A. A. Abdo

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, United States

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Publications (276)1363.59 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are gravitationally collapsed objects that may have been created by density fluctuations in the early universe and could have arbitrarily small masses down to the Planck scale. Hawking showed that due to quantum effects, a black hole has a temperature inversely proportional to its mass and can emit all species of fundamental particles thermally. PBHs with initial masses of ~5.0 x 10^14 g should be expiring in the present epoch with bursts of high-energy particles, including gamma radiation in the GeV - TeV energy range, making them candidate Gamma-ray Burst (GRB) progenitors. The Milagro high energy observatory, which operated from 2000 to 2008, is sensitive to the high end of the PBH evaporation gamma-ray spectrum. Due to its large field-of-view, more than 90% duty cycle and sensitivity up to 100 TeV gamma-rays, the Milagro observatory is well suited for a direct search of PBH bursts. Based on a search on the Milagro data, we report new PBH burst rate density upper limits over a range of PBH observation times. In addition, we report the sensitivity of the Milagro successor, the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory, to PBH evaporation events.
    07/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports the results from three targeted searches of Milagro TeV sky maps: two extragalactic point source lists and one pulsar source list. The first extragalactic candidate list consists of 709 candidates selected from the Fermi-LAT 2FGL catalog. The second extragalactic candidate list contains 31 candidates selected from the TeVCat source catalog that have been detected by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs). In both extragalactic candidate lists Mkn 421 was the only source detected by Milagro. This paper presents the Milagro TeV flux for Mkn 421 and flux limits for the brighter Fermi-LAT extragalactic sources and for all TeVCat candidates. The pulsar list extends a previously published Milagro targeted search for Galactic sources. With the 32 new gamma-ray pulsars identified in 2FGL, the number of pulsars that are studied by both Fermi-LAT and Milagro is increased to 52. In this sample, we find that the probability of Milagro detecting a TeV emission coincident with a pulsar increases with the GeV flux observed by the Fermi-LAT in the energy range from 0.1 GeV to 100 GeV.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: TeV flaring activity with time scales as short as tens of minutes and an orphan TeV flare have been observed from the blazar Markarian 421 (Mrk 421). The TeV emission from Mrk 421 is believed to be produced by leptonic synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) emission. In this scenario, correlations between the X-ray and the TeV fluxes are expected, TeV orphan flares are hardly explained and the activity (measured as duty cycle) of the source at TeV energies is expected to be equal or less than that observed in X-rays if only SSC is considered. To estimate the TeV duty cycle of Mrk 421 and to establish limits on its variability at different time scales, we continuously observed Mrk 421 with the Milagro observatory. Mrk 421 was detected by Milagro with a statistical significance of 7.1 standard deviations between 2005 September 21 and 2008 March 15. The observed spectrum is consistent with previous observations by VERITAS. We estimate the duty cycle of Mrk 421 for energies above 1 TeV for different hypothesis of the baseline flux and for different flare selections and we compare our results with the X-ray duty cycle estimated by Resconi et al. 2009. The robustness of the results is discussed.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 782(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on broad multi-wavelength observations of the 2010-2011 periastron passage of the gamma-ray loud binary system PSR B1259-63. High resolution interferometric radio observations establish extended radio emission trailing the position of the pulsar. Observations with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveal GeV gamma-ray flaring activity of the system, reaching the spin-down luminosity of the pulsar, around 30 days after periastron. There are no clear signatures of variability at radio, X-ray and TeV energies at the time of the GeV flare. Variability around periastron in the H$\alpha$ emission line, can be interpreted as the gravitational interaction between the pulsar and the circumstellar disk. The equivalent width of the H$\alpha$ grows from a few days before periastron until a few days later, and decreases again between 18 and 46 days after periastron. In near infrared we observe the similar decrease of the equivalent width of Br$\gamma$ line between the 40th and 117th day after the periastron. For the idealized disk, the variability of the H$\alpha$ line represents the variability of the mass and size of the disk. We discuss possible physical relations between the state of the disk and GeV emission under assumption that GeV flare is directly related to the decrease of the disk size.
    01/2014; 439(1).
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    ABSTRACT: The very high energy (VHE; >100 GeV) source HESS J0632+057 has been recently confirmed as a \gamma-ray binary, a subclass of the high mass X-ray binary (HMXB) population, through the detection of an orbital period of 321 days. We performed a deep search for the emission of HESS J0632+057 in the GeV energy range using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The analysis was challenging due to the source being located in close proximity to the bright \gamma-ray pulsar PSR J0633+0632 and lying in a crowded region of the Galactic plane where there is prominent diffuse emission. We formulated a Bayesian block algorithm adapted to work with weighted photon counts, in order to define the off-pulse phases of PSR J0633+0632. A detailed spectral-spatial model of a 5 deg circular region centred on the known location of HESS J0632+057 was generated to accurately model the LAT data. No significant emission from the location of HESS J0632+057 was detected in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range integrating over ~3.5 years of data; with a 95% flux upper limit of F_{0.1-100 GeV} < 3 x 10-8 ph cm-2 s-1. A search for emission over different phases of the orbit also yielded no significant detection. A search for source emission on shorter timescales (days--months) did not yield any significant detections. We also report the results of a search for radio pulsations using the 100-m Green Bank Telescope (GBT). No periodic signals or individual dispersed bursts of a likely astronomical origin were detected. We estimated the flux density limit of < 90/40 \mu Jy at 2/9 GHz. The LAT flux upper limits combined with the detection of HESS J0632+057 in the 136-400 TeV energy band by the MAGIC collaboration imply that the VHE spectrum must turn over at energies <136 GeV placing constraints on any theoretical models invoked to explain the \gamma-ray emission.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 08/2013; 436(1). · 5.52 Impact Factor
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    apj. 10/2012; 758:140.
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    ABSTRACT: On 2008 March 19, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever recorded was detected by several ground- and space-based instruments spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays. With a peak visual magnitude of 5.3, GRB 080319B was dubbed the "naked-eye" GRB, as an observer under dark skies could have seen the burst without the aid of an instrument. Presented here are results from observations of the prompt phase of GRB 080319B taken with the Milagro TeV observatory. The burst was observed at an elevation angle of 47°. Analysis of the data is performed using both the standard air shower method and the scaler or single-particle technique, which results in a sensitive energy range that extends from ~5 GeV to >20 TeV. These observations provide the only direct constraints on the properties of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080319B at these energies. No evidence for emission is found in the Milagro data, and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux above 10 GeV are derived. The limits on emission between ~25 and 200 GeV are incompatible with the synchrotron self-Compton model of gamma-ray production and disfavor a corresponding range (2 eV-16 eV) of assumed synchrotron peak energies. This indicates that the optical photons and soft (~650 keV) gamma rays may not be produced by the same electron population.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 06/2012; 753(2):L31. · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a summary of the Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium (PSC), an international collaboration of radio astronomers and members of the Large Area Telescope (LAT) collaboration, whose goal is to organize radio follow-up observations of Fermi pulsars and pulsar candidates among the LAT gamma-ray source population. The PSC includes pulsar observers with expertise using the world's largest radio telescopes that together cover the full sky. We have performed very deep observations of all 35 pulsars discovered in blind frequency searches of the LAT data, resulting in the discovery of radio pulsations from four of them. We have also searched over 300 LAT gamma-ray sources that do not have strong associations with known gamma-ray emitting source classes and have pulsar-like spectra and variability characteristics. These searches have led to the discovery of a total of 43 new radio millisecond pulsars (MSPs) and four normal pulsars. These discoveries greatly increase the known population of MSPs in the Galactic disk, more than double the known population of so-called `black widow' pulsars, and contain many promising candidates for inclusion in pulsar timing arrays.
    05/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the second catalog of high-energy {gamma}-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely {gamma}-ray-producing source classes.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 04/2012; 199(2). · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Following the recent discovery of {gamma} rays from the radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy PMN J0948+0022 (z = 0.5846), we started a multiwavelength campaign from radio to {gamma} rays, which was carried out between the end of 2009 March and the beginning of July. The source displayed activity at all the observed wavelengths: a general decreasing trend from optical to {gamma}-ray frequencies was followed by an increase of radio emission after less than two months from the peak of the {gamma}-ray emission. The largest flux change, about a factor of about 4, occurred in the X-ray band. The smallest was at ultraviolet and near-infrared frequencies, where the rate of the detected photons dropped by a factor 1.6-1.9. At optical wavelengths, where the sampling rate was the highest, it was possible to observe day scale variability, with flux variations up to a factor of about 3. The behavior of PMN J0948+0022 observed in this campaign and the calculated power carried out by its jet in the form of protons, electrons, radiation, and magnetic field are quite similar to that of blazars, specifically of flat-spectrum radio quasars. These results confirm the idea that radio-loud narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies host relativistic jets with power similar to that of average blazars.
    Astrophysical Journal. 03/2012; 707(1).
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    ABSTRACT: We present the second catalog of high-energy γ-ray sources detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT), the primary science instrument on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (Fermi), derived from data taken during the first 24 months of the science phase of the mission, which began on 2008 August 4. Source detection is based on the average flux over the 24 month period. The second Fermi-LAT catalog (2FGL) includes source location regions, defined in terms of elliptical fits to the 95% confidence regions and spectral fits in terms of power-law, exponentially cutoff power-law, or log-normal forms. Also included are flux measurements in five energy bands and light curves on monthly intervals for each source. Twelve sources in the catalog are modeled as spatially extended. We provide a detailed comparison of the results from this catalog with those from the first Fermi-LAT catalog (1FGL). Although the diffuse Galactic and isotropic models used in the 2FGL analysis are improved compared to the 1FGL catalog, we attach caution flags to 162 of the sources to indicate possible confusion with residual imperfections in the diffuse model. The 2FGL catalog contains 1873 sources detected and characterized in the 100 MeV to 100 GeV range of which we consider 127 as being firmly identified and 1171 as being reliably associated with counterparts of known or likely γ-ray-producing source classes.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 03/2012; 199(2):31. · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Cygnus region is a very bright and complex portion of the TeV sky, host to unidentified sources and a diffuse excess with respect to conventional cosmic-ray propagation models. Two of the brightest TeV sources, MGRO J2019+37 and MGRO J2031+41, are analyzed using Milagro data with a new technique, and their emission is tested under two different spectral assumptions: a power law and a power law with an exponential cutoff. The new analysis technique is based on an energy estimator that uses the fraction of photomultiplier tubes in the observatory that detect the extensive air shower. The photon spectrum is measured in the range 1 to 200 TeV using the last 3 years of Milagro data (2005-2008), with the detector in its final configuration. MGRO J2019+37 is detected with a significance of 12.3 standard deviations ($\sigma$), and is better fit by a power law with an exponential cutoff than by a simple power law, with a probability $>98$% (F-test). The best-fitting parameters for the power law with exponential cutoff model are a normalization at 10 TeV of $7^{+5}_{-2}\times10^{-10}$ $\mathrm{s^{-1}\: m^{-2}\: TeV^{-1}}$, a spectral index of $2.0^{+0.5}_{-1.0}$ and a cutoff energy of $29^{+50}_{-16}$ TeV. MGRO J2031+41 is detected with a significance of 7.3$\sigma$, with no evidence of a cutoff. The best-fitting parameters for a power law are a normalization of $2.4^{+0.6}_{-0.5}\times10^{-10}$ $\mathrm{s^{-1}\: m^{-2}\: TeV^{-1}}$ and a spectral index of $3.08^{+0.19}_{-0.17}$. The overall flux is subject to an $\sim$30% systematic uncertainty. The systematic uncertainty on the power law indices is $\sim$0.1. A comparison with previous results from TeV J2032+4130, MGRO J2031+41 and MGRO J2019+37 is also presented.
    The Astrophysical Journal 02/2012; 753(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from the Moon during the first 24 months of observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This emission comes from particle cascades produced by cosmic-ray (CR) nuclei and electrons interacting with the lunar surface. The differential spectrum of the Moon is soft and can be described as a log-parabolic function with an effective cutoff at 2-3 GeV, while the average integral flux measured with the LAT from the beginning of observations in 2008 August to the end of 2010 August is F (> ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/images/0004-637X/758/2/140/apj445159ieqn1.gif] $100 rm MeV) =(1.04pm 0.01,rm [statistical error]pm 0.1,rm [systematic error])times 10^-6$ cm –2 s –1 . This flux is about a factor 2-3 higher than that observed between 1991 and 1994 by the EGRET experiment on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory , F (>100 MeV) ##IMG## [http://ej.iop.org/icons/Entities/ap.gif] ≈ 5 × 10 –7 cm –2 s –1 , when solar activity was relatively high. The higher γ-ray flux measured by Fermi is consistent with the deep solar minimum conditions during the first 24 months of the mission, which reduced effects of heliospheric modulation, and thus increased the heliospheric flux of Galactic CRs. A detailed comparison of the light curve with McMurdo Neutron Monitor rates suggests a correlation of the trends. The Moon and the Sun are so far the only known bright emitters of γ-rays with fast celestial motion. Their paths across the sky are projected onto the Galactic center and high Galactic latitudes as well as onto other areas crowded with high-energy γ-ray sources. Analysis of the lunar and solar emission may thus be important for studies of weak and transient sources near the ecliptic.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2012; 758(2):140. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the main results of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope is the discovery of γ-ray selected pulsars. The high magnetic field pulsar, PSR J0007+7303 in CTA1, was the first ever to be discovered through its γ-ray pulsations. Based on analysis of two years of Large Area Telescope (LAT) survey data, we report on the discovery of γ-ray emission in the off-pulse phase interval at the ~6σ level. The emission appears to be extended at the ~2σ level with a disk of extension ~06. level. The flux from this emission in the energy range E ≥ 100 MeV is F 100 = (1.73 ± 0.40stat ± 0.18sys) × 10–8 photons cm–2 s–1 and is best fitted by a power law with a photon index of Γ = 2.54 ± 0.14stat ± 0.05sys. The pulsed γ-ray flux in the same energy range is F 100 = (3.95 ± 0.07stat ± 0.30sys) × 10–7 photons cm–2 s–1 and is best fitted by an exponentially cutoff power-law spectrum with a photon index of Γ = 1.41 ± 0.23stat ± 0.03sys and a cutoff energy Ec = 4.04 ± 0.20stat ± 0.67sys GeV. We find no flux variability either at the 2009 May glitch or in the long-term behavior. We model the γ-ray light curve with two high-altitude emission models, the outer gap and slot gap, and find that the preferred model depends strongly on the assumed origin of the off-pulse emission. Both models favor a large angle between the magnetic axis and observer line of sight, consistent with the nondetection of radio emission being a geometrical effect. Finally, we discuss how the LAT results bear on the understanding of the cooling of this neutron star.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2011; 744(2):146. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report the detection of γ-ray pulsations from the high-magnetic-field rotation-powered pulsar PSR J1119–6127 using data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The γ-ray light curve of PSR J1119–6127 shows a single, wide peak offset from the radio peak by 0.43 ± 0.02 in phase. Spectral analysis suggests a power law of index 1.0 ± 0.3+0.4 – 0.2 with an energy cutoff at 0.8 ± 0.2+2.0 – 0.5 GeV. The first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. We discuss the emission models of PSR J1119–6127 and demonstrate that despite the object's high surface magnetic field—near that of magnetars—the field strength and structure in the γ-ray emitting zone are apparently similar to those of typical young pulsars. Additionally, we present upper limits on the γ-ray pulsed emission for the magnetically active PSR J1846–0258 in the supernova remnant Kesteven 75 and two other energetic high-B pulsars, PSRs J1718–3718 and J1734–3333. We explore possible explanations for the non-detection of these three objects, including peculiarities in their emission geometry.
    The Astrophysical Journal 12/2011; 743(2):170. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the Fermi Large Area Telescope’s detection of γ-ray (>100 mega–electron volts) pulsations from pulsar J1823–3021A in the globular cluster NGC 6624 with high significance (∼7 σ). Its γ-ray luminosity, Lγ = (8.4 ± 1.6) × 1034 ergs per second, is the highest observed for any millisecond pulsar (MSP) to date, and it accounts for most of the cluster emission. The nondetection of the cluster in the off-pulse phase implies that it contains <32 γ-ray MSPs, not ∼100 as previously estimated. The γ-ray luminosity indicates that the unusually large rate of change of its period is caused by its intrinsic spin-down. This implies that J1823–3021A has the largest magnetic field and is the youngest MSP ever detected and that such anomalous objects might be forming at rates comparable to those of the more normal MSPs.
    Science 11/2011; 334(6059):1107-1110. · 31.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The high-frequency peaked BL Lac object PKS 2005-489 was the target of a multi-wavelength campaign with simultaneous observations in the TeV gamma-ray (H.E.S.S.), GeV gamma-ray (Fermi/LAT), X-ray (RXTE, Swift), UV (Swift) and optical (ATOM, Swift) bands. This campaign was carried out during a high flux state in the synchrotron regime. The flux in the optical and X-ray bands reached the level of the historical maxima. The hard GeV spectrum observed with Fermi/LAT connects well to the very high energy (VHE, E>100GeV) spectrum measured with H.E.S.S. with a peak energy between ~5 and 500 GeV. Compared to observations with contemporaneous coverage in the VHE and X-ray bands in 2004, the X-ray flux was ~50 times higher during the 2009 campaign while the TeV gamma-ray flux shows marginal variation over the years. The spectral energy distribution during this multi-wavelength campaign was fit by a one zone synchrotron self-Compton model with a well determined cutoff in X-rays. The parameters of a one zone SSC model are inconsistent with variability time scales. The variability behaviour over years with the large changes in synchrotron emission and small changes in the inverse Compton emission does not warrant an interpretation within a one-zone SSC model despite an apparently satisfying fit to the broadband data in 2009.
    Astronomy and Astrophysics 11/2011; 533:110. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Crab Nebula was detected with the Milagro experiment at a statistical significance of 17 standard deviations over the lifetime of the experiment. The experiment was sensitive to approximately 100 GeV - 100 TeV gamma ray air showers by observing the particle footprint reaching the ground. The fraction of detectors recording signals from photons at the ground is a suitable proxy for the energy of the primary particle and has been used to measure the photon energy spectrum of the Crab Nebula between ~1 and ~100 TeV. The TeV emission is believed to be caused by inverse-Compton up-scattering scattering of ambient photons by an energetic electron population. The location of a TeV steepening or cutoff in the energy spectrum reveals important details about the underlying electron population. We describe the experiment and the technique for distinguishing gamma-ray events from the much more-abundant hadronic events. We describe the calculation of the significance of the excess from the Crab and how the energy spectrum is fit. The fit is consistent with values measured by IACTs between 1 and 20 TeV. Fixing the spectral index to values that have been measured below 1 TeV by IACT experiments (2.4 to 2.6), the fit to the Milagro data suggests that Crab exhibits a spectral steepening or cutoff between about 20 to 40 TeV.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2011; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: One of the main results of the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope is the discovery of {\gamma}-ray selected pulsars. The high magnetic field pulsar, PSR J0007+7303 in CTA1, was the first ever to be discovered through its {\gamma}-ray pulsations. Based on analysis of 2 years of LAT survey data, we report on the discovery of {\gamma}-ray emission in the off-pulse phase interval at the ~ 6{\sigma} level. The flux from this emission in the energy range E \geq 100 MeV is F_100 = (1.73\pm0.40)\times10^(-8) photons/cm^2/s and is best fitted by a power law with a photon index of {\Gamma} = 2.54\pm0.14. The pulsed {\gamma}-ray flux in the same energy range is F_100 = (3.95\pm0.07)\times10^(-7) photons/cm^2/s and is best fitted by an exponentially-cutoff power-law spectrum with a photon index of {\Gamma} = 1.41 \pm 0.23 and a cutoff energy E_c = 4.04 \pm 0.20 GeV. We find no flux variability neither at the 2009 May glitch nor in the long term behavior. We model the {\gamma}-ray light curve with two high-altitude emission models, the outer gap and slot gap, and find that the model that best fits the data depends strongly on the assumed origin of the off-pulse emission. Both models favor a large angle between the magnetic axis and observer line of sight, consistent with the nondetection of radio emission being a geometrical effect. Finally we discuss how the LAT results bear on the understanding of the cooling of this neutron star.
    07/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: We report on the discovery of {>=}100 MeV {gamma}-rays from the binary system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 using the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board Fermi. The system comprises a radio pulsar in orbit around a Be star. We report on LAT observations from near apastron to {approx}128 days after the time of periastron, t{sub p} , on 2010 December 15. No {gamma}-ray emission was detected from this source when it was far from periastron. Faint {gamma}-ray emission appeared as the pulsar approached periastron. At {approx}t{sub p} + 30 days, the {>=}100 MeV {gamma}-ray flux increased over a period of a few days to a peak flux 20-30 times that seen during the pre-periastron period, but with a softer spectrum. For the following month, it was seen to be variable on daily timescales, but remained at {approx}(1-4) x 10{sup -6} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} before starting to fade at {approx}t{sub p} + 57 days. The total {gamma}-ray luminosity observed during this period is comparable to the spin-down power of the pulsar. Simultaneous radio and X-ray observations of the source showed no corresponding dramatic changes in radio and X-ray flux between the pre-periastron and post-periastron flares. We discuss possible explanations for the observed {gamma}-ray-only flaring of the source.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2011; 736(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

2k Citations
1,363.59 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2011–2012
    • George Mason University
      • Center for Earth Observing and Space Research
      Fairfax, VA, United States
  • 2008–2012
    • Michigan State University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      East Lansing, Michigan, United States
  • 2009–2011
    • United States Naval Research Laboratory
      • Space Science Division
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2008–2011
    • National Academy of Sciences
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States