[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep-sea vents harbor dense populations of various animals that have their specific symbiotic bacteria. Scaly-foot gastropods, which are snails with mineralized scales covering the sides of its foot, have a gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont in their enlarged esophageal glands and diverse epibionts on the surface of their scales. In this study, we report the complete genome sequencing of gammaproteobacterial endosymbiont. The endosymbiont genome displays features consistent with ongoing genome reduction such as large proportions of pseudogenes and insertion elements. The genome encodes functions commonly found in deep-sea vent chemoautotrophs such as sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation. Stable carbon isotope ((13)C)-labeling experiments confirmed the endosymbiont chemoautotrophy. The genome also includes an intact hydrogenase gene cluster that potentially has been horizontally transferred from phylogenetically distant bacteria. Notable findings include the presence and transcription of genes for flagellar assembly, through which proteins are potentially exported from bacterium to the host. Symbionts of snail individuals exhibited extreme genetic homogeneity, showing only two synonymous changes in 19 different genes (13 810 positions in total) determined for 32 individual gastropods collected from a single colony at one time. The extremely low genetic individuality in endosymbionts probably reflects that the stringent symbiont selection by host prevents the random genetic drift in the small population of horizontally transmitted symbiont. This study is the first complete genome analysis of gastropod endosymbiont and offers an opportunity to study genome evolution in a recently evolved endosymbiont.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 8 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.131.
The ISME Journal 01/2014; 8(1):40-51. · 8.95 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Gram-staining-negative, strictly aerobic, slightly halophilic, non-motile and rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated P2E16T, was isolated from mangrove (Avicennia marina) rhizosphere, collected at Devipattinam mangroves, Tamil Nadu, India. Strain P2E16T grew optimally at pH 7.0-8.0, at 25-28 °C and in the presence of 2-3% (w/v) NaCl. 16S rRNA gene analysis showed that strain P2E16T was phylogenetically closely related to the genus Zunongwangia, with Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87T as the closest related type strain (98.2% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and less than 93% to all other members of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Strain P2E16T contained MK-6 as the major respiratory quinone, phosphatidylethanolamine as the predominant polar lipid and iso-C15:0 (17.8%), iso-C17:03-OH (15.1%), C15:0 (12.8%), iso- C17:1ω9c (9.8%), iso- C15:1G (9.0%), and Summed Feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:02-OH; 7.1%) as the major fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 34.3 mol%. Differential phenotypic properties, together with the phylogenetic distinctiveness and low DNA-DNA relatedness demonstrated that strain P2E16T is distinct from Zunongwangia profunda SM-A87T. On the basis of the data presented, strain P2E16T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Zunongwangia, for which the name Zunongwangia mangrovi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is P2E16T (=DSM 24499T =LMG 26237T=KCTC 23496T).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 10/2013; · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rhodoliths are free-living coralline algae (Rhodophyta, Corallinales) that are ecologically important for the functioning of marine environments. They form extensive beds distributed worldwide, providing a habitat and nursery for benthic organisms and space for fisheries, and are an important source of calcium carbonate. The Abrolhos Bank, off eastern Brazil, harbors the world's largest continuous rhodolith bed (of ∼21 000 km(2)) and has one of the largest marine CaCO3 deposits (producing 25 megatons of CaCO3 per year). Nevertheless, there is a lack of information about the microbial diversity, photosynthetic potential and ecological interactions within the rhodolith holobiont. Herein, we performed an ecophysiologic and metagenomic analysis of the Abrolhos rhodoliths to understand their microbial composition and functional components. Rhodoliths contained a specific microbiome that displayed a significant enrichment in aerobic ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria and dissimilative sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We also observed a significant contribution of bacterial guilds (that is, photolithoautotrophs, anaerobic heterotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, anoxygenic phototrophs and methanogens) in the rhodolith metagenome, suggested to have important roles in biomineralization. The increased hits in aromatic compounds, fatty acid and secondary metabolism subsystems hint at an important chemically mediated interaction in which a functional job partition among eukaryal, archaeal and bacterial groups allows the rhodolith holobiont to thrive in the global ocean. High rates of photosynthesis were measured for Abrolhos rhodoliths (52.16 μmol carbon m(-2 )s(-1)), allowing the entire Abrolhos rhodolith bed to produce 5.65 × 10(5) tons C per day. This estimate illustrates the great importance of the Abrolhos rhodolith beds for dissolved carbon production in the South Atlantic Ocean.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 29 August 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.133.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Coral health is under threat throughout the world due to regional and global stressors. White plague disease (WP) is one of the most important threats affecting the major reef builder of the Abrolhos Bank in Brazil, the endemic coral Mussismilia braziliensis. We performed a metagenomic analysis of healthy and WP-affected M. braziliensis in order to determine the types of microbes associated with this coral species. We also optimized a protocol for DNA extraction from coral tissues. Our taxonomic analysis revealed Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Actinomycetes as the main groups in all healthy and WP-affected corals. Vibrionales, members of the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides complex, Rickettsiales, and Neisseriales were more abundant in the WP-affected corals. Diseased corals also had more eukaryotic metagenomic sequences identified as Alveolata and Apicomplexa. Our results suggest that WP disease in M. braziliensis is caused by a polymicrobial consortium.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 Persephonella hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough (SNT). Although the strains share >98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types (ST), indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To date 142 species have been described in the Vibrionaceae family of bacteria, classified into seven genera; Aliivibrio, Echinimonas, Enterovibrio, Grimontia, Photobacterium, Salinivibrio and Vibrio. As vibrios are widespread in marine environments and show versatile metabolisms and ecologies, these bacteria are recognized as one of the most diverse and important marine heterotrophic bacterial groups for elucidating the correlation between genome evolution and ecological adaptation. However, on the basis of 16S rRNA gene phylogeny, we could not find any robust monophyletic lineages in any of the known genera. We needed further attempts to reconstruct their evolutionary history based on multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and/or genome wide taxonomy of all the recognized species groups. In our previous report in 2007, we conducted the first broad multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) to infer the evolutionary history of vibrios using nine housekeeping genes (the 16S rRNA gene, gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA), and we proposed 14 distinct clades in 58 species of Vibrionaceae. Due to the difficulty of designing universal primers that can amplify the genes for MLSA in every Vibrionaceae species, some clades had yet to be defined. In this study, we present a better picture of an updated molecular phylogeny for 86 described vibrio species and 10 genome sequenced Vibrionaceae strains, using 8 housekeeping gene sequences. This new study places special emphasis on (1) eight newly identified clades (Damselae, Mediterranei, Pectenicida, Phosphoreum, Profundum, Porteresiae, Rosenbergii, and Rumoiensis); (2) clades amended since the 2007 proposal with recently described new species; (3) orphan clades of genomospecies F6 and F10; (4) phylogenetic positions defined in 3 genome-sequenced strains (N418, EX25, and EJY3); and (5) description of V. tritonius sp. nov., which is a member of the "Porteresiae" clade.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Marine invertebrates interact with various microorganisms ranging from pathogens to symbionts. One-to-one symbiosis between a single microbial species and a single host animal has served as a model for the study of host-microbe interactions. In addition, increasing attention has recently been focused on the complex symbiotic associations, e.g., associations between sponges and their symbionts, due to their biotechnological potential; however, relatively little is known about the microbial diversity associated with members of the phylum Echinodermata. Here, for the first time, we investigated microbial communities associated with a commercially important holothurian species, Apostichopus japonicus, using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Diverse and abundant heterotrophs, mostly Gammaproteobacteria members, were cultured semi-quantitatively. Using the cloning and sequencing technique, different microbial communities were found in different holothurian tissues. In the holothurian coelomic fluid, potentially metabolically active and phylogenetically unique members of Epsilonproteobacteria and Rickettsiales were discovered. This study suggests that coelomic fluids of marine invertebrates, at least those inhabiting intertidal areas where physical and chemical conditions fluctuate, provide microbes with unique and stable habitats.
Microbes and Environments 03/2012; 27(3):300-5. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A novel heterotrophic, thermophilic bacterium, designated strain AC55(T), was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney at the Hatoma Knoll in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. Cells of strain AC55(T) were non-motile, long rods (2.0- to 6.8-μm long and 0.3- to 0.6-μm wide). The strain was an obligatory anaerobic heterotroph capable of fermentative growth on complex proteinaceous substances. Elemental sulfur was reduced to hydrogen sulfide but did not stimulate growth. Growth was observed between 37 and 60°C (optimum 55°C), pH 5.5 and 8.5 (optimum pH 6.6), and in the presence of 1.5-4.5% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2.5%, w/v). Menaquinone-7 and -8 were the major respiratory quinones. The G + C content of the genomic DNA from strain AC55(T) was 51.6 mol%. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain AC55(T) was the first cultivated representative of Acidobacteria subdivision 10. Based on the physiological and phylogenetic features of the novel isolate, the genus name Thermotomaculum gen. nov. is proposed, with Thermotomaculum hydrothermale sp. nov. as the type species. The type strain is AC55(T) (=JCM 17643(T) = DSM 24660(T) = NBRC 107904(T)).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Six isolates of a facultatively anaerobic bacterium were recovered in culture from marine invertebrates and vertebrates, including packhorse lobster (Jasus verreauxi), abalone (Haliotis sp.) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), between 1994 and 2002. The bacteria were Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile by means of more than one polar flagellum, oxidase-positive, catalase-positive and able to grow in the presence of 0.5-8.0% NaCl (optimum 3.0-6.0%) and at 10-37 °C (optimum 25-30 °C). On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using five loci (2443 bp; gyrB, pyrH, ftsZ, mreB and gapA), the closest phylogenetic neighbours of strain TCFB 0772(T) were the type strains of Vibrio communis (99.8 and 94.6 % similarity, respectively), Vibrio owensii (99.8 and 94.1%), Vibrio natriegens (99.4 and 88.8%), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (99.4 and 90.3%), Vibrio rotiferianus (99.2 and 94.4%), Vibrio alginolyticus (99.1 and 89.3%) and Vibrio campbellii (99.1 and 92.3%). DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that the six isolates constitute a unique taxon that is distinct from other known species of Vibrio. In addition, this taxon can be readily differentiated phenotypically from other Vibrio species. The six isolates therefore represent a novel species, for which the name Vibrio jasicida sp. nov. is proposed; the novel species is represented by the type strain TCFB 0772(T) ( = JCM 16453(T) = LMG 25398(T)) (DNA G+C content 45.9 mol%) and reference strains TCFB 1977 ( = JCM 16454) and TCFB 1000 ( = JCM 16455).
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC AND EVOLUTIONARY MICROBIOLOGY 10/2011; 62(Pt 8):1864-70. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio harveyi is an emerging pathogen that causes mass mortality in a wide variety of marine animal species; however, it is still unclear which environmental determinants correlate V. harveyi dynamics and the bacterium-mediated death of marine animal life. We conducted a correlation analysis over a 5-year period (2003-2007) analysing the following data: V. harveyi abundance, marine animal mortality and environmental variables (seawater temperature, salinity, pH, chlorophyll a, rainfall and total viable bacterial counts). The samples were collected from a coastal area in northern Japan, where deaths of a marine gastropod species (Haliotis discus hannai) have been reported. Our analysis revealed significant positive correlations between average seawater temperature and average V. harveyi abundance (R = 0.955; P < 0.05), and between average seawater temperature and V. harveyi-mediated abalone death (R = 0.931; P < 0.05). Based on the regression model, n degrees C rise in seawater temperature gave rise to a 21(n)-fold increase in the risk of mortality caused by V. harveyi infection. This is the first report providing evidence of the strong positive correlation between seawater temperature and V. harveyi-mediated death of marine species.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Plastic debris causes extensive damage to the marine environment, largely due to its ability to resist degradation. Attachment on plastic surfaces is a key initiation process for their degradation. The tendency of environmental marine bacteria to adhere to poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) plastic surfaces as a model material was investigated. It was found that the overall number of heterotrophic bacteria in a sample of sea water taken from St. Kilda Beach, Melbourne, Australia, was significantly reduced after six months from 4.2-4.7×10(3) cfu mL(-1) to below detectable levels on both full-strength and oligotrophic marine agar plates. The extinction of oligotrophs after six months was detected in all samples. In contrast, the overall bacterial number recovered on full strength marine agar from the sample flasks with PET did not dramatically reduce. Heterotrophic bacteria recovered on full-strength marine agar plates six months after the commencement of the experiment were found to have suitable metabolic activity to survive in sea water while attaching to the PET plastic surface followed by the commencement of biofilm formation.
Microbes and Environments 01/2009; 24(1):39-42. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A one-step multi-probe FISH method of detecting viable Vibrio parahaemolyticus was developed. Three candidate regions, corresponding to Helix 440+441, Helix 588, and Helix 1241 in 16S rRNA, were selected for detection, the thermodynamic parameters (ΔG(overall)) of the probes were optimized, and VP437, VP612 and VP1253, whose fluorescence were 1.7 to 11.3 times that of ΔG(overall)-unadjusted sequences, were designed. The addition of competitive oligonucleotides to reactions with VP612 and VP1253 strengthened the specificity of the probes. The three probes were labeled with FITC, TAMRA, and Cy5, respectively, and using a mixture of the probes and six competitive oligonucleotides, one-step FISH was applied to the species-specific detection of V. parahaemolyticus including epidemic strains of O3:K6 and O4:K68 serotypes. V. alginolyticus, V. rotiferianus, and V. campbellii were not detected in the reaction. Microcolonies (30-80 μm in diameter) of V. parahaemolyticus were observed within 6 hours at 37°C on seawater agar plates in both fresh and heat-damaged V. parahaemolyticus. Viable bacterial counts based on the proposed method were significantly different from those measured with typical vibrio selective media (CHROMagar Vibrio and TCBS).
Microbes and Environments 01/2009; 24(3):259-64. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Vibrio splendidus clade is the biggest in Vibrionales composed of 11 described species (25). Diversification of these species may have occurred 260 million years ago. The main driving forces of speciation in this clade have never been studied. Population biological parameters (population base recombination rate (ρ), population base mutation rate (θ), and index of association (Ia)) were determined among 16 strains of 9 defined species in the Splendidus cluster. A comparison of individual gene phylogeny indicated significant incongruence in tree topology, which suggests the occurrence of recombination between species. Homologous recombination between species was detected at four loci. However, the mutation rate θ was higher than the recombination rate ρ, suggesting that mutation is the main driving force in the diversification of V. splendidus-related species.
Microbes and Environments 01/2009; 24(4):281-5. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two facultatively anaerobic, nitrogen-fixing bacteria (strains MSSRF30(T) and MSSRF31) were isolated from a mangrove-associated wild rice (Porteresia coarctata Tateoka). These strains were determined to be nitrogen-fixers using the acetylene reduction assay and by PCR detection of a nifH gene amplicon. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the novel strains were most closely related to Vibrio fluvialis LMG 7894(T) (96.8 % gene sequence similarity), Vibrio furnissii LMG 7910(T) (96.8 % sequence similarity) and Vibrio tubiashii CIP 102760(T) (96.7 % sequence similarity). Further multilocus sequence analysis using recA, pyrH, rpoA and nifH genes also showed low levels of sequence similarities (83-93 %) with all species of the genus Vibrio with validly published names. A multigene phylogenetic tree using concatenated sequences of the four genes (16S rRNA, rpoA, recA and pyrH) showed that strains MSSRF30(T) and MSSRF31 occupied a distinct phylogenetic position, forming a long branching that was not clustered with any other recognized Vibrio species. The fatty acid profile also suggested that the novel strains belonged to the genus Vibrio. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, genomic fingerprinting and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses clearly differentiated both novel strains from their closest phylogenetic neighbours, Vibrio cholerae IID6019, Vibrio mimicus LMG 7896(T), V. fluvialis LMG 7894(T) and V. furnissii LMG 7910(T). Several phenotypic traits enabled the differentiation of strain MSSRF30(T) from other species of the genus Vibrio. The DNA G+C content of strain MSSRF30(T) was 44.4+/-3.1 mol%. Based on genotypic, phenotypic, chemotaxonomic, phylogenetic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses, the name Vibrio porteresiae sp. nov. (type strain MSSRF30(T)=LMG 24061(T)=DSM 19223(T)) is proposed for this novel taxon.
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 08/2008; 58(Pt 7):1608-15. · 2.11 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Vibrio harveyi cause mass mortalities of cultured marine fish. To address the ecology of V. harveyi in aquaculture, intensive monitoring is needed. We first optimized a quantitative real-time PCR method to determine V. harveyi abundance. The designed TaqMan probe and primers based on the 16S rRNA gene were specific at 68°C of annealing and extension. Furthermore, the method using a chelating resin method was able to enumerate 1.7×10(2) CFU/ml in breeding seawater at an abalone farm. This method represents a good tool for monitoring the ecology of V. harveyi in marine environments within 5 h.
Microbes and Environments 01/2008; 23(2):172-6. · 2.44 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We performed the first broad study aiming at the reconstruction of the evolutionary history of vibrios by means of multilocus sequence analysis of nine genes. Overall, 14 distinct clades were recognized using the SplitsTree decomposition method. Some of these clades may correspond to families, e.g., the clades Salinivibrio and Photobacteria, while other clades, e.g., Splendidus and Harveyi, correspond to genera. The common ancestor of all vibrios was estimated to have been present 600 million years ago. We can define species of vibrios as groups of strains that share >95% gene sequence similarity and >99.4% amino acid identity based on the eight protein-coding housekeeping genes. The gene sequence data were used to refine the standard online electronic taxonomic scheme for vibrios (http://www.taxvibrio.lncc.br).
Journal of Bacteriology 11/2007; 189(21):7932-6. · 3.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Identification and classification of Vibrio species have relied upon band pattern methods (e.g., amplified fragment length polymorphism) and DNA-DNA hybridization. However, data generated by these methods cannot be used to build an online electronic taxonomy. In order to overcome these limitations, we developed the first standard multilocus sequence scheme focused on the ubiquitous and pathogenic Vibrio harveyi species group (i.e., V. harveyi, V. campbellii, V. rotiferianus, and a new as yet unnamed species). We examined a collection of 104 isolates from different geographical regions and hosts using segments of seven housekeeping genes. These two species formed separated clusters on the basis of topA, pyrH, ftsZ, and mreB gene sequences. The phylogenetic picture obtained by the other three loci, i.e., gyrB, recA, and gapA, was more complex though. V. campbellii appeared nested within V. harveyi in the recA trees, whereas V. harveyi formed a tight nested cluster within V. campbellii by gapA. The gyrB gene had no taxonomic resolution and grouped the two species together. The fuzziness observed in these three genes seems not be related to recombination but to low divergence due to the accumulation of only a few substitutions. In spite of this, the concatenated sequences provided evidence that the two species form two separated clusters. These clusters did not arise by recombination but by accumulation of point mutations. V. harveyi and V. campbellii isolates can be readily identified through the open database resource developed in this study (http://www.taxvibrio.lncc.br/). We argue that the species should be defined by evolutionary criteria. Strains of the same species will share at least 95% concatenated sequence similarity using the seven loci, and, most importantly, cospecific strains will form cohesive readily recognizable phylogenetic clades.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology 08/2007; 73(13):4279-85. · 3.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nine alginolytic, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile bacteria were isolated from the guts of the abalones Haliotis discus discus, H. gigantea, H. madaka and H. rufescens. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that these bacteria were closely related to Vibrio superstes G3-29(T) (98.6-99.3 % sequence similarity). DNA-DNA hybridization and phylogenetic analysis based on the gapA gene demonstrated that six strains constituted one bacterial species, two strains represented a second species and one strain represented a third species. The three novel bacterial species were different from all currently known vibrios. The names Vibrio comitans sp. nov. (type strain GHG2-1(T)=LMG 23416(T)=NBRC 102076(T); DNA G+C content 45.0-48.0 mol%), Vibrio inusitatus sp. nov. (type strain RW14(T)=LMG 23434(T)=NBRC 102082(T); DNA G+C content 43.1-43.7 mol%) and Vibrio rarus sp. nov. (type strain RW22(T)=LMG 23674(T)=NBRC 102084(T); DNA G+C content 43.8 mol%) are proposed to encompass these new taxa. Several phenotypic features were revealed that discriminate V. comitans, V. rarus and V. inusitatus from other Vibrio species.
International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology 06/2007; 57(Pt 5):916-22. · 2.11 Impact Factor