Kiek Verrijp

Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc), Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands

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Publications (21)116.8 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse gliomas comprise a group of primary brain tumors that originate from glial (precursor) cells and present as a variety of malignancy grades which have in common that they grow by diffuse infiltration. This phenotype complicates treatment enormously as it precludes curative surgery and radiotherapy. Furthermore, diffusely infiltrating glioma cells often hide behind a functional blood-brain barrier, hampering delivery of systemically administered therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to the tumor cells. The present review addresses the biological mechanisms that underlie the diffuse infiltrative phenotype, knowledge of which may improve treatment strategies for this disastrous tumor type. The invasive phenotype is specific for glioma: most other brain tumor types, both primary and metastatic, grow as delineated lesions. Differences between the genetic make-up of glioma and that of other tumor types may therefore help to unravel molecular pathways, involved in diffuse infiltrative growth. One such difference concerns mutations in the NADP(+)-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 and IDH2) genes, which occur in >80% of cases of low grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma . In this review we present a novel hypothesis which links IDH1 and IDH2 mutations to glutamate metabolism, possibly explaining the specific biological behavior of diffuse glioma.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 04/2014; · 4.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Diffuse gliomas comprise a group of primary brain tumors that originate from glial (precursor) cells and present as a variety of malignancy grades which have in common that they grow by diffuse infiltration. This phenotype complicates treatment enormously as it precludes curative surgery and radiotherapy. Furthermore, diffusely infiltrating glioma cells often hide behind a functional blood–brain barrier, hampering delivery of systemically administered therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to the tumor cells. The present review addresses the biological mechanisms that underlie the diffuse infiltrative phenotype, knowledge of which may improve treatment strategies for this disastrous tumor type. The invasive phenotype is specific for glioma: most other brain tumor types, both primary and metastatic, grow as delineated lesions. Differences between the genetic make-up of glioma and that of other tumor types may therefore help to unravel molecular pathways, involved in diffuse infiltrative growth. One such difference concerns mutations in the NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1 and IDH2) genes, which occur in > 80% of cases of low grade glioma and secondary glioblastoma . In this review we present a novel hypothesis which links IDH1 and IDH2 mutations to glutamate metabolism, possibly explaining the specific biological behavior of diffuse glioma.
    Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Reviews on Cancer 01/2014; · 9.03 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Targeted carrier systems (e.g., liposomes or nanoparticles) are used to specifically deliver drugs to a site of interest. Site-direction can be achieved by attachment of targeting molecules, such as peptides, DNA/RNA, or antibodies, to the surface of the carrier. Here, the formation of polymersomes with tumor-targeting potential is described. A single-domain antibody (A12) that specifically targets PlexinD1 (a transmembrane protein overexpressed in tumor vasculature) is equipped with an azide-functionality using expressed protein ligation. This azide-containing A12 can subsequently be attached to BCN-functionalized polymersomes using a strain-promoted azide alkyne cycloaddition, thereby forming polymersomes with tumor-targeting potential.
    Macromolecular Bioscience 05/2013; · 3.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-angiogenic treatment of glioblastoma with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF)- or VEGF Receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors normalizes tumor vessels, resulting in a profound radiologic response and improved quality of life. This approach however does not halt tumor progression by diffuse infiltration, as this phenotype is less angiogenesis dependent. Combined inhibition of angiogenesis and diffuse infiltrative growth would therefore be a more effective treatment approach in these tumors. The HGF/c-MET axis is important in both angiogenesis and cell migration in several tumor types including glioma. We therefore analyzed the effects of the c-MET- and VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor cabozantinib (XL184, Exelixis) on c-MET positive orthotopic E98 glioblastoma xenografts, which routinely present with angiogenesis-dependent areas of tumor growth, as well as diffuse infiltrative growth. In in vitro cultures of E98 cells, cabozantinib effectively inhibited c-MET phosphorylation, concomitant with inhibitory effects on AKT and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, and cell proliferation and migration. VEGFR2 activation in endothelial cells was also effectively inhibited in vitro. Treatment of BALB/c nu/nu mice carrying orthotopic E98 xenografts resulted in a significant increase in overall survival. Cabozantinib effectively inhibited angiogenesis, resulting in increased hypoxia in angiogenesis-dependent tumor areas, and induced vessel normalization. Yet, tumors ultimately escaped cabozantinib therapy by diffuse infiltrative outgrowth via vessel co-option. Of importance, in contrast to the results from in vitro experiments, in vivo blockade of c-MET activation was incomplete, possibly due to multiple factors including restoration of the blood-brain barrier resulting from cabozantinib-induced VEGFR2 inhibition. In conclusion, cabozantinib is a promising therapy for c-MET positive glioma, but improving delivery of the drug to the tumor and/or the surrounding tissue may be needed for full activity.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58262. · 3.73 Impact Factor
  • Muscle & Nerve 03/2012; 45(3):449-50. · 2.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic causes for autosomal recessive forms of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are only rarely identified, although they are thought to contribute considerably to sudden cardiac death and heart failure, especially in young children. Here, we describe 11 young patients (5-13 years) with a predominant presentation of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Metabolic investigations showed deficient protein N-glycosylation, leading to a diagnosis of Congenital Disorders of Glycosylation (CDG). Homozygosity mapping in the consanguineous families showed a locus with two known genes in the N-glycosylation pathway. In all individuals, pathogenic mutations were identified in DOLK, encoding the dolichol kinase responsible for formation of dolichol-phosphate. Enzyme analysis in patients' fibroblasts confirmed a dolichol kinase deficiency in all families. In comparison with the generally multisystem presentation in CDG, the nonsyndromic DCM in several individuals was remarkable. Investigation of other dolichol-phosphate dependent glycosylation pathways in biopsied heart tissue indicated reduced O-mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan with concomitant functional loss of its laminin-binding capacity, which has been linked to DCM. We thus identified a combined deficiency of protein N-glycosylation and alpha-dystroglycan O-mannosylation in patients with nonsyndromic DCM due to autosomal recessive DOLK mutations.
    PLoS Genetics 12/2011; 7(12):e1002427. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor vasculature is in general highly heterogeneous. This characteristic is most prominent in high-grade gliomas, which present with areas of angiogenic growth, next to large areas of diffuse infiltrative growth in which tumor cells thrive on pre-existent brain vasculature. This limits the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic compounds as these will not affect more matured and co-opted vessels. Therefore, additional destruction of existing tumor vasculature may be a promising alternative avenue to effectively deprive tumors from blood. This approach requires the identification of novel tumor vascular targeting agents, which have broad tumor vessel specificities, ie are not restricted to newly formed vessels. Here, we describe the generation of a phage library displaying nanobodies that were cloned from lymphocytes of a Llama which had been immunized with clinical glioma tissue. In vivo biopanning with this library in the orthotopic glioma xenograft models E98 and E434 resulted in the selection of various nanobodies which specifically recognized glioma vessels in corresponding glioma xenografts. Importantly, also nanobodies were isolated which discriminated incorporated pre-existent vessels in highly infiltrative cerebral E434 xenografts from normal brain vessels. Our results suggest that the generation of nanobody-displaying immune phage libraries and subsequent in vivo biopanning in appropriate animal models is a promising approach for the identification of novel vascular targeting agents.
    Laboratory Investigation 10/2009; 90(1):61-7. · 3.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plexin D1 is expressed on both tumor-associated endothelium and malignant cells in a number of clinical brain tumors. Recently we demonstrated that Plexin D1 expression is correlated with tumor invasion level and metastasis in a human melanoma progression series. The objective of this study was to examine whether Plexin D1 might be clinically useful as a pan-tumor vessel and pan-tumor cell target in solid tumors. We examined Plexin D1 expression in clinical solid tumors (n = 77) of different origin, a selection of pre-malignant lesions (n = 29) and a variety of non-tumor related tissues (n = 52) by immunohistochemistry. Signals were verified in a selection of tissues via mRNA in situ hybridization. Plexin D1 is abundantly expressed on both activated established tumor vasculature and malignant cells in the majority of primary and metastatic clinical tumors, as well as on macrophages and fibroblasts. Importantly, in non-tumor related tissues Plexin D1 expression is restricted to a subset of, presumably activated, fibroblasts and macrophages. We demonstrate that Plexin D1 is in general ubiquitously expressed in tumor but not normal vasculature, as well as in malignant cells in a wide range of human tissues. This expression profile highlights Plexin D1 as a potentially valuable therapeutic target in clinical solid tumors, enabling simultaneous targeting of different tumor compartments.
    BMC Cancer 09/2009; 9:297. · 3.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Alpha-dystroglycanopathies such as Walker Warburg syndrome represent an important subgroup of the muscular dystrophies that have been related to defective O-mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan. In many patients, the underlying genetic etiology remains unsolved. Isolated muscular dystrophy has not been described in the congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) caused by N-linked protein glycosylation defects. Here, we present a genetic N-glycosylation disorder with muscular dystrophy in the group of CDG type I. Extensive biochemical investigations revealed a strongly reduced dolichol-phosphate-mannose (Dol-P-Man) synthase activity. Sequencing of the three DPM subunits and complementation of DPM3-deficient CHO2.38 cells showed a pathogenic p.L85S missense mutation in the strongly conserved coiled-coil domain of DPM3 that tethers catalytic DPM1 to the ER membrane. Cotransfection experiments in CHO cells showed a reduced binding capacity of DPM3(L85S) for DPM1. Investigation of the four Dol-P-Man-dependent glycosylation pathways in the ER revealed strongly reduced O-mannosylation of alpha-dystroglycan in a muscle biopsy, thereby explaining the clinical phenotype of muscular dystrophy. This mild Dol-P-Man biosynthesis defect due to DPM3 mutations is a cause for alpha-dystroglycanopathy, thereby bridging the congenital disorders of glycosylation with the dystroglycanopathies.
    The American Journal of Human Genetics 08/2009; 85(1):76-86. · 11.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumour metastasis is the result of a complex sequence of events, including migration of tumour cells through stroma, proteolytic degradation of stromal and vessel wall elements, intravasation, transport through the circulation, extravasation and outgrowth at compatible sites in the body (the 'seed and soil' hypothesis). However, the high incidence of metastasis from various tumour types in liver and lung may be explained by a stochastic process as well, based on the anatomical relationship of the primary tumour with the circulation and mechanical entrapment of metastatic tumour cells in capillary beds. We previously reported that constitutive VEGF-A expression in tumour xenografts facilitates this type of metastatic seeding by promoting shedding of multicellular tumour tissue fragments, surrounded by vessel wall elements, into the circulation. After transport through the vena cava, such fragments may be trapped in pulmonary arteries, allowing them to expand to symptomatic lesions. Here we tested whether this process has clinical relevance for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), a prototype tumour in the sense of high constitutive VEGF-A expression. To this end we collected and analysed outflow samples from the renal vein, directly after tumour nephrectomy, in 42 patients diagnosed with ccRCC. Tumour fragments in venous outflow were observed in 33% of ccRCC patients and correlated with the synchronous presence or metachronous development of pulmonary metastases (p < 0.001, Fisher's exact test). In patients with tumours that, in retrospect, were not of the VEGF-A-expressing clear cell type, tumour fragments were never observed in the renal outflow. These data suggest that, in ccRCC, a VEGF-A-induced phenotype promotes a release of tumour cell clusters into the circulation that may contribute to pulmonary metastasis.
    The Journal of Pathology 08/2009; 219(3):287-93. · 7.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important factors inducing angiogenesis in tumors. Nine splice-variant isoforms of VEGF-A have been identified, each having different properties. Recently, we showed that radiolabeled anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody, bevacizumab, accumulates specifically in VEGF-A expressing tumors. In this study, we investigated in a nude mouse model which VEGF-isoforms are responsible for tumor accretion. The humanized anti-VEGF-A antibody, A.4.6.1. (bevacizumab), was radiolabeled with In-111. The originally VEGF-negative Mel57 tumor was transfected with different VEGF isoforms (VEGF-121, VEGF-165, and VEGF-189). The obtained melanoma xenografts specifically expressing different VEGF-isoforms were used in mice. The bevacizumab uptake was examined in biodistribution studies and by gamma-camera imaging. The tumor cell line expressing VEGF-121 did not show specific uptake, most likely as a result of the fact that this isoform is freely diffusible. Tumors expressing VEGF-165 and -189 were clearly visualized by using gamma-camera imaging. The accumulation of radiolabeled bevacizumab in the tumor is due to interaction with VEGF-A isoforms that are associated with the tumor cell surface and/or the extracellular matrix. Scintigraphic imaging of the expression of these VEGF isoforms may thus be useful to predict response to angiogenic therapy.
    Cancer Biotherapy & Radiopharmaceuticals 05/2009; 24(2):195-200. · 1.44 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Plexin D1 (PLXND1) is broadly expressed on tumor vessels and tumor cells in a number of different human tumor types. Little is known, however, about the potential functional contribution of PLXND1 expression to tumor development. Expression of semaphorin 3E (Sema3E), one of the ligands for PLXND1, has previously been correlated with invasive behavior and metastasis, suggesting that the PLXND1-Sema3E interaction may play a role in tumor progression. Here we investigated PLXND1 and Sema3E expression during tumor progression in cases of melanoma. PLXND1 was not expressed by melanocytic cells in either naevi or melanomas in situ, whereas expression increased with invasion level, according to Clark's criteria. Furthermore, 89% of the metastatic melanomas examined showed membranous PLXND1-staining of tumor cells. Surprisingly, expression of Sema3E was inversely correlated with tumor progression, with no detectable staining in melanoma metastasis. To functionally assess the effects of Sema3E expression on tumor development, we overexpressed Sema3E in a xenograft model of metastatic melanoma. Sema3E expression dramatically decreased metastatic potential. These results show that PLXND1 expression during tumor development is strongly correlated with both invasive behavior and metastasis, but exclude Sema3E as an activating ligand.
    American Journal Of Pathology 01/2009; 173(6):1873-81. · 4.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the correlation between muscle ultrasound and muscle structure. Echo intensity (EI) of 14 muscles of two golden retriever muscular dystrophy dogs was correlated to the percentage interstitial fibrous tissue and fat in muscle biopsy. A significant correlation between interstitial fibrous tissue and EI was found (r = 0.87; p < 0.001). The separate influence of interstitial fat on muscle EI could not be established as only little fat was present. We conclude that fibrous tissue causes increased muscle EI. The high correlation between interstitial fibrous tissue and EI makes ultrasound a reliable method to determine severity of structural muscle changes.
    Ultrasound in medicine & biology 12/2008; 35(3):443-6. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the correlation between tumour accumulation of In-111-bevacizumab and VEGF-A expression in patients with colorectal liver metastases. Two weeks before resection of the liver metastases 12 patients were intravenously injected with In-111-labelled bevacizumab. Ten minutes and 7 d after injection a whole body scan was acquired. Seven days after the injection, 3D acquisition SPECT of the liver was performed. Enhanced uptake of In-111-bevacizumab in the liver metastases was observed in 9 of the 12 patients. The level of antibody accumulation in these lesions varied considerably. There was no correlation between the level of In-111-antibody accumulation and the level of VEGF-A expression in the tissue as determined by in situ hybridisation and ELISA. In this study, we investigated the correlation between tumour accumulation of radiolabelled bevacizumab and VEGF-A expression in patients with colorectal liver metastases. No clear-cut correlation between the level of antibody accumulation and expression of VEGF-A was found.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 09/2008; 44(13):1835-40. · 4.12 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) is one of the most important angiogenic factors. Here, we studied in a nude mouse model whether the expression of VEGF-A in a tumor could be imaged with a radiolabeled anti-VEGF antibody. The humanized anti-VEGF-A antibody A.4.6.1. (bevacizumab), which is reactive with all VEGF-A isoforms, was radiolabeled with In-111 or with I-125. The accumulation of the radiolabeled antibodies in VEGF-A expressing tumors (LS174T) in nude mice was examined in biodistribution studies and by gamma camera imaging. The uptake of the In-111-bevacizumab in the tumor at 3 days p.i. was significantly higher than that of I-125-bevacizumab (19.4 +/- 7.0 %ID/g vs. 9.6 +/- 3.3 %ID/g, p = 0.04). Coinjection of an excess unlabeled antibody resulted in a significant decrease in radioactivity concentration in the tumor (<2.9 +/- 1.9 %ID/g, p < 0.005), indicating VEGF-mediated antibody uptake. Highest uptake in the tumor was observed at relatively low antibody protein doses (<3 microg) (20-25 %ID/g). VEGF-A-expressing tumors could be clearly visualized on planar scintigraphic images from 24-hr post injection onwards. In conclusion, VEGF-A expression in tumors can be visualized specifically with radiolabeled anti-VEGF-A-mAb.
    International Journal of Cancer 06/2008; 122(10):2310-4. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tumors arise initially as avascular masses in which central hypoxia induces expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and subsequently tumor vascularization. However, VEGF-A can also be constitutively expressed as a result of genetic events. VEGF-A is alternatively spliced to yield at least 6 different isoforms. Of these, VEGF-A(121) is freely diffusible whereas basically charged domains in the larger isoforms confer affinity for cell surface or extracellular matrix components. We previously reported that in a mouse brain metastasis model of human melanoma, VEGF-A(121) induced a qualitatively different tumor vascular phenotype than VEGF-A(165) and VEGF-A(189): in contrast to the latter ones, and VEGF-A(121) did not induce a neovascular bed but rather led to leakage and dilatation of preexistent brain vessels. Here, we correlate vascular phenotypes with spatial VEGF-A expression profiles in clinical brain tumors (low grade gliomas; n = 6, melanoma metastases; n = 4, adenocarcinoma metastases; n = 4, glioblastoma multiforme; n = 3, sarcoma metastasis; n = 1, renal cell carcinoma metastasis; n = 1). We show that tumors that constitutively express VEGF-A present with different vascular beds than tumors in which VEGF-A is expressed as a response to central hypoxia. This phenotypic difference is consistent with a model where in tumors with constitutive VEGF-A expression, all isoforms exert their effects on vasculature, resulting in a classical angiogenic phenotype. In tumors where only central parts express hypoxia-induced VEGF-A, the larger angiogenic isoforms are retained by extracellular matrix, leaving only freely diffusible VEGF-A(121) to exert its dilatation effects on distant vessels.
    International Journal of Cancer 12/2006; 119(9):2054-62. · 6.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We previously reported that during mouse embryogenesis, plexin D1 (plxnD1) is expressed on neuronal and endothelial cells. Endothelial cells gradually loose plxnD1 expression during development. Here we describe, using in situ hybridization, that endothelial plxnD1 expression is regained during tumor angiogenesis in a mouse model of brain metastasis. Importantly, we found PLXND1 expression also in a number of human brain tumors, both of primary and metastatic origin. Apart from the tumor vasculature, abundant expression was also found on tumor cells. Via panning of a phage display library, we isolated two phages that carry single-domain antibodies with specific affinity towards a PLXND1-specific peptide. Immunohistochemistry with these single-domain antibodies on the same tumors that were used for in situ hybridization confirmed PLXND1 expression on the protein level. Furthermore, both these phages and the derived antibodies specifically homed to vessels in brain lesions of angiogenic melanoma in mice after i.v. injection. These results show that PLXND1 is a clinically relevant marker of tumor vasculature that can be targeted via i.v. injections.
    Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(18):8317-23. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the brain, tumors may grow without inducing angiogenesis, via co-option of the dense pre-existent capillary bed. The purpose of this study was to investigate how this phenomenon influences the outcome of antiangiogenic therapy. Mice carrying brain metastases of the human, highly angiogenic melanoma cell line Mel57-VEGF-A were either or not treated with different dosages of ZD6474, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor with additional activity against epidermal growth factor receptor. Effect of treatment was evaluated using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE- MRI) and (immuno)morphologic analysis. Placebo-treated Mel57-VEGF-A brain metastases evoked an angiogenic response and were highlighted in CE-MRI. After treatment with ZD6474 (100 mg/kg), CE-MRI failed to detect tumors in either prevention or therapeutic treatment regimens. However, (immuno)histologic analysis revealed the presence of numerous, small, nonangiogenic lesions. Treatment with 25 mg/kg ZD6474 also resulted in efficient blockade of vessel formation, but it did not fully inhibit vascular leakage, thereby still allowing visualization in CE-MRI scans. Our data show that, although angiogenesis can be effectively blocked by ZD6474, in vessel-dense organs this may result in sustained tumor progression via co-option, rather than in tumor dormancy. Importantly, blocking VEGF-A may result in undetectability of tumors in CE-MRI scans, leading to erroneous conclusions about therapeutic efficacy during magnetic resonance imaging follow-up. The maintenance of VEGF-A-induced vessel leakage in the absence of neovascularization at lower ZD6474 doses may be exploited to improve delivery of chemotherapeutic agents in combined treatment regimens of antiangiogenic and chemotherapeutic compounds.
    Clinical Cancer Research 10/2004; 10(18 Pt 1):6222-30. · 7.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We reported previously that vascular endothelial growth factor isoform A (VEGF-A) expression by Mel57 human melanoma cells led to tumor progression in a murine brain metastasis model in an angiogenesis-independent fashion by dilation of co-opted, pre-existing vessels and concomitant enhanced blood supply (B. Kusters et al., Cancer Res., 62: 341-345, 2002). Here, we compare the activities of the 121, 165, and 189 VEGF-A isoforms in this model by transfecting Mel57 cells with the respective cDNAs and by injecting the resulting stably transfected cell lines in the internal carotid arteries of nude mice (n = 10 for each isoform). Although the three isoforms had similar potency to induce endothelial cell proliferation, VEGF(121) expression did not result in sprouting angiogenesis but rather led to extensive vasodilation and increased permeability of pre-existing, predominantly peritumoral vessels. Sometimes, proliferating endothelial cells accumulated in vessel lumina, giving these a microvascular, glomeruloid, proliferation-like appearance. Expression of VEGF(165) or VEGF(189) was associated with induction of an intratumoral neovascular bed. In VEGF(165)-expressing tumors, daughter endothelial cells were distributed among newly formed vessels that were extensively dilated. This also occurred in VEGF(189) tumors, but there, vasodilation was less pronounced. Using contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, the different vascular phenotypes were visualized on characteristic radiological images. VEGF(165) expression was the most unfavorable of the three. Mice carrying VEGF(165) tumors became moribund earlier than those carrying VEGF(121)-expressing tumors (16 +/- 4 days versus 22 +/- 3 days). Our data demonstrate that VEGF-A isoforms differ in angiogenic properties that can be visualized by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
    Cancer Research 10/2003; 63(17):5408-13. · 8.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the mechanisms of vascularization in a brain metastases model of malignant melanoma. Parenchymal metastases expressing little vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) co-opted the preexistent brain vasculature, leading to an infiltrative phenotype. Metastases of the human melanoma cell line Mel57, engineered to express recombinant VEGF-A(165), showed accelerated growth in a combined expansive and infiltrative pattern with marked central necrosis. This difference in growth profile was accompanied by dilation of co-opted intra- and peritumoral vessels with concomitant induction of vascular permeability. Our data show that modulation of preexistent vasculature can contribute to malignant progression without induction of sprouting angiogenesis.
    Cancer Research 02/2002; 62(2):341-5. · 8.65 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

551 Citations
116.80 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2009–2014
    • Radboud University Medical Centre (Radboudumc)
      • Department of Human Genetics
      Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
  • 2003–2013
    • Radboud University Nijmegen
      • • Department of Pathology
      • • Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences
      Nijmegen, Provincie Gelderland, Netherlands