about the radiative balance and budgets of trace gases in the Canadian high Arctic. Measurements are taken every 7 min year-round, including polar night when the solar-viewing spectrometers at PEARL are not operated. This allows E-AERI measurements to fill the gap in the PEARL dataset during the four months of polar night. Measurements were taken year-round in 2008-2009 at the PEARL Ridge Lab, which is 610 m a.s.l. (above sea-level), and from 2011 onwards at the Zero-Altitude PEARL Auxiliary Lab (0PAL), which is at sea level 15 km from the Ridge Lab. Total columns of O3, CO, CH4, and N2O have been retrieved using a modified version of the SFIT2 retrieval algorithm adapted for emission spectra. This provides the first ground-based nighttime measurements of these species at Eureka. Changes in the total columns driven by photochemistry and dynamics are observed. Analyses of E-AERI retrievals indicate accurate spectral fits (root-mean-square residuals consistent with noise) and a 10-15% uncertainty in the total column, depending on the trace gas. O3 comparisons between the E-AERI and a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, three Brewer spectrophotometers, two UV-visible ground-based spectrometers, and a System D'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) at PEARL are made from 2008-2009 and for 2011. 125HR CO, CH4, and N2O columns are also compared with the E-AERI measurements. Mean relative differences between the E-AERI and the other spectrometers are 1-10% (14% is for the un-smoothed profiles), which are less than the E-AERI's total column uncertainties. The E-AERI O3 and CO measurements are well correlated with the other spectrometers (r > 0.92 with the 125HR). The 24 h diurnal cycle and 365-day seasonal cycle of CO are observed and their amplitudes are quantified by the E-AERI (6-12 and 46%, respectively). The seasonal variability of H2O has an impact on the retrievals, leading to larger uncertainties in the summer months. Despite increased water vapour at the lower-altitude site 0PAL, measurements at 0PAL are consistent with measurements at PEARL.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 06/2013; 6(6):1549-1565. DOI:10.5194/amt-6-1549-2013 · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wild fires started by lightning are a significant source of carbonaceous aerosols and trace gases to the atmosphere. Careful observations of biomass burning plumes are required to quantify the long range transport and chemical evolution of the outflow from these fires. During the summer of 2011 an international effort - the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) project - led by the University of Edinburgh, evaluated the chemistry and dynamics of Boreal biomass burning plumes through aircraft, satellite, and ground-based measurements. The Dalhousie Ground Station (DGS), located in Halifax, Nova Scotia, provided ground support to the BORTAS campaign. Two Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs) provided solar absorption measurements of trace gases while two photometers provided aerosol optical depths. On 20 July 2011 a plume of elevated carbon monoxide and other trace gases was detected by the FTS instruments at the DGS; however, particulate data gathered from the co-located sun photometer and the Dalhousie Raman Lidar system showed no enhancement of fine-mode aerosol for the initial 7 hours of the event. After that time, particulates increased in abundance and a peak aerosol optical depth of 2.3 was measured on 21 July. FLEXPART trajectory analyses suggest that this plume originated in fires that were burning in Northwestern Ontario and Eastern Manitoba from 17 to 19 July. Despite the sparse observing network in the region, there is ample evidence of a significant lofting event via the same meso-scale convective system that tempered the burning on the 19th. We will provide an overview of this event and present evidence that precipitation scavenging was the most likely mechanism for the observed aerosol/trace gas anomaly. Support for this this research was provided by the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.
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    ABSTRACT: The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) instrument on the SCISAT satellite collects solar occultation spectra that can be used to derive profiles of atmospheric pressure and temperature using absorption the A- and B-band bands of molecular oxygen. These retrievals are performed with a global fit that simultaneously fits all spectra from a single occultation to determine a density profile, which is then used to determine pressure and temperature. The forward model uses a fast line-by-line calculation and correlated-k technique to accurately model atmospheric absorption and the nonlinear saturation effects in the occultation geometry. The algorithm is applied to several occultation observations in Arctic winter, spring, and the tropics, and during the Eureka 2004 and 2005 ACE validation campaigns. Comparisons with the ACE-FTS (Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and coincident radiosondes show mean biases between MAESTRO profiles of 2 to 5% in pressure and less than 5 K in temperature.
    The atmospheric chemistry experiment ACE at 10, 1 edited by P.F Bernath, 02/2013: chapter Chaper 18: pages 261-270; A. Deepak Publishing., ISBN: 978-0-937194--54-6
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    ABSTRACT: The Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) spectrophotometer on the SCISAT satellite is a simple, compact instrument for the measurement of atmospheric extinction, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and other trace gases in the stratosphere and upper troposphere as part of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) mission. The following pages provide an overview of the instrument from its heritage and performance requirements to its realization, including optical design, pre_launch and on_orbit performance and includes some retrieved profiles of O3, NO2 and aerosol.
    The atmospheric chemistry experiment ACE at 10, 1 edited by P.F Bernath, 02/2013: chapter Chapter 5: pages 81-101; A. Deepak Publishing., ISBN: 978-0-937194--54-6
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    ABSTRACT: We present the results of total column measurements of CO, C2H6 and fine mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) during the "Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites" (BORTAS-B) campaign over Eastern Canada. Ground-based observations, using Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) and sun photometers, were carried out in July and August 2011. These measurements were taken in Halifax, Nova Scotia, which is an ideal location to monitor the outflow of boreal fires from North America, and also in Toronto, Ontario. Measurements of fine mode AOD enhancements were highly correlated with enhancements in coincident trace gas (CO and C2H6) observations between 19 and 21 July 2011, which is typical for a smoke plume event. In this paper, we focus on the identification of the origin and the transport of this smoke plume. We use back-trajectories calculated by the Canadian Meteorological Centre as well as FLEXPART forward-trajectories to demonstrate that the enhanced CO, C2H6 and fine mode AOD seen near Halifax and Toronto originated from forest fires in Northwestern Ontario that occurred between 17 and 19 July 2011. In addition, total column measurements of CO from the satellite-borne Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) have been used to trace the smoke plume and to confirm the origin of the CO enhancement. Furthermore, the emission ratio (ERC2H6/CO) and the emission factor (EFC2H6) of C2H6 (with respect to the CO emission) were estimated from these ground-based observations. These C2H6 emission results from boreal fires in Northwestern Ontario agree well with C2H6 emission measurements from other boreal regions, and are relatively high compared to fires from other geographical regions. The ground-based CO and C2H6 observations were compared with outputs from the 3-D global chemical transport model GEOS-Chem, using the Fire Locating And Monitoring of Burning Emissions (FLAMBE) inventory. Agreement within the stated measurement uncertainty was found for the magnitude of the enhancement of the total columns of CO (~3%) and C2H6 (~8%) between the measured and modelled results. However, there is a small shift in time (of approximately 6 h) of arrival of the plume over Halifax between the results.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2013; 13(4):11071-11109. DOI:10.5194/acpd-13-11071-2013 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distributions are controlled by anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, transport and oxidation by reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH). Quantifying trends in CO is therefore important for understanding changes related to all of these contributions. Here we present a comprehensive record of satellite observations from 2000 through 2011 of total column CO using the available measurements from nadir-viewing thermal infrared instruments: MOPITT, AIRS, TES and IASI. We examine trends for CO in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres along with regional trends for Eastern China, Eastern USA, Europe and India. We find that all the satellite observations are consistent with a modest decreasing trend ∼-1% yr-1 in total column CO over the Northern Hemisphere for this time period and a less significant, but still decreasing trend in the Southern Hemisphere. Although decreasing trends in the United States and Europe have been observed from surface CO measurements, we also find a decrease in CO over E. China that, to our knowledge, has not been reported previously. Some of the interannual variability in the observations can be explained by global fire emissions, but the overall decrease needs further study to understand the implications for changes in anthropogenic emissions.
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 01/2013; 13(2-2):837-850. DOI:10.5194/acp-13-837-2013 · 4.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Extended-range Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (E-AERI) was installed at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut, Canada in October 2008. Spectra from the E-AERI provide information about the radiative balance and budgets of trace gases in the Canadian high Arctic. Measurements are taken every seven minutes year-round, including polar night when the solar-viewing spectrometers at PEARL are not operated. This allows E-AERI measurements to fill the gap in the PEARL dataset during the four months of polar night. Measurements were taken year-round in 2008-2009 at the PEARL Ridge Lab, which is 610 m above sea-level, and from 2011-onwards at the Zero-Altitude PEARL Auxiliary Lab (0PAL), which is 15 km from the Ridge Lab at sea level. Total columns of O3, CO, CH4, and N2O have been retrieved using a modified version of the SFIT2 retrieval algorithm adapted for emission spectra. This provides the first nighttime measurements of these species at Eureka. Changes in the total columns driven by photochemistry and dynamics are observed. Analyses of E-AERI retrievals indicate accurate spectral fits (root-mean-square residuals < 1.5%) and a 10-15% uncertainty in the total column, depending on the trace gas. O3 comparisons between the E-AERI and a Bruker IFS 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, three Brewer spectrophotometers, two UV-visible ground-based spectrometers, and a System D'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) at PEARL are made from 2008-2009 and for 2011. 125HR CO, CH4, and N2O columns are also compared with the E-AERI measurements. Mean relative differences between the E-AERI and the other spectrometers are 1-14% (depending on the gas), which are less than the E-AERI's total column uncertainties. The E-AERI O3 and CO measurements are well correlated with the other spectrometers; the best correlation is with the 125HR (r > 0.92). The 24-h diurnal cycle and 365-day seasonal cycle of CO are observed and their amplitudes are quantified by the E-AERI (6-12% and 46%, respectively). The seasonal variability of H2O has an impact on the retrievals, leading to larger uncertainties in the summer months. Despite increased water vapour at the lower-altitude site 0PAL, measurements at 0PAL are consistent with measurements at PEARL.
    01/2013; 6(1):547-586. DOI:10.5194/amtd-6-547-2013
  • Glen Lesins · Thomas J. Duck · James R. Drummond
    Journal of Climate 12/2012; 25(23):8277-8288. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00711.1 · 4.90 Impact Factor
  • S. K. Kristoffersen · W. E. Ward · S. Brown · J. R. Drummond
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    ABSTRACT: The advanced E-Region Wind Interferometer (ERWIN II) combines the imaging capabilities of a CCD detector with the wide field associated with field widened Michelson interferometry. This instrument is capable of simultaneous multi-directional wind observations for three different airglow emissions (oxygen green line (O(1S)), the PQ(7) and PP(7) emission lines in the O2(0-1) atmospheric band and P1(3) emission line in the (6,2) hydroxyl Meinel band) on a three minute cadence. In each direction, for 45 s measurements for typical airglow brightness the instrument is capable of line-of-sight wind precisions of ~ 1 m s-1 for hydroxyl and O(1S) and ~ 4 m s-1 for O2. This precision is achieved using a new data analysis algorithm which takes advantage of the imaging capabilities of the CCD detector along with knowledge of the instrument phase variation as a function of pixel location across the detector. This instrument is currently located in Eureka, Nunavut as part of the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL). The details of the physical configuration, the data analysis algorithm, the measurement calibration and validation of the observations are described. Field measurements which demonstrate the capabilities of this instrument are presented. To our knowledge, the wind determinations with this instrument are the most accurate and have the highest observational cadence for airglow wind observations of this region of the atmosphere and match the capabilities of other wind measuring techniques.
    Atmospheric Measurement Techniques 11/2012; 5(6):8271-8311. DOI:10.5194/amtd-5-8271-2012 · 3.21 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
483.56 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • Dalhousie University
      • Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science
      Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada
  • 1985–2014
    • University of Toronto
      • Department of Physics
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  • 2008
    • University of New Brunswick
      • Department of Physics
      Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada
  • 1990–2007
    • National Center for Atmospheric Research
      • Division of Atmospheric Chemistry
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 2001
    • York University
      Toronto, Ontario, Canada